Publications by authors named "Muhammad Bilal"

615 Publications

Heat Stress-Mediated Constraints in Maize () Production: Challenges and Solutions.

Front Plant Sci 2022 29;13:879366. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

School of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, China.

An increase in temperature and extreme heat stress is responsible for the global reduction in maize yield. Heat stress affects the integrity of the plasma membrane functioning of mitochondria and chloroplast, which further results in the over-accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The activation of a signal cascade subsequently induces the transcription of heat shock proteins. The denaturation and accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins generate cell toxicity, leading to death. Therefore, developing maize cultivars with significant heat tolerance is urgently required. Despite the explored molecular mechanism underlying heat stress response in some plant species, the precise genetic engineering of maize is required to develop high heat-tolerant varieties. Several agronomic management practices, such as soil and nutrient management, plantation rate, timing, crop rotation, and irrigation, are beneficial along with the advanced molecular strategies to counter the elevated heat stress experienced by maize. This review summarizes heat stress sensing, induction of signaling cascade, symptoms, heat stress-related genes, the molecular feature of maize response, and approaches used in developing heat-tolerant maize varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.879366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9125997PMC
April 2022

A techno-economic approach for eliminating dye pollutants from industrial effluent employing microalgae through microbial fuel cells: Barriers and perspectives.

Environ Res 2022 May 18;212(Pt D):113454. Epub 2022 May 18.

Diatom Nanoengineering and Metabolism Laboratory (DNM), School of Applied Science, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar (MP), 470003, India. Electronic address:

Microbial fuel cells are biochemical factories which besides recycling wastewater are electricity generators, if their low power density can be scaled up. This also adds up to work on many factors responsible to increase the cost of running a microbial fuel cell. As a result, the first step is to use environment friendly dead organic algae biomass or even living algae cells in a microbial fuel cell, also referred to as microalgal microbial fuel cells. This can be a techno-economic aspect not only for treating textile wastewater but also an economical way of obtaining value added products and bioelectricity from microalgae. Besides treating wastewater, microalgae in its either form plays an essential role in treating dyes present in wastewater which essentially include azo dyes rich in synthetic ions and heavy metals. Microalgae require these metals as part of their metabolism and hence consume them throughout the integration process in a microbial fuel cell. In this review a detail plan is laid to discuss the treatment of industrial effluents (rich in toxic dyes) employing microbial fuel cells. Efforts have been made by researchers to treat dyes using microbial fuel cell alone or in combination with catalysts, nanomaterials and microalgae have also been included. This review therefore discusses impact of microbial fuel cells in treating wastewater rich in textile dyes its limitations and future aspects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113454DOI Listing
May 2022

Surface-coated magnetic nanostructured materials for robust bio-catalysis and biomedical applications-A review.

J Adv Res 2022 05 4;38:157-177. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: Enzymes based bio-catalysis has wide range of applications in various chemical and biological processes. Thus, the process of enzymes immobilization on suitable support to obtain highly active and stable bio-catalysts has great potential in industrial applications. Particularly, surface-modified magnetic nanomaterials have garnered a special interest as versatile platforms for biomolecules/enzyme immobilization.

Aim Of Review: This review spotlights recent progress in the immobilization of various enzymes onto surface-coated multifunctional magnetic nanostructured materials and their derived nano-constructs for multiple applications. Conclusive remarks, technical challenges, and insightful opinions on this field of research which are helpful to expand the application prospects of these materials are also given with suitable examples.

Key Scientific Concepts Of Review: Nanostructured materials, including surface-coated magnetic nanoparticles have recently gained immense significance as suitable support materials for enzyme immobilization, due to their large surface area, unique functionalities, and high chemical and mechanical stability. Besides, magnetic nanoparticles are less expensive and offers great potential in industrial applications due to their easy recovery and separation form their enzyme conjugates with an external magnetic field. Magnetic nanoparticles based biocatalytic systems offer a wide-working temperature, pH range, increased storage and thermal stabilities. So far, several studies have documented the application of a variety of surface modification and functionalization techniques to circumvent the aggregation and oxidation of magnetic nanoparticles. Surface engineering of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) helps to improve the dispersion stability, enhance mechanical and physicochemical properties, upgrade the surface activity and also increases enzyme immobilization capabilities and biocompatibility of the materials. However, several challenges still need to be addressed, such as controlled synthesis of MNPs and clinical aspects of these materials require consistent research from multidisciplinary scientists to realize its practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2021.09.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091734PMC
May 2022

Biochar production with amelioration of microwave-assisted pyrolysis: Current scenario, drawbacks and perspectives.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jul 10;355:127303. Epub 2022 May 10.

Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar 382010, Gujarat, India; Gujarat University, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009,Gujarat, India.

In recent years, biomass has been reported to obtain a wide range of value-added products. Biochar can be obtained by heating biomass, which aids in carbon sinks, soil amendments, resource recovery, and water retention. Microwave technology stands out among various biomass heating technologies not only for its effectiveness in biomass pyrolysis for the production of biochar and biofuel but also for its speed, volumetrics, selectivity, and efficiency. The features of microwave-assisted biomass pyrolysis and biochar are briefly reviewed in this paper. An informative comparison has been drawn between microwave-assisted pyrolysis and conventional pyrolysis. It focuses mainly on technological and economic scenario of biochar production and environmental impacts of using biochar. This source of knowledge would aid in the exploration of new possibilities and scope for employing microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology to produce biochar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127303DOI Listing
July 2022

Chitosan nanocarriers for microRNA delivery and detection: A preliminary review with emphasis on cancer.

Carbohydr Polym 2022 Aug 18;290:119489. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In recent years, gene therapy based on miRNA has been employed as a potential growing technique for treating various co-morbidities. Direct administration of miRNA is unrealistic due to their lower specificity, stability, and decreased penetration through the cellular membrane. Suitable delivery vectors must be required to deliver miRNA efficiently. Non-viral vectors can be composed of polymeric, lipids, or inorganic components/nanocarriers. Among different cationic polymers, chitosan nanocarriers are effectively utilized to deliver miRNA owing to its cationic nature, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and increased potential for functional modifications. Therefore, chitosan has been widely employed to effectively deliver several miRNAs to the target site. This review will discuss the recent signs of progress and future perspectives in delivering and detecting miRNAs via chitosan and its derivatives with an emphasis on cancer. The review will also provide an insight into the various challenges of these chitosan carriers to be used as delivery agents for miRNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.119489DOI Listing
August 2022

Early Results and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMS) of an Intraosseous Device for Arthrodesis of the First Tarso-Metatarsal (TMT) Joint.

Indian J Orthop 2022 May 16;56(5):895-901. Epub 2022 Jan 16.

Manchester Royal Infirmary Orthopaedic Department, Manchester, UK.

Background: We describe a new surgical technique for arthrodesis of the first tarso-metatarsal (TMT) joint using an intraosseous fixation device and the early results including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS).

Materials And Methods: Seventeen consecutive procedures with this method were included. Indication for surgery was hallux valgus. The average age was 42 years (range 26-65). PROMS were collected and the patients were asked to fill out a satisfaction questionnaire. A retrospective review of radiographs and electronic medical notes was conducted.

Results: Overall fusion rate was 94%. Complications included a case of failed fusion, a superficial wound infection and a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). At a mean follow-up of 24 months (range 10-38) radiographic results demonstrated significant improvement in the intermetatarsal angle or IMA (11.7 ± 2.8 degrees to 6.9 ± 2.4 degrees,  < 0.001) and hallux valgus angle or HVA (28.1 ± 7.3 degrees to 12.2 ± 4.3 degrees,  < 0.001). The mean visual analog scale (VAS) score improved significantly from a mean of 7.6 (SD 0.85) preoperatively, to a mean of 2.1 (SD 1.83) post-operatively ( < 0.0001). The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) significantly improved from a mean of 35.8 (SD 10.2), to a mean of 9.2 (SD 17) ( < 0.0001). The final result was satisfactory for 88% of the patients.

Conclusions: The early results show intraosseous fixation to be a safe and efficient method for the fusion of the first TMT joint providing good patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-021-00572-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9043158PMC
May 2022

Micro-algae assisted green bioremediation of water pollutants rich leachate and source products recovery.

Environ Pollut 2022 May 6;306:119422. Epub 2022 May 6.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Science, Monterrey, 64849, Mexico. Electronic address:

Water management and treatment are high concern fields with several challenges due to increasing pollutants produced by human activity. It is imperative to find integral solutions and strategic measures with robust remediation. Landfill leachate production is a high concern emerging problem. Especially in low middle-income countries due to no proper local waste disposition regulation and non-engineered implemented methods to dispose of urban waste. These landfills can accumulate electronic waste and release heavy metals during the degradation process. Similar phenomena include expired pharmaceuticals like antibiotics. All these pollutants accumulated in leachate made it hard to dispose of or treat. Leachate produced in non-engineered landfills can permeate soils and reach groundwater, dragging different contaminants, including antibiotics and heavy metals, which eventually can affect the environment, changing soil properties and affecting wildlife. The presence of antibiotics in the environment is a problem with particular interest to solve, mainly to avoid the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, which represent a future risk for human health with possible epidemic implications. It has been reported that the use of contaminated water with heavy metals to produce and grow vegetables is a risk for consumers, heavy metals effects in humans can include carcinogenic induction. This work explores the opportunities to use leachate as a source of nutrients to grow microalgae. Microalgae stand out as an alternative to bioremediate leachate, at the same time, microalgae produce high-value compounds that can be used in bioplastic, biofuels, and other industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119422DOI Listing
May 2022

Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles: Potential tool for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2022 Apr 12;29(4):2063-2071. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Applied Molecular Biology and Biomedicine Lab, Departmnet of Zoology, University of Narowal, Narowal, Pakistan.

Various types of cancer pose a notable threat to human health globally. To date, many researchers have undertaken the search for anticancer therapies. However, many anticancer therapeutic approaches accompany many undesirable hazards. In this respect, extracellular vesicles as a whole gained excessive attention from the research community owing to their remarkable potential for delivery of anticancer agents since they are involved in distal intercellular communication via biological cargoes. With the discovery of the fact that tumor cells discharge huge quantities of EVs, new insights have been developed in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TD-EVs) can be distinguished from the normal cell-derived EVs due to the presence of specific labels on their surface. TD-EVs carry specific oncogenic proteins and the nucleic acids on their surface membrane that participate in tumor progression. Moreover, the proportion of these nucleic acids and the protein greatly varies among malignant and healthy cell-derived EVs. The diagnostic potential of TD-EVs can be implied for the more precise and early-stage detection of cancer that was impossible in the past. This review examines the recent progress in prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic potential of the EVs derived from the tumor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2022.01.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9073005PMC
April 2022

Bioprospecting as a Robust Host for Industrial Biotechnology.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 20;10:851768. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

is an emerging non-conventional food-grade yeast that is generally isolated from diverse habitats, like kefir grain, fermented dairy products, sugar industry sewage, plants, and sisal leaves. A unique set of beneficial traits, such as fastest growth, thermotolerance, and broad substrate spectrum (i.e., hemi-cellulose hydrolysates, xylose, l-arabinose, d-mannose, galactose, maltose, sugar syrup molasses, cellobiose, and dairy industry) makes this yeast a particularly attractive host for applications in a variety of food and biotechnology industries. In contrast to , most of the strains are apparently Crabtree-negative or having aerobic-respiring characteristics, and unlikely to endure aerobic alcoholic fermentation. This is a desirable phenotype for the large-scale biosynthesis of products associated with biomass formation because the formation of ethanol as an undesirable byproduct can be evaded under aerobic conditions. Herein, we discuss the current insight into the potential applications of as a robust yeast cell factory to produce various industrially pertinent enzymes, bioethanol, cell proteins, probiotic, fructose, and fructo-oligosaccharides, and vaccines, with excellent natural features. Moreover, the biotechnological improvement and development of new biotechnological tools, particularly CRISPR-Cas9-assisted precise genome editing in are delineated. Lastly, the ongoing challenges, concluding remarks, and future prospects for expanding the scope of utilization in modern biotechnology, food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries are also thoroughly vetted. In conclusion, it is critical to apprehend knowledge gaps around genes, metabolic pathways, key enzymes, and regulation for gaining a complete insight into the mechanism for producing relevant metabolites by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.851768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9065261PMC
April 2022

Aptamer-conjugated carbon-based nanomaterials for cancer and bacteria theranostics: A review.

Chem Biol Interact 2022 Jul 2;361:109964. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, Kavala, 65404, Greece. Electronic address:

Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that link to various substrates with great affinity and selectivity, including small molecules, peptides, proteins, cells, and tissues. For this reason, they can be used as imaging agents for cancer imaging techniques. Multifunctional nanomaterials combined with imaging probes and drugs are promising cancer diagnosis and treatment candidates. On the other hand, carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs), including such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon-based quantum dots, carbon nanohorns, graphene oxide and its derivatives carbon nanodots, and nanodiamonds, are sort of smart materials that can be used in a variety of theranostic applications, including photo-triggered therapies. The remarkable physical characteristics, functionalizable chemistry, biocompatibility, and optical properties of these nanoparticles have enabled their utilization in less-invasive therapies. The theranostic agents that emerged by combining aptamers with CNMs have opened a novel alternative for personified medicine of cancer, target-specific imaging, and label-free diagnosis of a broad range of cancers, as well as pathogens. Aptamer-functionalized CNMs have been used as nanovesicles for targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents (i.e., doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil) to tumor sites. Furthermore, these CNMs conjugated with aptamers have shown great advantages over standard CNMs to sensitively detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii. Regrettably, CNMs can form compounds defined as NOAA (nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates larger than 100 nm), that accumulate in the body and cause toxic effects. Surface modification and pretreatment with albumin avoid agglomeration and increase the dispersibility of CNMs, so it is needed to guarantee the desirable interactions between functionalized CNMs and blood plasma proteins. This preliminary review aimed to comprehensively discuss the features and uses of aptamer-conjugated CNMs to manage cancer and bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2022.109964DOI Listing
July 2022

Spatiotemporal changes in aerosols over Bangladesh using 18 years of MODIS and reanalysis data.

J Environ Manage 2022 Aug 30;315:115097. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha, 61421, Saudi Arabia.

In this study, combined Dark Target and Deep Blue (DTB) aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD) data the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying on the Terra and Aqua satellites during the years 2003-2020 are used as a reference to assess the performance of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Services (CAMS) and the second version of Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) AOD over Bangladesh. The study also investigates long-term spatiotemporal variations and trends in AOD, and determines the relative contributions from different aerosol species (black carbon: BC, dust, organic carbon: OC, sea salt: SS, and sulfate) and anthropogenic emissions to the total AOD. As the evaluations suggest higher accuracy for CAMS than for MERRA-2, CAMS is used for further analysis of AOD over Bangladesh. The annual mean AOD from both CAMS and MODIS DTB is high (>0.60) over most parts of Bangladesh except for the eastern areas of Chattogram and Sylhet. Higher AOD is observed in spring and winter than in summer and autumn, which is mainly due to higher local anthropogenic emissions during the winter to spring season. Annual trends from 2003-2020 show a significant increase in AOD (by 0.006-0.014 year) over Bangladesh, and this increase in AOD was more evident in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. The increasing total AOD is caused by rising anthropogenic emissions and accompanied by changes in aerosol species (with increased OC, sulfate, and BC). Overall, this study improves understanding of aerosol pollution in Bangladesh and can be considered as a supportive document for Bangladesh to improve air quality by reducing anthropogenic emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115097DOI Listing
August 2022

Robust strategies to eliminate endocrine disruptive estrogens in water resources.

Environ Pollut 2022 Apr 29;306:119373. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey, 64849, Mexico. Electronic address:

The widespread occurrence and ubiquitous distribution of estrogens, i.e., estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) in our water matrices, is an issue of global concern. Public and regulatory authorities are concerned and placing joint efforts to eliminate estrogens and related environmentally hazardous compounds, due to their toxic influences on the environmental matrices, ecology, and human health, even at low concentrations. However, most of the available literature is focused on the occurrence of estrogens in different water environments with limited treatment options. Thus, a detailed review to fully cover the several treatment processes is needed. This review comprehensively and comparatively discusses many physical, chemical, and biological-based treatments to eliminate natural estrogens, i.e., estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) and related synthetic estrogens, e.g., 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and other related hazardous compounds. The covered techniques include adsorption, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, ultrasonication, photocatalysis of estrogenic compounds, Fenton, Fenton-like and photo-Fenton degradation of estrogenic compounds, electro-Fenton degradation of estrogenic compounds, ozonation, and biological methods for the removal of estrogenic compounds are thoroughly discussed with suitable examples. The studies revealed that treatment plants based on chemical and biological approaches are cost-friendly for removing estrogenic pollutants. Further, there is a need to properly monitor and disposal of the usage of estrogenic drugs in humans and animals. Additional studies are required to explore a robust and more advanced oxidation treatment strategy that can contribute effectively to industrial-scale applications. This review may assist future investigations, monitoring, and removing estrogenic compounds from various environmental matrices. In concluding remarks, a way forward and future perspectives focusing on bridging knowledge gaps in estrogenic compounds removal are also proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119373DOI Listing
April 2022

Mechanisms of gene regulation by histone degradation in adaptation of yeast: an overview of recent advances.

Arch Microbiol 2022 Apr 28;204(5):287. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, 223003, People's Republic of China.

Histones are important component of eukaryotic cells chromatin and consist of arginine and lysine residues. Histones play an important role in the protection of DNA. Their contents significantly affect high-level chromatin structure formation, gene expression, DNA replication, and other important life activities. Protein degradation is an important regulatory mechanism of histone content. Recent studies have revealed that modification of amino acid sequence is directly related to histone breakdown. In addition, histone degradation is closely related to covalent modifications, such as ubiquitination and acetylation, which are considered to be driving factors in gene regulation. Gene regulation is an important mechanism in adaptation to the environment and survival of species. With the introduction of highly efficient technology, various mutations in histones have been identified in yeast. In the field of epigenetics and the transmission of chromatin states, two widely used model organisms are the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Higher eukaryotes can use their silent loci to maintain their epigenetic states and providing the base to investigate mechanisms underlying development. Therfore, both species have contributed a plethora of information on these mechanisms in both yeast and higher eukaryotes. This study focuses on the role of histone modifications in controlling telomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and centromeric silencing in S. pombe as examples of genetic loci that demonstrate epigenetic inheritance. In view of recent advances, this review focuses on the post-translational modification of histone amino acid residues and reviews the relationship between histone degradation and amino acid residue modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-022-02897-8DOI Listing
April 2022

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A Rare Cause of Pyrexia of Unknown Origin.

Cureus 2022 Mar 21;14(3):e23368. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Internal Medicine, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, PAK.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome due to excessive immune activation leading to hyperinflammation. It may be familial due to mutations in immune regulatory genes, especially genetic defects of lymphocyte toxicity. The sporadic cases are triggered by infections (mostly viral), malignancies, and autoimmune diseases. Herewith we report the case of a 20-year-old male with febrile illness who was ultimately diagnosed with HLH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.23368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9020787PMC
March 2022

Insight into soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability and agricultural sustainability by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, 223003, China.

Nitrogen and phosphorus are critical for the vegetation ecosystem and two of the most insufficient nutrients in the soil. In agriculture practice, many chemical fertilizers are being applied to soil to improve soil nutrients and yield. This farming procedure poses considerable environmental risks which affect agricultural sustainability. As robust soil microorganisms, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have emerged as an environmentally friendly way of maintaining and improving the soil's available nitrogen and phosphorus. As a special PGPR, rhizospheric diazotrophs can fix nitrogen in the rhizosphere and promote plant growth. However, the mechanisms and influences of rhizospheric nitrogen fixation (NF) are not well researched as symbiotic NF lacks summarizing. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are important members of PGPR. They can dissolve both insoluble mineral and organic phosphate in soil and enhance the phosphorus uptake of plants. The application of PSB can significantly increase plant biomass and yield. Co-inoculating PSB with other PGPR shows better performance in plant growth promotion, and the mechanisms are more complicated. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of rhizospheric NF and phosphate solubilization by PGPR. Deeper genetic insights would provide a better understanding of the NF mechanisms of PGPR, and co-inoculation with rhizospheric diazotrophs and PSB strains would be a strategy in enhancing the sustainability of soil nutrients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20399-4DOI Listing
April 2022

Citric acid-capped NiWO/BiS and rGO-doped NiWO/BiS nanoarchitectures for photocatalytic decontamination of emerging pollutants from the aqueous environment.

Environ Res 2022 Apr 21;212(Pt B):113276. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, 223003, China. Electronic address:

Herein, we describe the successful synthesis of NiWO/BiS and reduced graphene oxide (rGO-NiWO/BiS) nanocomposites through a simple green sol-gel approach. The fabricated composites were subsequently characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) spectroscopic analyses. Dielectric properties were done by a precision impedance analyzer. Tanδ and dielectric constant for NiWO/BiS and rGO-NiWO/BiS were 1.811, 292818, and 0.2970, 344574, respectively, at 20 Hz. The photocatalytic performance of NiWO/BiS and rGO-NiWO/BiS was investigated against methylene blue and methyl orange dyes in an aqueous medium. NiWO-BiS showed degradation of methylene blue 15.52% after 20 min, 21.8% after 30 min and 46.8% after 40 min. Similarly, for methyl orange dye it was 18.1% after 20 min, 54% after 30 min and 59.36% after 40 min. Compared to NiWO/BiS rGO-NiWO/BiS exhibited superior degradation efficiency of 7.5% (20 min), 25.24% (30 min) and 57.71% (40 min) for methylene blue, and 35.7% (20 min), 56.98% (30 min) and 72.42% (40 min) for methyl orange under sunlight. This enhancement in photocatalytic and dielectric properties might be attributed to the presence of graphene in rGO-NiWO/BiS nanococomposite. Different factors such as effect of time, pH, dose of catalyst, concentration of dye were optimized and the reusability of superior catalyst rGO-NiWO/BiS was also checked for four cycles. In conclusion, promising photocatalytic and dielectric properties of rGO-NiWO/BiS suggest its potential applications in the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants and energy storage materials. This study provides a well-developed route to exploit metal sulphide/oxide nanocomposites in environmental remediation and energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113276DOI Listing
April 2022

Computational Valuation of Darcy Ternary-Hybrid Nanofluid Flow across an Extending Cylinder with Induction Effects.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Apr 9;13(4). Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

The flow of an electroconductive incompressible ternary hybrid nanofluid with heat conduction in a boundary layer including metallic nanoparticles (NPs) over an extended cylindrical with magnetic induction effects is reported in this research. The ternary hybrid nanofluid has been synthesized with the dispersion of titanium dioxide, cobalt ferrite, and magnesium oxide NPs in the base fluid water. For a range of economical and biological applications, a computational model is designed to augment the mass and energy conveyance rate and promote the performance and efficiency of thermal energy propagation. The model has been written as a system of partial differential equations. Which are simplified to the system of ordinary differential equations through similarity replacements. The computing approach parametric continuation method is used to further process the resultant first order differential equations. The results are validated with the bvp4c package for accuracy and validity. The outcomes are displayed and analyzed through Figures and Tables. It has been observed that the inverse Prandtl magnetic number and a larger magnetic constant reduce the fluid flow and elevate the energy profile. The variation of ternary hybrid NPs significantly boosts the thermophysical features of the base fluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13040588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9031502PMC
April 2022

Smart nanohybrid constructs: Concept and designing for environmental remediation.

Chemosphere 2022 Apr 18;301:134616. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

LUT School of Engineering Science, LUT University, 50130 Mikkeli, Finland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134616DOI Listing
April 2022

Bioprospecting and biotechnological insights into sweet-tasting proteins by microbial hosts-a review.

Bioengineered 2022 Apr;13(4):9815-9828

Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Owing to various undesirable health effects of sugar overconsumption, joint efforts are being made by industrial sectors and regulatory authorities to reduce sugar consumption practices, worldwide. Artificial sweeteners are considered potential substitutes in several products, e.g., sugar alcohols (polyols), high-fructose corn syrup, powdered drink mixes, and other beverages. Nevertheless, their long-standing health effects continue to be debatable. Consequently, growing interest has been shifted in producing non-caloric sweetenersfrom renewable resources to meet consumers' dietary requirements. Except for the lysozyme protein, various sweet proteins including thaumatin, mabinlin, brazzein, monellin, miraculin, pentadin, and curculin have been identified in tropical plants. Given the high cost and challenging extortion of natural resources, producing these sweet proteins using engineered microbial hosts, such as and represents an appealing choice. Engineering techniques can be applied for large-scale biosynthesis of proteins, which can be used in biopharmaceutical, food, diagnostic, and medicine industries. Nevertheless, extensive work needs to be undertaken to address technical challenges in microbial production of sweet-tasting proteins in bulk. This review spotlights historical aspects, physicochemical properties (taste, safety, stability, solubility, and cost), and recombinant biosynthesis of sweet proteins. Moreover, future opportunities for process improvement based on metabolic engineering strategies are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2022.2061147DOI Listing
April 2022

Editorial: Recent Trends in Integrated Wastewater Treatment for Sustainable Development.

Front Microbiol 2022 31;13:846503. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Waste and Effluent Treatment Laboratory, Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Tiradentes University, Aracaju, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.846503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9008750PMC
March 2022

Photocatalytic CO Reduction Using TiO-Based Photocatalysts and TiO Z-Scheme Heterojunction Composites: A Review.

Molecules 2022 Mar 23;27(7). Epub 2022 Mar 23.

School of Physics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225000, China.

Photocatalytic CO reduction is a most promising technique to capture CO and reduce it to non-fossil fuel and other valuable compounds. Today, we are facing serious environmental issues due to the usage of excessive amounts of non-renewable energy resources. In this aspect, photocatalytic CO reduction will provide us with energy-enriched compounds and help to keep our environment clean and healthy. For this purpose, various photocatalysts have been designed to obtain selective products and improve efficiency of the system. Semiconductor materials have received great attention and have showed good performances for CO reduction. Titanium dioxide has been widely explored as a photocatalyst for CO reduction among the semiconductors due to its suitable electronic/optical properties, availability at low cost, thermal stability, low toxicity, and high photoactivity. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, the artificial Z-scheme of photocatalyst is constructed to provide an easy method to enhance efficiency of CO reduction. This review covers literature in this field, particularly the studies about the photocatalytic system, TiO Z-scheme heterojunction composites, and use of transition metals for CO photoreduction. Lastly, challenges and opportunities are described to open a new era in engineering and attain good performances with semiconductor materials for photocatalytic CO reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9000641PMC
March 2022

Application of Green Gold Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy and Diagnosis.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Mar 27;12(7). Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Huaiyin Institute of Technology, School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaian 223003, China.

Nanoparticles are currently used for cancer theranostics in the clinical field. Among nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) attract much attention due to their usability and high performance in imaging techniques. The wide availability of biological precursors used in plant-based synthesized AuNPs allows for the development of large-scale production in a greener manner. Conventional cancer therapies, such as surgery and chemotherapy, have significant limitations and frequently fail to produce satisfying results. AuNPs have a prolonged circulation time, allow easy modification with ligands detected via cancer cell surface receptors, and increase uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis. To exploit these unique features, studies have been carried out on the use of AuNPs as contrast agents for X-ray-based imaging techniques (i.e., computed tomography). As nanocarriers, AuNPs synthesized by nontoxic and biocompatible plants to deliver therapeutic biomolecules could be a significant stride forward in the effective treatment of various cancers. Fluorescent-plant-based markers, including AuNPs, fabricated using , , , and , have been used in detecting cancers. Moreover, green synthesized AuNPs using various extracts have been applied for the treatment of different types of solid tumors. However, the cytotoxicity of AuNPs primarily depends on their size, surface reactivity, and surface area. In this review, the benefits of plant-based materials in cancer therapy are firstly explained. Then, considering the valuable position of AuNPs in medicine, the application of AuNPs in cancer therapy and detection is highlighted with an emphasis on limitations faced by the application of such NPs in drug delivery platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12071102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9000429PMC
March 2022

Carbon dots-based nanomaterials for fluorescent sensing of toxic elements in environmental samples: Strategies for enhanced performance.

Chemosphere 2022 Apr 6;300:134515. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey, 64849, Mexico. Electronic address:

Rapid industrialization and manufacturing expansion have caused heavy metal pollution, which is a critical environmental issue faced by global population. In addition, the disadvantages presented by conventional detection methods such as the requirement of sophisticated instruments and qualified personnel have led to the development of novel nanosensors. Recently, carbon dots (CDs) have been presented as a multifunctional nanomaterial alternative for the accurate detection of heavy metal ions in water systems. The capacity of CDs to detect contaminants in wastewater -including heavy metals- can be found in the literature; however, to the best of our knowledge, none of them discusses the most recent strategies to enhance their performance. Therefore, in this review, beyond presenting successful examples of the use of CDs for the detection of metal ions, we further discuss the strategies to enhance their photoluminescence properties and their performance for environmental monitoring. In this manner, strategies such as heteroatom-doping and surface passivation are reviewed in detail, as well as describing the mechanisms and the effect of precursors and synthesis methods. Finally, the current challenges are described in detail to propose some recommendations for further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134515DOI Listing
April 2022

New Insights in factors affecting ground water quality with focus on health risk assessment and remediation techniques.

Environ Res 2022 Mar 29;212(Pt A):113171. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT), Ho Chi Minh City, 700000, Viet Nam; Key Laboratory of Advanced Waste Treatment Technology, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh (VNU-HCM), Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, 700000, Viet Nam.

Groundwater is considered as the primary source of water for the majority of the world's population. The preponderance of the nation's drinking water, as well as agricultural and industrial water, comes from groundwater. Groundwater level is becoming increasingly challenging to replenish due to climate change. Fertilizer application and improper processing of industrial waste are the two major anthropogenic drivers of groundwater pollution. Arsenic and cadmium are two of the principal heavy metal pollutants that have affected groundwater quality by human activity. When people are exposed to both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic contaminants for an extended period, toxic effects might occur. It can have detrimental health effects from long-term exposure to contaminants, even in low amounts. As a result, metal contamination concentrations and fractions can be used to determine potential health concerns. At the same time, contaminants also need to be removed or converted to harmless products by groundwater remediation. Remediation of groundwater quality can be accomplished in several ways, including natural and artificial means. The purpose of this review is to explore a wide range of factors that affect groundwater quality, including their possible health effects. This communication provides state-of-the-art information about remediation approaches for groundwater contamination including hindrances and perspectives in this area of research. The in-depth information provided in different sections of this communication would expand the scope of interdisciplinary research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113171DOI Listing
March 2022

Pharmacokinetics of metronomic temozolomide in cerebrospinal fluid of children with malignant central nervous system tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2022 05 30;89(5):617-627. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Center for Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: Although temozolomide is widely used in the treatment of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors, information on its pharmacokinetic profile in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is sparse. This study aimed at investigating whether measurable and clinically relevant concentrations of temozolomide are reached and maintained in CSF for continuous oral administration in pediatric patients. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to quantify CSF penetration of temozolomide.

Methods: Eleven pediatric CNS tumor patients (aged 4-14 years) treated with oral temozolomide using a metronomic schedule (24-77 mg/m/day) were included. Temozolomide concentrations in 28 plasma samples and 64 CSF samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations were performed using non-linear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM 7.4.2).

Results: Median temozolomide concentrations in plasma and CSF were 0.96 (range 0.24-5.99) µg/ml and 0.37 (0.06-1.76) µg/ml, respectively. A two-compartment model (central/plasma [1], CSF [2]) with first-order absorption, first-order elimination, and a transit compartment between CSF and plasma adequately described the data. Population mean estimates for clearance (CL) and the volume of distribution in the central compartment (V) were 3.29 L/h (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.58-3.95) and 10.5 L (8.17-14.32), respectively. Based on simulations, we found a median area under the concentration vs. time curve ratio (AUC / AUC ratio) of 37%.

Conclusion: Metronomic oral temozolomide penetrates into the CSF in pediatric patients, with even higher concentration levels compared to adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-022-04424-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9054874PMC
May 2022

Development of reduced graphene oxide-supported novel hybrid nanomaterials ([email protected] and [email protected]) for green and efficient oxidative desulfurization of model fuel oil for environmental depollution.

Environ Res 2022 Mar 26;212(Pt A):113160. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, 223003, China. Electronic address:

For the first time, two new kinds of inorganic-organic hybrid nanomaterials ([email protected] and [email protected]) were fabricated by simple hydrothermal treatment and employed for green and efficient oxidative desulfurization of real fuel. The characterization of newly synthesized nanocomposites was performed by SEM, EDX, P-XRD, FT-IR and TGA. SEM and XRD analyses revealed well decoration of dopants (Cu-WO and Bi-WO) on the surface of rGO with a crystallite size of <50 nm. The catalytic activity of both nanocatalysts was examined for model (dibenzothiophene) and real fuel (kerosene and diesel) by oxidative desulfurization route. Experimental findings revealed a high efficiency of over 90% under optimal reaction conditions of 0.1 g catalyst, 1 mL of oxidant, and 100 mg/L after 120 min at 30 °C. The major factors affecting desulfurization efficiency (time, temperature, catalyst amount, dibenzothiophene (DBT) concentration and amount of oxidant) and kinetic studies were described. The DBT removal via oxidative desulfurization followed pseudo first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 14.57 and 16.91 kJ/mol for [email protected] and [email protected], respectively. The prepared catalysts showed promising reusability for the ODS process up to 5 times with no significant decrease in efficiency. In conclusion, the findings confirm the robustness of newly prepared nanocomposite for efficient production of sulfur-free oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113160DOI Listing
March 2022

Electroactive polymeric nanocomposite BC--(FeO/GO) materials for bone tissue engineering: evaluations.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2022 Mar 30:1-20. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, China.

Tissue engineering is a cutting-edge approach for using advanced biomaterials to treat defective bone to get desired clinical results. In bone tissue engineering, the scaffolds must have the desired physicochemical and biomechanical natural properties in order to regenerate complicated defective bone. For the first time, polymeric nanocomposite material was developed using cellulose and co-dispersed nanosystem (FeO/GO) by free radical polymerization to fabricate porous polymeric scaffolds freeze drying. Various characterizations techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and universal testing machine (UTM) were used to investigate structural, morphological, and mechanical properties. Swelling, biodegradation, and wetting analysis were also performed to evaluate their physicochemical behavior. Intercalation of FeO nanoparticles into GO-sheets promoted their dispersion into the polymeric matrix. All porous scaffolds possessed a well-interconnected porous structure, while the synergistic effect of FeO/GO reinforces the mechanical strength of porous scaffolds. The compressive strength and Young's modulus were increased by increasing FeO amount, and maximum mechanical strength was found in HFG-4 and least in HFG-1. However, these porous scaffolds have different swelling and biodegradation behavior due to the variable FeO intercalations into GO-sheets. Antibacterial activities of porous scaffolds were studied against severe Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens and increased FeO amount in nanosystem increased the antibacterial activities. The cell viability and morphology of pre-osteoblast () cell lines were studied against porous scaffolds and increased cell viability and proliferation were observed from HFG-1 to HFG-4. Hence, the electroactive material could be the potential material for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2022.2054544DOI Listing
March 2022

Recent advances of biosurfactant for waste and pollution bioremediation: Substitutions of petroleum-based surfactants.

Environ Res 2022 Mar 25;212(Pt A):113126. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, 43500, Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Subtropical Water Environment and Marine Biological Resources Protection, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China. Electronic address:

Biosurfactant is one of the emerging compounds in the industrial sector that behaves similarly with their synthetic counterparts, as they can reduce surface and interfacial tension between two fluids. Their unique properties also enable biosurfactant molecules to be able to clump together to form micelles that can capture targeted molecules within a solution. Biosurfactants are compared with synthetic surfactants on various applications for which the results shows that biosurfactants are fully capable of replacing synthetic surfactants in applications including enhanced oil recovery and wastewater treatment applications. Biosurfactants are able to be used in different applications as well since they are less toxic than synthetic surfactants. These applications include bioremediation on oil spills in the marine environment and bioremediation for contaminated soil and water, as well as a different approach on the pharmaceutical applications. The future of biosurfactants in the pharmaceutical industry and petroleum industry as well as challenges faced for implementing biosurfactants into large-scale applications are also discussed at the end of this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113126DOI Listing
March 2022

Development of Artificial Synthetic Pathway of Endophenazines in P3.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Feb 24;11(3). Epub 2022 Feb 24.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Endophenazine A is a terpenoid phenazine with phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) derived from the 2-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway as the precursor, which shows good antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. However, the highest yield of endophenazine A was about 20 mg/L in , limiting its large-scale industrial development. P3, possessing an efficient PCA synthesis and MEP pathways, is a suitable chassis to synthesize endophenazine A. Herein, we designed an artificial biosynthetic pathway for the synthesis of endophenazine A in P3. Primarily, the prenyltransferase PpzP from 9663 was introduced into P3 and successfully synthesized endophenazine A. Another phenazine compound, endophenazine A1, was discovered and identified as a leakage of the intermediate 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butene pyrophosphate (HMBPP). Finally, the yield of endophenazine A reached 279.43 mg/L, and the yield of endophenazine A1 reached 189.2 mg/L by metabolic engineering and medium optimization. In conclusion, we successfully synthesized endophenazine A and endophenazine A1 in P3 for the first time and achieved the highest titer, which provides a reference for the heterologous synthesis of terpenoid phenazines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology11030363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8945225PMC
February 2022

Synthesis of Activated Carbon from Seeds for the Removal of Cationic and Anionic Dyes.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Mar 8;15(6). Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

The removal of dyes from industrial effluents is one of the most important industrial processes that is currently on academic demand. In this project, for the first time, seeds are used as biosources for the synthesis of activated carbon (AC) using physical as well as acid-base chemical methods. The synthesized AC was initially characterized by different instrumental techniques, such as FTIR, BET isotherm, SEM, EDX and XRD. Then, the prepared activated carbon was used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of xylenol orange and thymol blue from an aqueous solution. Furthermore, the effect of different parameters, i.e., concentration of dye, contact time, pH, adsorbent amount, temperature, adsorbent size and agitation speed, were investigated in batch experiments at room temperature. The analysis of different techniques concluded that the pyrolysis method created a significant change in the chemical composition of the prepared AC and the acid-treated AC offered a high carbon/oxygen composite, which is graphitic in nature. The removal of both dyes (xylenol orange and thymol blue) was increased with the increase in the dye's initial concentration. Isothermal data suggested that the adsorption of both dyes follows the Langmuir model compared to the Freundlich model. The equilibrium time for AC biomass to achieve the removal of xylenol orange and thymol blue dyes was determined to be 60 min, and the kinetic data suggested that the adsorption of both dyes obeyed the pseudo-second order model. The optimal pH for thymol blue adsorption was pH 6, while it was pH 2 for xylenol orange. The adsorption of both dyes increased with the increase in the temperature. The influence of the adsorbent amount indicated that the adsorption capacity (mg/g) of both dyes reduced with the rise in the adsorbent amount. Thus, the current study suggests that AC prepared by an acid treatment from seeds is a good, alternative, cost effective, and eco-friendly adsorbent for the effective removal of dyes from polluted water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15061986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8948926PMC
March 2022
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