Publications by authors named "Muhammad Imran"

748 Publications

Functional Characterization of J. Koenig MYB132 Confers the Potential Role in Floral Aroma Synthesis.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Sep 25;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 25.

The Research Center for Ornamental Plants, College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

The R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) play several key roles in numerous plant biological processes. is an important ornamental plant well-known for its elegant flower shape and abundant aroma type. The floral aroma of . is due to the presence of a large amount of terpenes and benzenoids. However, less is known about the role of R2R3-MYB TFs in the regulatory mechanism of floral aroma production in this breed. Herein, we isolate and functionally characterize the R2R3-MYB TF HcMYB132, which is potentially involved in regulating floral aroma synthesis. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that it includes a nuclear localization signal NLS(s) and a 2R, 3R motif signature in the sequences. A subcellular localization assay revealed that HcMYB132 protein localizes to the nucleus. Real-time qPCR assays showed that is specifically expressed in flowers and its expression pattern correlates with the emission of floral volatile compounds. In -silenced flowers, the levels of floral volatile compounds were significantly reduced, and the expression of key structural volatile synthesis genes was downregulated compared to control. Collectively, these results suggest that might play a significant role in the regulation of terpenoid biosynthesis in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10102014DOI Listing
September 2021

Ampelopsin Confers Endurance and Rehabilitation Mechanisms in cv. Sowonkong under Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 10;22(20). Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Department of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

The present investigation aims to perceive the effect of exogenous ampelopsin treatment on salinity and heavy metal damaged soybean seedlings ( L.) in terms of physiochemical and molecular responses. Screening of numerous ampelopsin concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 25 μM) on soybean seedling growth indicated that the 1 μM concentration displayed an increase in agronomic traits. The study also determined how ampelopsin application could recover salinity and heavy metal damaged plants. Soybean seedlings were irrigated with water, 1.5% NaCl or 3 mM chosen heavy metals for 12 days. Our results showed that the application of ampelopsin raised survival of the 45-day old salinity and heavy metal stressed soybean plants. The ampelopsin treated plants sustained high chlorophyll, protein, amino acid, fatty acid, salicylic acid, sugar, antioxidant activities and proline contents, and displayed low hydrogen peroxide, lipid metabolism, and abscisic acid contents under unfavorable status. A gene expression survey revealed that ampelopsin application led to the improved expression of , , , , , , and genes, and reduced the expression of the gene. This study suggests irrigation with ampelopsin can alleviate plant damage and improve plant yield under stress conditions, especially those including salinity and heavy metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010943DOI Listing
October 2021

Facile Synthesis of Diversely Functionalized Peptoids, Spectroscopic Characterization, and DFT-Based Nonlinear Optical Exploration.

ACS Omega 2021 Oct 30;6(40):26016-26025. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Institute of Natural Resources Chemistry, Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, Avenida Lircay, Talca P.C. 3462227, Chile.

Compounds having nonlinear optical (NLO) characteristics have been proved to have a significant role in many academic and industrial areas; particularly, their leading role in surface interfaces, solid physics, materials, medicine, chemical dynamics, nuclear science, and biophysics is worth mentioning. In the present study, novel peptoids () were prepared in good yields via Ugi four-component reaction (Ugi-4CR). In addition to synthetic studies, computational calculations were executed to estimate the molecular electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO), frontier molecular orbital analysis, and NLO properties. The NBO analysis confirmed the stability of studied systems owing to containing intramolecular hydrogen bonding and hyperconjugative interactions. NLO analysis showed that investigated molecules hold noteworthy NLO response as compared to standard compounds that show potential for technology-related applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c02962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515372PMC
October 2021

Myricetin: A comprehensive review on its biological potentials.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Oct 11;9(10):5854-5868. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Institute of Nutrition and Food Science University of Dhaka Dhaka Bangladesh.

Myricetin is a critical nutritive component of diet providing immunological protection and beneficial for maintaining good health. It is found in fruits, vegetables, tea, and wine. The families , , , and are the richest sources of myricetin. Different researchers explored the therapeutic potential of this valuable constituent such as anticancer, antidiabetic, antiobesity, cardiovascular protection, osteoporosis protection, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective. In addition to these, the compound has been tested for cancer and diabetic mellitus during clinical trials. Health benefits of myricetin are related to its impact on different cell processes, such as apoptosis, glycolysis, cell cycle, energy balance, lipid level, serum protein concentrations, and osteoclastogenesis. This review explored the potential health benefits of myricetin with a specific emphasis on its mechanism of action, considering the most updated and novel findings in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498061PMC
October 2021

Molecular engineering of indenoindene-3-ethylrodanine acceptors with A2-A1-D-A1-A2 architecture for promising fullerene-free organic solar cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 13;11(1):20320. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, TS1 3BX, UK.

Considering the increased demand and potential of photovoltaic devices in clean, renewable electrical and hi-tech applications, non-fullerene acceptor (NFA) chromophores have gained significant attention. Herein, six novel NFA molecules IBRD1-IBRD6 have been designed by structural modification of the terminal moieties from experimentally synthesized A2-A1-D-A1-A2 architecture IBR for better integration in organic solar cells (OSCs). To exploit the electronic, photophysical and photovoltaic behavior, density functional theory/time dependent-density functional theory (DFT/TD-DFT) computations were performed at M06/6-311G(d,p) functional. The geometry, electrical and optical properties of the designed acceptor molecules were compared with reported IBR architecture. Interestingly, a reduction in bandgap (2.528-2.126 eV), with a broader absorption spectrum, was studied in IBR derivatives (2.734 eV). Additionally, frontier molecular orbital findings revealed an excellent transfer of charge from donor to terminal acceptors and the central indenoindene-core was considered responsible for the charge transfer. Among all the chromophores, IBRD3 manifested the lowest energy gap (2.126 eV) with higher λ at 734 and 745 nm in gaseous phase and solvent (chloroform), respectively due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of five end-capped cyano groups present on the terminal acceptor. The transition density matrix map revealed an excellent charge transfer from donor to terminal acceptors. Further, to investigate the charge transfer and open-circuit voltage (V), PBDBT donor polymer was blended with acceptor chromophores, and a significant V (0.696-1.854 V) was observed. Intriguingly, all compounds exhibited lower reorganization and binding energy with a higher exciton dissociation in an excited state. This investigation indicates that these designed chromophores can serve as excellent electron acceptor molecules in organic solar cells (OSCs) that make them attractive candidates for the development of scalable and inexpensive optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99308-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514561PMC
October 2021

Metal incorporated aminothiazole-derived compounds: synthesis, density function theory analysis, antibacterial and antioxidant evaluation.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Sep 29;8(9):210910. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

The present study advocates the combined experimental and computational study of metal-based aminothiazole-derived Schiff base ligands. The structure and electronic properties of ligands have been experimentally studied by spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis, FT-IR, H-NMR and C-NMR), mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and theoretically by density function theory (DFT). Computational calculations employing the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) functional of DFT were executed to explore the optimized geometrical structures of ligands along with geometric parameters, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces and frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energies. Global reactivity parameters estimated from FMO energy gaps signified the bioactive nature of ligands. The synthesized ligands were used for chelation with 3-transition metals [VO(IV), Cr(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] in 1 : 2 (metal : ligand) molar ratio. The spectral and magnetic results confirmed the formation of octahedral geometry around all the divalent and trivalent metal centres, whereas the tetravalent vanadyl centres were confirmed to have square-pyramidal geometry. All the as-synthesized compounds were investigated for antibacterial potential against two Gram-negative () and two Gram-positive () bacteria. Antibacterial assay results displayed pronounced activity, and their activity is comparable to that of a standard drug (streptomycin). The antioxidant potential of these compounds was assessed by employing diphenyl picryl hydrazide radical scavenging activity. The results displayed that all the metal chelates have exhibited more bioactivity in contrast with free ligands. The chelation was the main reason for their enhanced bioactivity. These results indicated that the thiazole metal-based compounds could be exploited as antioxidant and antimicrobial candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.210910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479342PMC
September 2021

Exploration of efficient electron acceptors for organic solar cells: rational design of indacenodithiophene based non-fullerene compounds.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 7;11(1):19931. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, TS1 3BX, UK.

The global need for renewable sources of energy has compelled researchers to explore new sources and improve the efficiency of the existing technologies. Solar energy is considered to be one of the best options to resolve climate and energy crises because of its long-term stability and pollution free energy production. Herein, we have synthesized a small acceptor compound (TPDR) and have utilized for rational designing of non-fullerene chromophores (TPD1-TPD6) using end-capped manipulation in A2-A1-D-A1-A2 configuration. The quantum chemical study (DFT/TD-DFT) was used to characterize the effect of end group redistribution through frontier molecular orbital (FMO), optical absorption, reorganization energy, open circuit voltage (Voc), photovoltaic properties and intermolecular charge transfer for the designed compounds. FMO data exhibited that TPD5 had the least ΔE (1.71 eV) with highest maximum absorption (λ) among all compounds due to the four cyano groups as the end-capped acceptor moieties. The reorganization energies of TPD1-TPD6 hinted at credible electron transportation due to the lower values of λ than λ. Furthermore, open circuit voltage (Voc) values showed similar amplitude for all compounds including parent chromophore, except TPD4 and TPD5 compounds. These designed compounds with unique end group acceptors have the potential to be used as novel fabrication materials for energy devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99254-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497501PMC
October 2021

Integrated phosphorus nutrient sources improve wheat yield and phosphorus use efficiency under sub humid conditions.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(10):e0255043. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.

Majority of Pakistani soils are deficient in phosphorus. Phosphorus is usually applied in form of synthetic fertilizer. However integrated use of P from synthetic and organic sources can be more profitable and beneficial on sustainable basis. Field trials were conducted at research farm University of Poonch, Rawalakot, AJK, Pakistan for two consecutive years to check the comparative effects of synthetic fertilizer and organic manures applied alone and in combinations on the phosphorus use efficiency (PUE), wheat yield and yield components. Shafaq-06 cultivar of wheat was used as test cultivar. Ten treatments were included: (I) Control (P0) without application of fertilizer; (II) SSP @ 60 kg/ha (P60SSP); (III) SSP @ 90 kg/ha (P90SSP); (IV) SSP @ 120 kg/ha (P120SSP); (V) PM @60 kg/ha (P60PM); (VI) PM @90 kg/ha (P90PM); (VII) PM @120 kg/ha (P120PM); (VIII) SSP @30 kg/ha + PM @30 kg/ha (P30SSP+30PM); (IX) SSP @45 kg/ha + PM @45 kg/ha (P45SSP+45PM); (X) SSP @60 kg/ha + PM @60 kg/ha (P60SSP+60PM) which were laid out under the Randomized Complete Block Design. Significantly higher values for yield of grain (2397 kg/ha) was recorded with PM + SSP @ 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 each. Likewise, FPUE, PIR of wheat and AFPUE was quite higher with combined use of PM and SSP i.e. P60SSP+60PM treatment. Additionally, increase in PUE, wheat yield and yield components associated with combined treated plot would help to minimize the use of high cost synthetic mineral fertilizers and represents an environmentally and agronomically sound management strategy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255043PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494362PMC
October 2021

Amino acid derivatives of 2-Mercaptobenzimidazoles suppress cytokines at the site of inflammation and block gastric H+/K+ ATPase.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 May;34(3(Supplementary)):1157-1163

Faculty of Pharmacy, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Routinely used anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with off-target effects such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibition and gastric ulcers. The aim of this study is to examine the anti-inflammatory potential and gastroprotective effects of synthetic amino acid derivatives of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBAA1, MBAA2, MBAA3, MBAA4 and MBAA5). The results showed that compound MBAA5 possess a potential anti-inflammatory action by inhibition of 15-LOX and COX-2. MBAA5 also attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in rat hind paw in carrageenan-induced inflammatory model of rat. 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derivative, MBAA5 also inhibited gastric H+/K+ ATPase and demonstrated a better selectivity index for COX-2 (SI 27.17) in comparison to celecoxib (SI 41.43). Molecular docking studies predicted the binding interactions of the synthesized compounds with retrieved target proteins of H/K ATPase, COX-1, COX-2, and 15-LOX. The results of in silico and molecular docking analysis of amino acid derivatives of 2-mercaptobenzimidazoles further explained their pharmacological activities. Moreover, these compounds presented better antimicrobial activity against three clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Together, our findings suggested that these synthetic 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derivatives are safer therapeutic candidates for inflammation.
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May 2021

Antibacterial, antifungal and enzymatic activities of azithromycin-heavy metal complexes: Newly synthesized and characterized.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 May;34(3(Supplementary)):1149-1156

Department of Pharmacology, Dow College of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Ojha Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.

As part of our continuous research to understand the interaction mechanism of drug and metallo-elements, heavy metal complexes of azithromycin (AZI) were synthesized with arsenic oxide, lead carbonate and silver chloride salts in molar ratio of 2: 1 (L: M). Synthesized heavy metal complexes have shown good percent yield and characterized through spectroscopic parameters including UV-Visible, TLC, FT-IR, NMR and elemental analysis (CHN). Spectroscopic characterization reveals the binding of ligand AZI with heavy metals in bi-dentate manner involving the hydroxide and 9a-NCH group of the aglycone ring of AZI. These newly synthesized heavy metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial response against selected gram positive and gram negative organisms and antifungal species. It was noted that all newly synthesized complexes exhibits increased activity against B.subtilus whereas, AZI itself didn't show any activity, while synthesized complexes have low to moderate response against all the studied organisms. Complex A-M12 possess greater enzymatic response against both urease and alpha chymotrypsin among all the studied complexes. Results obtained were then statistically analyzed through one way ANOVA and Dunnett's test by using SPSS version 20.0 suggesting the significant response of complexes against selected organisms.
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May 2021

Corrigendum to "Honokiol: A review of its pharmacological potential and therapeutic insights" [Phytomedicine, 153647].

Phytomedicine 2021 Nov 28;92:153769. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management (the First Cossack University), 109004 Moscow, Russian Federation.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153769DOI Listing
November 2021

Evaluation of Mycochemical Analysis and In Vitro Biological Activities of Some Russula Species (Agaricomycetes) from Pakistan.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2021 ;23(10):35-43

Fungal Biology and Systematics Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan.

In this study, mycochemical screening was performed to estimate the in vitro biological activities and antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Russula aeruginea and R. brevipes. Crude extracts of these mushroom species were obtained by using maceration techniques. Qualitative mycochemical analysis showed the presence of a variety of secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts was assessed by using agar well diffusion methods against virulent bacterial and fungal strains. Ethanolic extract of R. brevipes displayed maximum antibacterial activity, with a 28.4 ± 0.953 mm zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis. Likewise, ethanolic extract of R. aeruginea exhibited enhanced antifungal activity, with a 24.6 ± 0.333 mm zone of inhibition against Fusarium equiseti. The antioxidant potential of the ethanolic extracts was assessed using five assays: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total phenolic content (TPC). The maximum percent inhibition for R. aeruginea was 87.069 ± 0.007 mg/mL on ABTS radicals. In contrast, the maximum percent inhibition for R. brevipes was 42.166% ± 0.023% and 0.571 ± 0.005 mmol/L of FeSO4 using the DPPH and FRAP methods, respectively. TFC was the same for both mushrooms (0.113 ± 0.002 mg/100 g of catechin), and the maximum TPC was 0.066 ± 0.00 mg/100 g of gallic acid equivalents. From these results, it was concluded that R. aeruginea and R. brevipes could be a source of new antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and may be useful for the development of novel drugs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021039989DOI Listing
January 2021

Behind the Scene: Surprises and Snags of Pseudogenes.

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2021 ;31(5):67-78

Instituto de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, 5090000, Valdivia, Chile.

The junk DNA "pseudogenes," known as genomic fossils, are characterized by their ubiquitousness and abundance within the genomic structure. These genomics sets are recognized by the potential activity of meta-regulating the parent genes; these are transcribed into interfering RNA, consequently acting on miRNA concentration, thereby shedding light on the crosstalk of the pseudogenes' miRNA, siRNA, lncRNA/tumor therapy co-relationship. Moreover, an upcoming visualization regarding pseudogenes is under investigation, which describes the potentiality of pseudogenes as a fundamental component of cancerous evolutionary processing tools. Accordingly, here is a systematic review covering pseudobirth, pseudosignatures, and functional properties of pseudogenes, concluding that these pseudogenes are hypothetically predictive tumor therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2021039540DOI Listing
January 2021

From Molecular Pathology of COVID 19 to Nigella Sativum as a Treatment Option: Scientific Based Evidence of Its Myth or Reality.

Chin J Integr Med 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka, 75471, Saudi Arabia.

COVID-19 virus is a causative agent of viral pandemic in human beings which specifically targets respiratory system of humans and causes viral pneumonia. This unusual viral pneumonia is rapidly spreading to all parts of the world, currently affecting about 105 million people with 2.3 million deaths. Current review described history, genomic characteristics, replication, and pathogenesis of COVID-19 with special emphasis on Nigella sativum (N. sativum) as a treatment option. N. sativum seeds are historically and religiously used over the centuries, both for prevention and treatment of different diseases. This review summarizes the potential role of N. sativum seeds against COVID-19 infection at levels of in silico, cell lines and animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-021-3311-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479716PMC
September 2021

Silver Nanoparticle's Toxicological Effects and Phytoremediation.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Aug 24;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Laboratory of Bioclimatology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Piątkowska 94, 60-649 Poznan, Poland.

The advancement in nanotechnology has brought numerous benefits for humans in diverse areas including industry, medicine, and agriculture. The demand in the application of nanomaterials can result in the release of these anthropogenic materials into soil and water that can potentially harm the environment by affecting water and soil properties (e.g., soil texture, pH, organic matter, and water content), plants, animals, and subsequently human health. The properties of nanoparticles including their size, surface area, and reactivity affect their fate in the environment and can potentially result in their toxicological effects in the ecosystem and on living organisms. There is extensive research on the application of nano-based materials and the consequences of their release into the environment. However, there is little information about environmentally friendly approaches for removing nanomaterials from the environment. This article provides insight into the application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), as one of the most commonly used nanomaterials, their toxicological effects, their impacts on plants and microorganisms, and briefly reviews the possibility of remediation of these metabolites using phytotechnology approaches. This article provides invaluable information to better understand the fate of nanomaterials in the environment and strategies in removing them from the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11092164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8465113PMC
August 2021

Editorial for the Special Issue on Security and Sensing Devices for Healthcare Technologies.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Aug 27;12(9). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Communication Sensing and Imaging Group, James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.

Micro-/nano-scaled structures, materials, and devices enable the continuous monitoring of human physical activities and behaviors, as well as physiological and biochemical parameters during daily life [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12091028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468416PMC
August 2021

Salt-Tolerant Compatible Microbial Inoculants Modulate Physio-Biochemical Responses Enhance Plant Growth, Zn Biofortification and Yield of Wheat Grown in Saline-Sodic Soil.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 21;18(18). Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Plant-Microbe Interaction and Rhizosphere Biology Lab, ICAR-National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms, Kushmaur, Maunath Bhanjan 275103, India.

A wide range of root-associated mutualistic microorganisms have been successfully applied and documented in the past for growth promotion, biofertilization, biofortification and biotic and abiotic stress amelioration in major crops. These microorganisms include nitrogen fixers, nutrient mobilizers, bio-remediators and bio-control agents. The present study aimed to demonstrate the impact of salt-tolerant compatible microbial inoculants on plant growth; Zn biofortification and yield of wheat ( L.) crops grown in saline-sodic soil and insight of the mechanisms involved therein are being shared through this paper. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of UBSTH-501 and B-16 on wheat grown in saline-sodic soil at Research Farm, ICAR-Indian Institute of Seed Sciences, Kushmaur, India. The population of rhizosphere-associated microorganisms changed dramatically upon inoculation of the test microbes in the wheat rhizosphere. The co-inoculation induced a significant accumulation of proline and total soluble sugar in wheat at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after sowing as compared to the uninoculated control. Upon quantitative estimation of organic solutes and antioxidant enzymes, these were found to have increased significantly in co-inoculated plants under salt-stressed conditions. The application of microbial inoculants enhanced the salt tolerance level significantly in wheat plants grown in saline-sodic soil. A significant increase in the uptake and translocation of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) was observed in wheat co-inoculated with the microbial inoculants, while a significant reduction in sodium (Na) content was recorded in plants treated with both the bio-agents when compared with the respective uninoculated control plants. Results clearly indicated that significantly higher expression of and in the roots enhances salt tolerance effectively by maintaining the Na/K balance in the plant tissue. It was also observed that co-inoculation of the test inoculants increased the expression of ZIP transporters (2-3.5-folds) which ultimately led to increased biofortification of Zn in wheat grown in saline-sodic soil. Results suggested that co-inoculation of UBSTH-501 and B-16 not only increased plant growth but also improved total grain yield along with a reduction in seedling mortality in the early stages of crop growth. In general, the present investigation demonstrated the feasibility of using salt-tolerant rhizosphere microbes for plant growth promotion and provides insights into plant-microbe interactions to ameliorate salt stress and increase Zn bio-fortification in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467820PMC
September 2021

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Delayed/Missed Routine Immunization in Children (0-24 Months) in Islamabad, Pakistan.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2021 Sep 25:10105395211048617. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Shifa college of medicine, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10105395211048617DOI Listing
September 2021

Facile synthesis, spectroscopic evaluation and antimicrobial screening of metal endowed triazole compounds.

Biometals 2021 Sep 26. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

The scientific interest in developing new complexes as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm related infections is constantly rising. The present work describes the chemical synthesis, structural and biological scrutiny of a triazole Schiff base ligand and its corresponding complexes. Triazole Schiff base, (2-methoxy-4-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylimino)methyl]phenol) was synthesized from the condensation reaction of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde in an equimolar ratio. The triazole ligand (HL) was characterized by physical (solubility, color, melting point), spectroscopic [UV-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) and mass spectra (MS)] and micro analysis to evaluate their elemental composition. The bidentate ligand was complexed with transition metal [VO(IV), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] in 1:2 molar ratio. The complexes were characterized by physical (color, solubility, decomposition temperature, conductance and magnetic moment), FT-IR, UV-Vis and elemental analysis. Thermal stability and fluorescence properties of the compounds were also determined. Density functional theory based theoretical calculations were accomplished to gain more insight into spectroscopic properties. The frontier molecular orbital analysis revealed that the ligand was less reactive with reduced electron donating capability and more kinetic stability than complexes. The as-synthesized compounds were scrutinized for anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity against selected strains. Cobalt complex exhibited highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and nickel complex has shown highest antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. All the compounds also showed good antioxidant activity. The theoretical results reflect consistency with the experimental findings signifying that such compounds could be the promising chemical scaffolds in the near future against microbial infectious.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-021-00345-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Enhanced biological S accumulation by using signal molecules during simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification.

Environ Technol 2021 Oct 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

A high rate of elemental sulfur (S) accumulation from sulfide-containing wastewater has great significance in terms of resource recovery and pollution control. This experimental study used and denitrifying bacteria incorporated with signal molecules (C6 and OHHL) for simultaneous sulfide (S) and nitrate (NO) removal in synthetic wastewater. Also, the effects on S accumulation due to changes in organic matter composition and bacteria proportion through signal molecules were analyzed. The 99.0% of S removal and 99.3% of NO was achieved with 66% of S accumulation under the active S removal group. The S accumulation, S and NO removal mainly occurred in 0-48 h. The S accumulation in the active S removal group was 2.0-6.3 times higher than the inactive S removal groups. In addition, S/SO ratio exhibited that S conversion almost linearly increased with reaction time under the active S removal group. The proportion of and H consumption showed a positive correlation with S accumulation. However, a very high or low ratio of H/S is not suitable for S accumulation. The signal molecules greatly increased the concentration of protein-I and protein-II, which resulted in the high proportion of . Therefore, high S accumulation was achieved as regulated the H consumption and electron transfer rate and provided suppressed oxygen environment. This technology is cost-effective and commercially applicable for recovering S from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1985623DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on routine vaccination in Pakistan: a hospital-based study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Sep 23:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Center for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Swat, Mingora, Pakistan.

The effect of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on routine vaccination in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. The current pandemic has disrupted routine immunization globally. We aimed to analyze the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunizations practice in Pakistan. A retrospective study was conducted. The data were extracted from the immunization registry in order to assess the disruption in routine immunization coverage during 5 months of the lockdown period. We compared 5 months post lockdown against the baseline period of 5 months preceding lockdown. To broaden the horizon of our research we also collected data of vaccination from rural areas within the country. The results of the current study showed that on average, there was a disruption in routine immunization by 36% during lockdown when compared with the prepandemic period. The largest decline was observed for measles vaccination with a decline of 48%. In rural areas there was a lower decline in vaccination coverage with the highest decline noted for rotavirus vaccination of 15%. This monthly decrease in routine vaccination continued to be at a decline for several months during lockdown; however, it slightly increased post lockdown. In conclusion, on average, there was more than 30% declined in routine vaccination during the lockdown period, while somewhat improved post lockdown, i.e. 12%. Thus, this ongoing pandemic is a reminder for the national immunization programs to consider to tackle the disruption in routine immunization, otherwise, this continued disruption may lead to secondary outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases amongst the public.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1979380DOI Listing
September 2021

Resveratrol-Based Nanoformulations as an Emerging Therapeutic Strategy for Cancer.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 1;8:649395. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Resveratrol is a polyphenolic stilbene derivative widely present in grapes and red wine. Broadly known for its antioxidant effects, numerous studies have also indicated that it exerts anti-inflammatory and antiaging abilities and a great potential in cancer therapy. Regrettably, the oral administration of resveratrol has pharmacokinetic and physicochemical limitations such as hampering its effects so that effective administration methods are demanding to ensure its efficiency. Thus, the present review explores the published data on the application of resveratrol nanoformulations in cancer therapy, with the use of different types of nanodelivery systems. Mechanisms of action with a potential use in cancer therapy, negative effects, and the influence of resveratrol nanoformulations in different types of cancer are also highlighted. Finally, the toxicological features of nanoresveratrol are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.649395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440914PMC
September 2021

Exploring the prophylactic role of soy isoflavones against polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 9;9(9):4738-4744. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Food Science Faculty of Life Sciences Government College University Faisalabad Pakistan.

Soy isoflavones (SI) have strong estrogenic effect in tissues by binding to estrogen receptors and might be beneficial for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by reduction in testosterone, cholesterol, insulin, weight gain, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. The study was planned to examine the effect of various levels of SI on nutrient intake, digestibility, lipid profile, insulin, and reproductive hormones of estradiol valerate (4 mg/rat/IM) PCOS induced rat models. Thirty-six Wistar 45 days old rats weighing 95 ± 5 g were divided into 4 groups, each having 9 rats: C (control: without SF), SF10 (SF 0.10 g/kg BW), SF15 (SF 0.15 g/kg BW), and SF20 (SF 0.20 g/kg BW). SF was given through the oral gavage. Food and water were offered ad libitum, and intake was recorded daily. During last week of trial, collected feces by total collection method and blood samples were used to calculate nutrient digestibility and biochemical analysis, respectively. Estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin were ( < .05) high in rats fed SF diet that was 4% and 30% increase from C, respectively. Insulin, testosterone, FSH, and LH were lowest in rats fed diet SF20. Significant ( < .05) reduction in cholesterol was observed in rats fed SF15 and SF20 as compared to C. Serum HDL was improved ( < .05) in all SIF, SIF and SIF in comparison with PC. Serum LDL was significantly reduced to 68.89 ± 4.36 (mg/dl) in SIF and to 108.20 ± 4.14 (mg/dl) in SIF whereas insignificant reduction was observed in SIF as compared to PC. Highly significant reduction was noted in triglycerides level in SIF however, significant reduction was observed in both SIF and SIF as compared to PC after 3 months of treatment with soy isoflavones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441391PMC
September 2021

A multifunctional ultrathin flexible bianisotropic metasurface with miniaturized cell size.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 16;11(1):18426. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

University of Glasgow, James Watt School of Engineering, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK.

In this paper, a flexible bianisotropic metasurface possessing omega-type coupling is presented. The designed metasurface behaves differently when excited from either forward (port 1) or back (port 2) sides. It provides an absorption of 99.46% at 15.1 Gigahertz (GHz), when illuminated from port 1, whereas, on simultaneous illumination from port 2, it behaves like a partially reflective surface (PRS). Furthermore, the presented metasurface not only acts as an in-band absorptive surface (port 1) and partially reflective surface (port 2), but it also provides 97% out-of-band transmission at 7.8 GHz. The response of the presented metasurface remains the same for both transverse Electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarized wave or any arbitrary linearly polarized wave. Additionally, the response of the metasurface is angularly stable for any oblique incidence up to 45º. The proposed ultrathin flexible metasurface with absorption, partial reflection and out-of-band transmission properties can be used in the Fabry Perrot cavity antenna for gain enhancement with radar cross-section (RCS) reduction both for passband and stop-band filtering, and conformal antenna applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97930-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446018PMC
September 2021

Prophylactic potential of honey and Nigella sativa L. against hospital and community-based SARS-CoV-2 spread: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Sep 15;22(1):618. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Medicine, Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Institute, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objectives: Considering the therapeutic potential of honey and Nigella sativa (HNS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the objective of the study is defined to evaluate the prophylactic role of HNS.

Trial Design: The study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, adaptive clinical trial with parallel group design, superiority framework with an allocation ratio of 1:1 among experimental (HNS) and placebo group. An interim analysis will be done when half of the patients have been recruited to evaluate the need to adapt sample size, efficacy, and futility of the trial.

Participants: All asymptomatic patients with hospital or community based COVID-19 exposure will be screened if they have had 4 days exposure to a confirmed case. Non-pregnant adults with significant exposure level will be enrolled in the study High-risk exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min without face protection) Moderate exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min with face protection) Subjects with acute or chronic infection, COVID-19 vaccinated, and allergy to HNS will be excluded from the study. Recruitment will be done at Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Institute, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan).

Intervention And Comparator: In this clinical study, patients will receive either raw natural honey (0.5 g) and encapsulated organic Nigella sativa seeds (40 mg) per kg body weight per day or empty capsule with and 30 ml of 5% dextrose water as a placebo for 14 days. Both the natural products will be certified for standardization by Government College University (Botany department). Furthermore, each patient will be given standard care therapy according to version 3.0 of the COVID-19 clinical management guidelines by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan.

Main Outcomes: Primary outcome will be Incidence of COVID-19 cases within 14 days of randomisation. Secondary endpoints include incidence of COVID-19-related symptoms, hospitalizations, and deaths along with the severity of COVID-19-related symptoms till 14 day of randomization.

Randomisation: Participants will be randomized into experimental and control groups (1:1 allocation ratio) via the lottery method. There will be stratification based on high risk and moderate risk exposure.

Blinding (masking): Quadruple blinding will be ensured for the participants, care providers and outcome accessors. Data analysts will also be blinded to avoid conflict of interest. Site principal investigator will be responsible for ensuring masking.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): 1000 participants will be enrolled in the study with 1:1 allocation.

Trial Status: The final protocol version 1.4 was approved by institutional review board of Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex on February 15, 2021. The trial recruitment was started on March 05, 2021, with a trial completion date of February 15, 2022.

Trial Registration: Clinical trial was registered on February 23, 2021, www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04767087 .

Full Protocol: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05510-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441040PMC
September 2021

A smart healthcare framework for detection and monitoring of COVID-19 using IoT and cloud computing.

Neural Comput Appl 2021 Sep 10:1-15. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

College of Engineering, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a very contagious infection that has drawn the world's attention. Modeling such diseases can be extremely valuable in predicting their effects. Although classic statistical modeling may provide adequate models, it may also fail to understand the data's intricacy. An automatic COVID-19 detection system based on computed tomography (CT) scan or X-ray images is effective, but a robust system design is challenging. In this study, we propose an intelligent healthcare system that integrates IoT-cloud technologies. This architecture uses smart connectivity sensors and deep learning (DL) for intelligent decision-making from the perspective of the smart city. The intelligent system tracks the status of patients in real time and delivers reliable, timely, and high-quality healthcare facilities at a low cost. COVID-19 detection experiments are performed using DL to test the viability of the proposed system. We use a sensor for recording, transferring, and tracking healthcare data. CT scan images from patients are sent to the cloud by IoT sensors, where the cognitive module is stored. The system decides the patient status by examining the images of the CT scan. The DL cognitive module makes the real-time decision on the possible course of action. When information is conveyed to a cognitive module, we use a state-of-the-art classification algorithm based on DL, i.e., ResNet50, to detect and classify whether the patients are normal or infected by COVID-19. We validate the proposed system's robustness and effectiveness using two benchmark publicly available datasets (Covid-Chestxray dataset and Chex-Pert dataset). At first, a dataset of 6000 images is prepared from the above two datasets. The proposed system was trained on the collection of images from 80% of the datasets and tested with 20% of the data. Cross-validation is performed using a tenfold cross-validation technique for performance evaluation. The results indicate that the proposed system gives an accuracy of 98.6%, a sensitivity of 97.3%, a specificity of 98.2%, and an F1-score of 97.87%. Results clearly show that the accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, and F1-score of our proposed method are high. The comparison shows that the proposed system performs better than the existing state-of-the-art systems. The proposed system will be helpful in medical diagnosis research and healthcare systems. It will also support the medical experts for COVID-19 screening and lead to a precious second opinion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00521-021-06396-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8431959PMC
September 2021

Tin derived antimony/nitrogen-doped porous carbon (Sb/NPC) composite for electrochemical sensing of albumin from hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Sep 12;188(10):338. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Pakistan.

An electrochemical sensor based on an antimony/nitrogen-doped porous carbon (Sb/NPC) composite has been developed for the quantitative detection of albumin from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Sb/NPC is hydrothermally synthesized from Sn/NPC precursors. The synthesized precursor (Sn/NPC) and the product (Sb/NPC) are characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, UV/Vis, SEM, and AFM. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance studies are used to investigate the electrochemical performance of Sb/NPC-GCE. Sb/NPC-GCE detects albumin at physiological pH of 7.4 in the potential range 0.92 V and 0.09 V for oxidation and reduction, respectively. LOD and recovery of Sb/NPC-GCE for the determination of albumin are 0.13 ng.mL and 66.6 ± 0.97-100 ± 2.73%, respectively. Chronoamperometry of the modified working electrode demonstrates its stability for 14 h, indicating its reusability and reproducibility. Sb/NPC-GCE is a selective sensor for albumin detection in the presence of interfering species. The electrode has been applied for albumin detection in human serum samples of HCC patients. A negative correlation of albumin with alpha-fetoprotein levels in HCC patients is observed by statistical analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-05005-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Making assembly line in supply chain robust and secure using UHF RFID.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 10;11(1):18041. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK.

This paper presents a block-chain enabled inkjet-printed ultrahigh frequency radiofrequency identification (UHF RFID) system for the supply chain management, traceability and authentication of hard to tag bottled consumer products containing fluids such as water, oil, juice, and wine. In this context, we propose a novel low-cost, compact inkjet-printed UHF RFID tag antenna design for liquid bottles, with 2.5 m read range improvement over existing designs along with robust performance on different liquid bottle products. The tag antenna is based on a nested slot-based configuration that achieves good impedance matching around high permittivity surfaces. The tag was designed and optimized using the characteristic mode analysis. Moreover, the proposed RFID tag was commercially tested for tagging and billing of liquid bottle products in a conveyer belt and smart refrigerator for automatic billing applications. With the help of block-chain based product tracking and a mobile application, we demonstrate a real-time, secure and smart supply chain process in which items can be monitored using the proposed RFID technology. We believe the standalone system presented in this paper can be deployed to create smart contracts that benefit both the suppliers and consumers through the development of trust. Furthermore, the proposed system will paves the way towards authentic and contact-less delivery of food, drinks and medicine in recent Corona virus pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97598-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433311PMC
September 2021

Melatonin Ameliorates Thermotolerance in Soybean Seedling through Balancing Redox Homeostasis and Modulating Antioxidant Defense, Phytohormones and Polyamines Biosynthesis.

Molecules 2021 Aug 24;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

Global warming is impacting the growth and development of economically important but sensitive crops, such as soybean (Glycine max L.). Using pleiotropic signaling molecules, melatonin can relieve the negative effects of high temperature by enhancing plant growth and development as well as modulating the defense system against abiotic stresses. However, less is known about how melatonin regulates the phytohormones and polyamines during heat stress. Our results showed that high temperature significantly increased ROS and decreased photosynthesis efficiency in soybean plants. Conversely, pretreatment with melatonin increased plant growth and photosynthetic pigments (chl a and chl b) and reduced oxidative stress via scavenging hydrogen peroxide and superoxide and reducing the MDA and electrolyte leakage contents. The inherent stress defense responses were further strengthened by the enhanced activities of antioxidants and upregulation of the expression of ascorbate-glutathione cycle genes. Melatonin mitigates heat stress by increasing several biochemicals (phenolics, flavonoids, and proline), as well as the endogenous melatonin and polyamines (spermine, spermidine, and putrescine). Furthermore, the positive effects of melatonin treatment also correlated with a reduced abscisic acid content, down-regulation of the gmNCED3, and up-regulation of catabolic genes (CYP707A1 and CYP707A2) during heat stress. Contrarily, an increase in salicylic acid and up-regulated expression of the defense-related gene PAL2 were revealed. In addition, melatonin induced the expression of heat shock protein 90 (gmHsp90) and heat shock transcription factor (gmHsfA2), suggesting promotion of ROS detoxification via the hydrogen peroxide-mediated signaling pathway. In conclusion, exogenous melatonin improves the thermotolerance of soybean plants and enhances plant growth and development by activating antioxidant defense mechanisms, interacting with plant hormones, and reprogramming the biochemical metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434054PMC
August 2021
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