Publications by authors named "Muhammad Hamza Bokhari"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The metabolic effects of mirabegron are mediated primarily by β -adrenoceptors.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2020 10;8(5):e00643

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Vic., Australia.

The β -adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron is approved for use for overactive bladder and has been purported to be useful in the treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases in humans, including those involving disturbances of glucose homeostasis. We investigated the effect of mirabegron on glucose homeostasis with in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on its selectivity at β-adrenoceptors, ability to cause browning of white adipocytes, and the role of UCP1 in glucose homeostasis. In mouse brown, white, and brite adipocytes, mirabegron-mediated effects were examined on cyclic AMP, UCP1 mRNA, [ H]-2-deoxyglucose uptake, cellular glycolysis, and O consumption. Mirabegron increased cyclic AMP levels, UCP1 mRNA content, glucose uptake, and cellular glycolysis in brown adipocytes, and these effects were either absent or reduced in white adipocytes. In brite adipocytes, mirabegron increased cyclic AMP levels and UCP1 mRNA content resulting in increased UCP1-mediated oxygen consumption, glucose uptake, and cellular glycolysis. The metabolic effects of mirabegron in both brown and brite adipocytes were primarily due to actions at β -adrenoceptors as they were largely absent in adipocytes derived from β -adrenoceptor knockout mice. In vivo, mirabegron increased whole body oxygen consumption, glucose uptake into brown and inguinal white adipose tissue, and improved glucose tolerance, all effects that required the presence of the β -adrenoceptor. Furthermore, in UCP1 knockout mice, the effects of mirabegron on glucose tolerance were attenuated. Thus, mirabegron had effects on cellular metabolism in adipocytes that improved glucose handling in vivo, and were primarily due to actions at the β -adrenoceptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437350PMC
October 2020

Human brown adipose tissue is phenocopied by classical brown adipose tissue in physiologically humanized mice.

Nat Metab 2019 08 19;1(8):830-843. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Human and rodent brown adipose tissues (BAT) appear morphologically and molecularly different. Here we compare human BAT with both classical brown and brite/beige adipose tissues of 'physiologically humanized' mice: middle-aged mice living under conditions approaching human thermal and nutritional conditions, that is, prolonged exposure to thermoneutral temperature (approximately 30 °C) and to an energy-rich (high-fat, high-sugar) diet. We find that the morphological, cellular and molecular characteristics (both marker and adipose-selective gene expression) of classical brown fat, but not of brite/beige fat, of these physiologically humanized mice are notably similar to human BAT. We also demonstrate, both in silico and experimentally, that in physiologically humanized mice only classical BAT possesses a high thermogenic potential. These observations suggest that classical rodent BAT is the tissue of choice for translational studies aimed at recruiting human BAT to counteract the development of obesity and its comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42255-019-0101-4DOI Listing
August 2019

Acute β-adrenoceptor mediated glucose clearance in brown adipose tissue; a distinct pathway independent of functional insulin signaling.

Mol Metab 2019 12 18;30:240-249. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: β-adrenoceptor mediated activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been associated with improvements in metabolic health in models of type 2 diabetes and obesity due to its unique ability to increase whole body energy expenditure, and rate of glucose and free fatty acid disposal. While the thermogenic arm of this phenomenon has been studied in great detail, the underlying mechanisms involved in β-adrenoceptor mediated glucose uptake in BAT are relatively understudied. As β-adrenoceptor agonist administration results in increased hepatic gluconeogenesis that can consequently result in secondary pancreatic insulin release, there is uncertainty regarding the importance of insulin and the subsequent activation of its downstream effectors in mediating β-adrenoceptor stimulated glucose uptake in BAT. Therefore, in this study, we made an effort to discriminate between the two pathways and address whether the insulin signaling pathway is dispensable for the effects of β-adrenoceptor activation on glucose uptake in BAT.

Methods: Using a specific inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase α (PI3Kα), which effectively inhibits the insulin signaling pathway, we examined the effects of various β-adrenoceptor agonists, including the physiological endogenous agonist norepinephrine on glucose uptake and respiration in mouse brown adipocytes in vitro and on glucose clearance in mice in vivo.

Results: PI3Kα inhibition in mouse primary brown adipocytes in vitro, did not inhibit β-adrenoceptor stimulated glucose uptake, GLUT1 synthesis, GLUT1 translocation or respiration. Furthermore, β-adrenoceptor mediated glucose clearance in vivo did not require insulin or Akt activation but was attenuated upon administration of a β-adrenoceptor antagonist.

Conclusions: We conclude that the β-adrenergic pathway is still functionally intact upon the inhibition of PI3Kα, showing that the activation of downstream insulin effectors is not required for the acute effects of β-adrenoceptor agonists on glucose homeostasis or thermogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6838983PMC
December 2019

UCP1-independent glucose-lowering effect of leptin in type 1 diabetes: only in conditions of hypoleptinemia.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 01 19;318(1):E72-E86. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

The possibility to use leptin therapeutically for lowering glucose levels in patients with type 1 diabetes has attracted interest. However, earlier animal models of type 1 diabetes are severely catabolic with very low endogenous leptin levels, unlike most patients with diabetes. Here, we aim to test glucose-lowering effects of leptin in novel, more human-like murine models. We examined the glucose-lowering potential of leptin in diabetic models of two types: streptozotocin-treated mice and mice treated with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. To prevent hypoleptinemia, we used combinations of thermoneutral temperature and high-fat feeding. Leptin fully normalized hyperglycemia in standard chow-fed streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice. However, more humanized physiological conditions (high-fat diets or thermoneutral temperatures) that increased adiposity - and thus also leptin levels - in the diabetic mice abrogated the effects of leptin, i.e., the mice developed leptin resistance also in this respect. The glucose-lowering effect of leptin was not dependent on the presence of the uncoupling protein-1 and was not associated with alterations in plasma insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, food intake or corticosterone but fully correlated with decreased plasma glucagon levels and gluconeogenesis. An important implication of these observations is that the therapeutic potential of leptin as an additional treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes is probably limited. This is because such patients are treated with insulin and do not display low leptin levels. Thus, the potential for a glucose-lowering effect of leptin would already have been attained with standard insulin therapy, and further effects on blood glucose level through additional leptin cannot be anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00253.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985793PMC
January 2020