Publications by authors named "Muhammad Aziz Rahman"

60 Publications

Psychological Distress, Fear and Coping Strategies among Hong Kong People During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Curr Psychol 2021 Oct 20:1-20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

School of Health, Federation University Australia, Berwick, VIC Australia.

The COVID-19 pandemic contributed to potential adverse effects on the mental health status of a wide range of people. This study aimed to identify factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among general population in Hong Kong. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; level of fear was evaluated using the Fear of COVID-19 scale; and coping strategies were assessed using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify key factors associated with these mental health variables. Of the 555 participants, 53.9% experienced moderate to very high levels of psychological distress, 31.2% experienced a high level of fear of COVID-19, and 58.6% showed moderate to high resilient coping. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that living with family members, current alcohol consumption, and higher level of fear were associated with higher levels of psychological distress; perceived stress due to a change in employment condition, being a frontline worker, experiencing 'moderate to very high' distress, and healthcare service use to overcome the COVID-19 related stress in past 6 months were associated with a higher level of fear; and perceived better mental health status was associated with a moderate to high resilient coping. This study identified key factors associated with distress, fear and coping strategies during the pandemic in Hong Kong. Mental health support strategies should be provided continuously to prevent the mental impact of the pandemic from turning into long-term illness.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-02338-7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02338-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8527280PMC
October 2021

Caring self-efficacy of direct care workers in residential aged care settings: A mixed methods scoping review.

Geriatr Nurs 2021 Oct 11;42(6):1429-1445. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Australian Institute for Primary Care & Ageing, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, 3086, Australia; School of Health, Federation University Australia, Berwick, Victoria, Australia; Department of Non-communicable Diseases, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh; Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

The caring self-efficacy of direct care workers in residential aged care has been explored in the literature mostly as a predictor rather than the focus of interest. This scoping review aimed to provide an overview of the existing literature on aged care workers' caring self-efficacy and factors that influence it. A systematic search was performed in six electronic databases. All primary studies were included. A total of 41 studies met the inclusion criteria. Caring self-efficacy was most often described by aged care workers as their capacity to deal with difficult situations. The self-efficacy scores of direct care workers were high across studies. Self-efficacy was positively influenced by access to resources, relationships with residents and their families, the support of supervisors and co-workers, job satisfaction, and training opportunities, and negatively affected by work pressure and burnout. Findings indicate possible avenues for intervention to improve direct care workers' self-efficacy in aged care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2021.09.014DOI Listing
October 2021

COVID-19: Factors associated with psychological distress, fear, and coping strategies among community members across 17 countries.

Global Health 2021 10 1;17(1):117. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: The current pandemic of COVID-19 impacted the psychological wellbeing of populations globally.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the extent and identify factors associated with psychological distress, fear of COVID-19 and coping.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study across 17 countries during Jun-2020 to Jan-2021. Levels of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale), and coping (Brief Resilient Coping Scale) were assessed.

Results: A total of 8,559 people participated; mean age (±SD) was 33(±13) years, 64% were females and 40% self-identified as frontline workers. More than two-thirds (69%) experienced moderate-to-very high levels of psychological distress, which was 46% in Thailand and 91% in Egypt. A quarter (24%) had high levels of fear of COVID-19, which was as low as 9% in Libya and as high as 38% in Bangladesh. More than half (57%) exhibited medium to high resilient coping; the lowest prevalence (3%) was reported in Australia and the highest (72%) in Syria. Being female (AOR 1.31 [95% CIs 1.09-1.57]), perceived distress due to change of employment status (1.56 [1.29-1.90]), comorbidity with mental health conditions (3.02 [1.20-7.60]) were associated with higher levels of psychological distress and fear. Doctors had higher psychological distress (1.43 [1.04-1.97]), but low levels of fear of COVID-19 (0.55 [0.41-0.76]); nurses had medium to high resilient coping (1.30 [1.03-1.65]).

Conclusions: The extent of psychological distress, fear of COVID-19 and coping varied by country; however, we identified few higher risk groups who were more vulnerable than others. There is an urgent need to prioritise health and well-being of those people through well-designed intervention that may need to be tailored to meet country specific requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-021-00768-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8485312PMC
October 2021

Duration of intervals in the care seeking pathway for lung cancer in Bangladesh: A journey from symptoms triggering consultation to receipt of treatment.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0257301. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Institute for Breathing and Sleep (IBAS), Melbourne, Australia.

Timeliness in seeking care is critical for lung cancer patients' survival and better prognosis. The care seeking trajectory of patients with lung cancer in Bangladesh has not been explored, despite the differences in health systems and structures compared to high income countries. This study investigated the symptoms triggering healthcare seeking, preferred healthcare providers (including informal healthcare providers such as pharmacy retailers, village doctors, and "traditional healers"), and the duration of intervals in the lung cancer care pathway of patients in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh among diagnosed lung cancer patients through face-to-face interview and medical record review. Time intervals from onset of symptom and care seeking events were calculated and compared between those who sought initial care from different providers using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Among 418 study participants, the majority (90%) of whom were males, with a mean age of 57 ±9.86 years, cough and chest pain were the most common (23%) combination of symptoms triggering healthcare seeking. About two-thirds of the total respondents (60%) went to informal healthcare providers as their first point of contact. Living in rural areas, lower levels of education and lower income were associated with seeking care from such providers. The median duration between onset of symptom to confirmation of diagnosis was 121 days, between confirmation of diagnosis and initiation of treatment was 22 days, and between onset of symptom and initiation of treatment was 151 days. Pre-diagnosis durations were longer for those who had sought initial care from an informal provider (p<0.05). Time to first contact with a health provider was shorter in this study compared to other developed and developing countries but utilizing informal healthcare providers caused delays in diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Encouraging people to seek care from a formal healthcare provider may reduce the overall duration of the care seeking pathway.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257301PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432814PMC
September 2021

Psychological distress, fear and coping among Malaysians during the COVID-19 pandemic.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0257304. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

School of Health, Federation University Australia, Berwick, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has enormously affected the psychological well-being, social and working life of millions of people across the world. This study aimed to investigate the psychological distress, fear and coping strategies as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated factors among Malaysian residents.

Methods: Participants were invited to an online cross-sectional survey from Aug-Sep 2020. The study assessed psychological distress using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, level of fear using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and coping strategies using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to adjust for potential confounders.

Results: The mean age (±SD) of the participants (N = 720) was 31.7 (±11.5) years, and most of them were females (67.1%). Half of the participants had an income source, while 216 (30%) identified themselves as frontline health or essential service workers. People whose financial situation was impacted due to COVID-19 (AOR 2.16, 95% CIs 1.54-3.03), people who drank alcohol in the last four weeks (3.43, 1.45-8.10), people who were a patient (2.02, 1.39-2.93), and had higher levels of fear of COVID-19 (2.55, 1.70-3.80) were more likely to have higher levels of psychological distress. Participants who self-isolated due to exposure to COVID-19 (3.12, 1.04-9.32) and who had moderate to very high levels of psychological distress (2.56, 1.71-3.83) had higher levels of fear. Participants who provided care to a family member/patient with a suspected case of COVID-19 were more likely to be moderately to highly resilient compared to those who did not.

Conclusion: Vulnerable groups of individuals such as patients and those impacted financially during COVID-19 should be supported for their mental wellbeing. Behavioural interventions should be targeted to reduce the impact of alcohol drinking during such crisis period.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257304PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432783PMC
September 2021

COVID-19 Related Psychological Distress, Fear and Coping: Identification of High-Risk Groups in Bangladesh.

Front Psychiatry 2021 13;12:718654. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed psychological distress and fear across the globe; however, factors associated with those issues or the ways people cope may vary by country or context. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with psychological distress, fear, and coping strategies for people living in Bangladesh during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study conducted in August-September 2020 using online platforms in Bangladesh. People residing in Bangladesh, aged ≥18 years, who were proficient in English and able to respond to online questionnaire. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess the psychological stress. Level of fear was assessed using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and strategies to cope were assessed using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Of the 962 participants, half of them were aged between 30 and 59 years. Being born in Bangladesh, having graduate education, perceived distress due to employment change, effect of COVID-19 on financial situation, having multiple comorbidities, and visiting a healthcare provider in the last 4 weeks were associated with higher levels of both psychological distress and fear of COVID-19. Furthermore, higher psychological distress was associated with being a female (AOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.33-2.47, < 0.001), being a frontline worker (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.15, < 0.05), having pre-existing psychiatric problems (AOR 4.03, 95% CI 1.19-13.7, < 0.05), being a smoker (AOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.32-3.09, < 0.01), providing care to a known/suspected COVID-19 patient (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40-2.72, < 0.001), having a recent overseas travel history and being in self-quarantine (AOR 4.59, 95% CI 1.23-17.2, < 0.05), self-isolation without COVID-19 (AOR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.13, < 0.001) or being COVID-19 positive (AOR 2.53, 95% CI 1.19-5.34, < 0.05), and having high levels of fear of COVID-19 (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 2.29-4.66, < 0.001). A higher level of fear was associated with moderate to high levels of psychological distress (AOR 3.29, 95% CI 2.31-4.69, < 0.001). People with pre-existing mental health problems were less likely to be resilient (AOR 0.25, 95% CI 0.11-0.54, < 0.01), whereas those with having an income were more likely to be resilient (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.11, < 0.05). Effective interventions to support the vulnerable groups including improved access to mental health services are of utmost importance during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.718654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414638PMC
August 2021

The Health Belief Model Predicts Intention to Receive the COVID-19 Vaccine in Saudi Arabia: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Aug 5;9(8). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah 52571, Saudi Arabia.

We examined the intention and predictors of accepting the COVID-19 vaccine in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a nation-wide, cross-sectional online survey between February and March 2021. A total of 1387 people (≥18 years) participated. Only 27.3% adults had a definite and 30.2% had a probable vaccination intent; 26.8% and 15.6% had a probable and definite negative vaccination intent. Older people (≥50 years) ( 0.01), healthcare workers/professionals ( < 0.001), and those who received flu vaccine ( < 0.001) were more likely to have a positive intent. People from Riyadh were less likely to receive the vaccine ( < 0.05). Among the health belief model constructs, perceived susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19 ( < 0.001), and perceived benefit of the vaccine ( < 0.001) were positively associated with vaccination intent, whereas perceived barriers had a negative association ( < 0.001). Individuals were more likely to receive the vaccine after obtaining complete information ( < 0.001) and when the vaccine uptake would be more common amongst the public ( < 0.001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8402432PMC
August 2021

Tobacco retailer density and smoking behavior in a rural Australian jurisdiction without a tobacco retailer licensing system.

Tob Induc Dis 2021 19;19:39. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Community and Allied Health, La Trobe Rural Health School, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.

Introduction: An emerging body of research has developed around tobacco retailer density and its contribution to smoking behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between tobacco retailer density and smoking behavior in a rural Australian jurisdiction without a tobacco retailer licensing system in place.

Methods: A local government database (updated 2018) of listed tobacco retailers (n=93) was accessed and potential unlisted tobacco retailers (n=230) were added using online searches. All retailers (n=323) were visited in 2019 and GPS coordinates of retailers that sold tobacco (n=125) were assigned to suburbs in ArcMap. A community survey conducted in the Local Government Area provided smoking and sociodemographic data amongst adult respondents (n=8981). Associations between tobacco retailer density (calculated as the number of retailers per km based on respondents' suburb of residence) and daily, occasional and experimental smoking were assessed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Separate models with and without covariates were undertaken.

Results: Without adjusting for possible confounders, living in suburbs with greater retailer density did not increase the odds of daily smoking (OR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.12), occasional smoking (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.94-1.18), or experimental smoking (OR=0.98; 95% 0.92- 1.05). However, after adjustment, living in suburbs with greater retailer density increased the odds of occasional smoking behavior (AOR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.10-1.71) but not daily or experimental smoking.

Conclusions: This study found a significant positive association between tobacco retailer density and the likelihood of occasional smoking in a rural Australian jurisdiction without a tobacco retailer licensing system in place. The findings strengthen calls for the introduction of a comprehensive, positive tobacco retailer licensing system to provide a framework for improving compliance with legislation and to reduce the overall availability of tobacco products in the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/134190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133357PMC
May 2021

Self-efficacy of direct care workers providing care to older people in residential aged care settings: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2021 04 10;10(1):105. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Australian Institute for Primary Care & Ageing, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Self-efficacy is developed through a person's interaction with his/her physical and social environment. Self-efficacy in caring is an essential attribute of care workers to develop a positive attitude towards their clients, improve work performance, and enhance job satisfaction. Care workers' self-efficacy may vary according to the context in which the care is being provided. Aged care is a multidimensional and challenging setting, and characteristics of aged care services are different from those of acute care services. The objective of this review is to give an overview of the self-efficacy of residential aged care workers in caring for older people and factors influencing their self-efficacy.

Methods: The protocol for this review is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer's Manual for Scoping Review. A systematic search of the literature on electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AgeLine, SCOPUS, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global will be carried out using predefined search terms to identify relevant studies. This review will include studies that examined the self-efficacy of direct care workers in caring for older people living in residential aged care facilities. All primary studies irrespective of the study design will be included. Studies conducted to develop measures or studies with informal care workers or students as study participants will not be considered. Two reviewers will independently conduct title and abstract screening, full-text screening, and data charting. A third reviewer will resolve discrepancies, while the final decision for conflicting studies will be made by consensus within the review team. Descriptive statistics will be utilized to analyze the quantitative findings, and the result will be presented in narrative form accompanied by tables and charts. Content analysis will be carried to analyze the qualitative findings and will be presented in narrative form supported by illustrative quotations.

Discussion: This study will be an important source of knowledge to policymakers and aged care providers to understand the self-efficacy of aged care workers to support and enhance their self-efficacy and thereby improve their caring behaviors towards their clients.

Scoping Review Registration: Joanna Briggs Institute Systematic Review Register with the title "A scoping review of factors influencing caring efficacy of direct care workers providing care to older people".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-021-01655-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035725PMC
April 2021

Factors influencing place of delivery: Evidence from three south-Asian countries.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0250012. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australia.

Background: High maternal mortality is still a significant public health challenge in many countries of the South-Asian region. The majority of maternal deaths occur due to pregnancy and delivery-related complications, which can mostly be prevented by safe facility delivery. Due to the paucity of existing evidence, our study aimed to examine the factors associated with place of delivery, including women's preferences for such in three selected South-Asian countries.

Methods: We extracted data from the most recent demographic and health surveys (DHS) conducted in Bangladesh (2014), Nepal (2016), and Pakistan (2017-18) and analyzed to identify the association between the outcome variable and socio-demographic characteristics. A total of 16,429 women from Bangladesh (4278; mean age 24.57 years), Nepal (3962; mean age 26.35 years), and Pakistan (8189; mean age 29.57 years) were included in this study. Following descriptive analyses, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted.

Results: Overall, the prevalence of facility-based delivery was 40%, 62%, and 69% in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan, respectively. Inequity in utilizing facility-based delivery was observed for women in the highest wealth quintile. Participants from Urban areas, educated, middle and upper household economic status, and with high antenatal care (ANC) visits were significantly associated with facility-based delivery in all three countries. Interestingly, watching TV was also found as a strong determinant for facility-based delivery in Bangladesh (aOR = 1.31, 95% CI:1.09-1.56, P = 0.003), Nepal (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI:1.20-1.67, P<0.001) and Pakistan (aOR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.32, P = 0.013). Higher education of husband was a significant predictor for facility delivery in Bangladesh (aOR = 1.73, 95% CI:1.27-2.35, P = 0.001) and Pakistan (aOR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.99-1.43, P = 0.065); husband's occupation was also a significant factor in Bangladesh (aOR = 1.30, 95% CI:1.04-1.61, P = 0.020) and Nepal (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI:1.01-1.58, P = 0.041).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the educational status of both women and their husbands, household economic situation, and the number of ANC visits influenced the place of delivery. There is an urgent need to promote facility delivery by building more birthing facilities, training and deployment of skilled birth attendants in rural and hard-to-reach areas, ensuring compulsory female education for all women, encouraging more ANC visits, and providing financial incentives for facility deliveries. There is a need to promote facility delivery by encouraging health facility visits through utilizing social networks and continuing mass media campaigns. Ensuring adequate Government funding for free maternal and newborn health care and local community involvement is crucial for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and achieving sustainable development goals in this region.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250012PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8031333PMC
October 2021

The association between preoperative length of hospital stay and deep sternal wound infection: A scoping review.

Aust Crit Care 2021 11 6;34(6):620-633. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

School of Health, Federation University Australia, Berwick, Melbourne, VIC 3806, Australia; Australian Institute of Primary Care and Ageing, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is a serious complication of cardiac surgery, associated with a significantly longer hospital stay, an increased mortality, and an almost doubling of treatment costs. The preoperative length of hospital stay has been suggested in a small number of studies as a modifiable risk factor yet is not included in surgical site infection prevention guidelines. The aim of this scoping review was to review the existing evidence on the association between preoperative length of hospital stay and DSWI, and to identify established risk factors for DSWI.

Methods: A literature search of six electronic databases yielded 2297 results. Titles concerning risk factors for DSWI, sternal or surgical wound infection, or poststernotomy complications were included. Abstracts relating to preoperative length of stay as a risk factor for DSWI proceeded to full article review. Articles regarding paediatric surgery, DSWI management or unavailable in English were excluded.

Results: The review identified 11 observational cohort studies. DSWI prevalence was between 0.9% and 6.8%. Preoperative length of stay ranged from 0-15.5 days and was found to be associated with DSWI in all studies. Preoperative length of stay and DSWI were inconsistently defined. Other risk factors for DSWI included diabetes, obesity, respiratory disease, heart failure, renal impairment, complex surgery, and reoperation (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: In this scoping review, an association between preoperative length of stay and the development of DSWI following cardiac surgery was identified. Thus, preoperative length of stay as a modifiable risk factor for DSWI should be considered for inclusion in cardiothoracic surgical infection prevention guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2020.12.010DOI Listing
November 2021

Changes in Tobacco Use Patterns during COVID-19 and Their Correlates among Older Adults in Bangladesh.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 12;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Economics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

The present study explored the changes in tobacco use patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic and their correlates among older adults in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1032 older adults aged ≥60 years in Bangladesh through telephone interviews in October 2020. Participants' characteristics and COVID-19-related information were gathered using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were asked if they noted any change in their tobacco use patterns (smoking or smokeless tobacco) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic (6 months prior to the survey). Nearly half of the participants (45.6%) were current tobacco users, of whom 15.9% reported increased tobacco use during the COVID-19 pandemic and all others had no change in their tobacco use patterns. Tobacco use was significantly increased among the participants from rural areas, who had reduced communications during COVID-19 compared to pre-pandemic (OR = 2.76, 95%CI:1.51-5.03). Participants who were aged ≥70 years (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14-0.77), widowed (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.13-1.00), had pre-existing, non-communicable, and/or chronic conditions (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25-0.78), and felt themselves at the highest risk of COVID-19 (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.62), had significantly lower odds of increased tobacco use. Policy makers and practitioners need to focus on strengthening awareness and raising initiatives to avoid tobacco use during such a crisis period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918812PMC
February 2021

Reliability of the tools used to examine psychological distress, fear of COVID-19 and coping amongst migrants and non-migrants in Australia.

Int J Ment Health Nurs 2021 Jun 8;30(3):747-758. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Health, Federation University Australia, Berwick, Victoria, Australia.

Study tools examining psychological distress, fear of COVID-19 and coping amongst migrants and non-migrants in Australia are very limited. The aim of this research was to assess the psychometric properties and correlation of the English version of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCSV-19S), and Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) tools during the COVID-19 pandemic situation in Australia. Data from a cross-sectional survey (n = 516) were utilized to examine reliability; 299 (57.9%) were migrants. High internal consistency, as evidenced by Cronbach's alpha, was found for the K-10 (0.92), FCV-19S (0.87) and BRCS (0.66) tools. The corresponding values for migrants and non-migrants were (0.92, 0.87, 0.67) and (0.92, 0.86, 0.63), respectively. Item-total correlations ranged 0.57-0.78 for K-10, 0.62-0.69 for FCV-19S, and 0.39-0.50 for BRCS tools. EFA retained a single factor for each tool with adequate factor loadings. The scoring of K-10 was significantly predicted by the scoring of FCV-19S (r = 0.284, P < 0.001) and BRCS tool (r = 0.132, P < 0.01). Therefore, these tools can be used reliably amongst both migrant and non-migrant population in Australia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/inm.12845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8013171PMC
June 2021

Identifying tobacco retailers in the absence of a licensing system: lessons from Australia.

Tob Control 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Rural Department of Community Health, La Trobe Rural Health School, Flora Hill, Victoria, Australia.

Objectives: To estimate the proportion of retailers that sell tobacco in the absence of appropriate local government oversight, and to describe the characteristics by which they differ from those that can expect to receive such oversight.

Methods: A database of listed tobacco retailers was obtained from a regional Victorian local government. Potential unlisted tobacco retailers were added using online searches, and attempts to visit all retailers were undertaken. GPS coordinates and sales type information of retailers that sold tobacco were recorded and attached to neighbourhood-level data on socioeconomic disadvantage and smoking prevalence using ArcMap. Logistic regression analyses, χ tests and t-tests were undertaken to explore differences in numbers of listed and unlisted retailers by business and neighbourhood-level characteristics.

Results: Of 125 confirmed tobacco retailers, 43.2% were trading potentially without government oversight. Significant differences were found between listed and unlisted retailers by primary business type (p<0.001), and sales type (p<0.001) but not by the other characteristics.

Conclusions: The database of tobacco retailers was inaccurate in two ways: (1) a number of listed retailers no longer operated or sold tobacco, and (2) 43.2% of businesses confirmed as selling tobacco were missing. As no form of licensing system exists in Victoria, it is difficult to identify the number of retailers operating, or to determine how many receive formal regulatory oversight. A positive licensing system is recommended to regulate the sale of tobacco and to generate a comprehensive database of retailers, similar to that which exists for food registration, gaming and liquor-licensed premises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-055977DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence of and factors associated with anaemia in women of reproductive age in Bangladesh, Maldives and Nepal: Evidence from nationally-representative survey data.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(1):e0245335. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Anaemia is a significant public health problem in most South-Asian countries, causing increased maternal and child mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with anaemia in women of reproductive age in Bangladesh, Maldives, and Nepal.

Methods: We used the nationally-representative Demographic and Health Surveys Program data collected from women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in 2011 in Bangladesh (n = 5678), 2016 in Maldives (n = 6837), and 2016 in Nepal (n = 6419). Anaemia was categorized as mild (haemoglobin [Hb] of 10.0-10.9 g/dL for pregnant women and 11.0-11.9 g/dL for non-pregnant women), moderate (Hb of 7.0-9.9 g/dL for pregnant women and 8.0-10.9 g/dL for non-pregnant women), and severe (Hb <7.0 g/dL for pregnant women and <8.0 g/dL for non-pregnant women). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with anaemia.

Results: The prevalence of anaemia was 41.8% in Bangladesh, 58.5% in Maldives, and 40.6% in Nepal. In Bangladesh, postpartum amenorrhoeic, non-educated, and pregnant women were more likely to have moderate/severe anaemia compared to women who were menopausal, had secondary education, and were not pregnant, respectively. In Maldives, residence in urban areas, underweight, having undergone female sterilization, current pregnancy, and menstruation in the last six weeks were associated with increased odds of moderate/severe anaemia. In Nepal, factors associated with increased odds of moderate/severe anaemia were having undergone female sterilization and current pregnancy.

Conclusion: Anaemia remains a significant public health issue among 15-49-year-old women in Bangladesh, Maldives, and Nepal, which requires urgent attention. Effective policies and programmes for the control and prevention of anaemia should take into account the unique factors associated with anaemia identified in each country. In all three countries, strategies for the prevention and control of anaemia should particularly focus on women who are pregnant, underweight, or have undergone sterilization.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245335PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790421PMC
June 2021

Global impact of tobacco control policies on smokeless tobacco use: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 12 24;10(12):e042860. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK.

Introduction: Smokeless tobacco (ST) was consumed by 356 million people globally in 2017. Recent evidence shows that ST consumption is responsible for an estimated 652 494 all-cause deaths across the globe annually. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was negotiated in 2003 and ratified in 2005 to implement effective tobacco control measures. While the policy measures enacted through various tobacco control laws have been effective in reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking, the impact of ST-related policies (within WHO FCTC and beyond) on ST use is under-researched and not collated.

Methods And Analysis: A systematic review will be conducted to collate all available ST-related policies implemented across various countries and assess their impact on ST use. The following databases will be searched: Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, EconLit, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), African Index Medicus, LILACS, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region, Western Pacific Region Index Medicus and WHO Library Database, as well as Google search engine and country-specific government websites. All ST-related policy documents (FCTC and non-FCTC) will be included. Results will be limited to literature published since 2005 in English and regional languages (Bengali, Hindi and Urdu). Two reviewers will independently employ two-stage screening to determine inclusion. The Effective Public Health Practice Project's 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies' will be used to record ratings of quality and risk of bias among studies selected for inclusion. Data will be extracted using a standardised form. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis will be used.

Ethics And Dissemination: Permission for ethics exemption of the review was obtained from the Centre for Chronic Disease Control's Institutional Ethics Committee, India (CCDC_IEC_06_2020; dated 16 April 2020). The results will be disseminated through publications in a peer-reviewed journal and will be presented in national and international conferences.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020191946.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768955PMC
December 2020

Pre-existing COPD is associated with an increased risk of mortality and severity in COVID-19: a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2021 05 7;15(5):705-716. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate COVID-19 mortality and severity among patients with pre-existing COPD.: We performed systematic searches in Ovid Medline, Embase via Ovid, PubMed, and Scopus from 15 December 2019 to 7 July 2020. Studies which reported the association and presented data on risk estimate (Hazard Ratio [HR]) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were extracted. A random-effects model was used to obtain the pooled estimates, and a pooled Risk Ratio (RR) was calculated. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.: Our meta-analysis showed an increased likelihood of mortality in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing COPD (RR 3.18, 95% CI 2.11-4.80, HR 1.90, 95%CI 1.11-3.26). Furthermore, the pooled estimate for the association between pre-existing COPD and severity due to COVID-19 was also significant (RR 3.63, 95%CI 2.48-5.31). Males had an increased risk of mortality (RR 1.20, 95%CI 1.12-1.29) compared to females.: We found that patients with pre-existing COPD had more than 3 times higher risk of mortality and severe COVID-19. There is a need to identify patients with pre-existing COPD during the pandemic so that early interventions can be aimed at this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2021.1866547DOI Listing
May 2021

Stress of Conscience Questionnaire (SCQ): exploring dimensionality and psychometric properties at a tertiary hospital in Australia.

BMC Psychol 2020 Oct 20;8(1):109. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

College of Science, Health and Engineering, School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: This study explored the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the Stress of Conscience Questionnaire (SCQ) in a sample of health professionals from a tertiary-level Australian hospital. The SCQ, a measure of stress of conscience, is a recently developed nine-item instrument for assessing frequently encountered stressful situations in health care, and the degree to which they trouble the conscience of health professionals. This is relevant because stress of conscience has been associated with negative experiences such as job strain and/or burnout. The validity of SCQ has not been explored beyond Scandinavian contexts.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 253 health professionals was undertaken in 2015. The analysis involved estimates of reliability, variability and dimensionality. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to explore dimensionality and theoretical model fit respectively.

Results: Cronbach's alpha of 0.84 showed internal consistency reliability. All individual items of the SCQ (N = 9) met the cut-off criteria for item-total correlations (> 0.3) indicating acceptable homogeneity. Adequate variability was confirmed for most of the items, with some items indicating floor or ceiling effects. EFA retained a single latent factor with adequate factor loadings for a unidimensional structure. When the two-factor model was compared to the one-factor model, the latter achieved better goodness of fit supporting a one-factor model for the SCQ.

Conclusion: The SCQ, as a unidimensional measure of stress of conscience, achieved adequate reliability and variability in this study. Due to unidimensionality of the tool, summation of a total score can be a meaningful way forward to summarise and communicate results from future studies, enabling international comparisons. However, further exploration of the questionnaire in other cultures and clinical settings is recommended to explore the stability of the latent one-factor structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00477-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576718PMC
October 2020

Factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia.

Global Health 2020 10 8;16(1):95. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

School of Health, Federation University Australia, 100 Clyde Road, Berwick, Victoria, 3806, Australia.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the personal, professional and social life of Australians with some people more impacted than others.

Objectives: This study aimed to identify factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia.

Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among residents in Australia, including patients, frontline health and other essential service workers, and community members during June 2020. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10); level of fear was assessed using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S); and coping strategies were assessed using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the extent of psychological distress, level of fear and coping strategies while adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: Among 587 participants, the majority (391, 73.2%) were 30-59 years old and female (363, 61.8%). More than half (349, 59.5%) were born outside Australia and two-third (418, 71.5%) completed at least a Bachelor's degree. The majority (401, 71.5%) had a source of income, 243 (42.3%) self-identified as a frontline worker, and 335 (58.9%) reported financial impact due to COVID-19. Comorbidities such as pre-existing mental health conditions (AOR 3.13, 95% CIs 1.12-8.75), increased smoking (8.66, 1.08-69.1) and alcohol drinking (2.39, 1.05-5.47) over the last four weeks, high levels of fear (2.93, 1.83-4.67) and being female (1.74, 1.15-2.65) were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived distress due to change of employment status (4.14, 1.39-12.4), alcohol drinking (3.64, 1.54-8.58), providing care to known or suspected cases (3.64, 1.54-8.58), being female (1.56, 1.00-2.45), being 30-59 years old (2.29, 1.21-4.35) and having medium to high levels of psychological distress (2.90, 1.82-5.62) were associated with a higher level of fear; while healthcare service use in the last four weeks was associated with medium to high resilience.

Conclusions: This study identified individuals who were at higher risk of distress and fear during the COVID-19 pandemic specifically in the State of Victoria, Australia. Specific interventions to support the mental wellbeing of these individuals should be considered in addition to the existing resources within primary healthcare settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00624-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542573PMC
October 2020

Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i125-i153. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia.

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571362PMC
October 2020

Wearable activity trackers and health awareness: Nursing implications.

Int J Nurs Sci 2020 Apr 25;7(2):179-183. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

School of Nursing and Healthcare Professions, Federation University, Australia.

Purpose: Wearable devices are commonly used to measure physical activity. However, it remains unclear the effect of wearing these devices on health awareness. Our aim was to provide evidence related to wearing physical activity trackers and health awareness.

Methods: A quantitative comparison study design was used comparing participants who wore physical activity tracking devices ( = 108) and those who did not ( = 112). A paper-based Physical Health Knowledge survey designed for the purpose of this research was used for data collection in 2018.

Results: A difference between participants who wore physical activity tracking devices and those that did not was identified in relation to activity levels and physical health awareness. Wearable devices are suggested as an opportunity for nurses to engage people in physical activity with the potential to improve their health awareness.

Conclusions: Nurses are well placed in the healthcare landscape to work with patients who own an activity tracker device concerning increasing activity self-monitoring. This information the patient has from the device can also form the basis of health discussions between nurses and the people in their care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2020.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355185PMC
April 2020

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and endotracheal intubation decisions for adults with advance care directive and resuscitation plans in the emergency department.

Australas Emerg Care 2020 Dec 11;23(4):247-251. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, St Kilda Road, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Intensive Care, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Emergency departments routinely offer cardiopulmonary resuscitation and endotracheal intubation to patients in resuscitative states. With increasing longevity and prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia, there has been growing need to uptake and implement advance care directives and resuscitation plans. This study investigates the frequency of the presence of advance care directives and resuscitation plans and its utilisation in cardiopulmonary and endotracheal intubation decision making.

Methods: Retrospective audit of electronic patients' medical records aged ≥65 years presenting over a 3-month period. Data collected included demographics, triage categories, advance care directive and/or resuscitation plans/orders status.

Results: A total of 6439 patients were included representing 29% of the total patient population during the study period. Participants were randomly selected (N = 300); mean age was 78.7 (±8.1) years. An advance care directive was present in only 8% and one in three patients (37%) had a previous resuscitation plan/order. Senior consultant was present at the department for consultation by junior doctors for most of the patients (82%). Acknowledgment of either advance care directive or resuscitation plans/orders in clinical notes was only 9.5% (n = 116).

Conclusion: Advance care directive prevalence was low with resuscitation plans/orders being more common. However, clinician acknowledgement was infrequent for both.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.auec.2020.05.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Levels of support for the licensing of tobacco retailers in Australia: findings from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2004-2016.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 24;20(1):773. Epub 2020 May 24.

Rural Department of Community Health, La Trobe Rural Health School, La Trobe University, P.O Box 199, Bendigo, VIC, 3552, Australia.

Background: Assessing public opinion towards tobacco policies is important, particularly when determining the possible direction of future public health policies. The aim of this study was to describe the implementation of tobacco retailer licensing systems by state and territory governments in Australia, and to use the National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) to assess levels of public support for a retailer licensing system in each jurisdiction over time and by a range of socio-demographic and behavioural attributes.

Methods: National and state/territory estimates of public support for a tobacco retailer licensing system were derived as proportions using NDSHS data from 2004 to 2016. The effect of one's jurisdiction of residence on the likelihood of supporting such an initiative in 2016 was assessed using logistic regression while controlling for various socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics.

Results: Public support for a tobacco retailer licensing system ranged from a high of 67.2% (95% CI 66.5-67.9%) nationally in 2007 and declined to 59.5% (95% CI 58.9-60.2%) in 2016. In 2016, support was greatest amongst those from Tasmania, those aged 50 years and older, females, those from the least disadvantaged areas, those living in major cities, never-smokers and never-drinkers. After adjusting for the socio-demographic and behavioural attributes of respondents, those from Queensland were significantly less likely to support a licensing system (adjusted OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.94) compared to those from other jurisdictions, while those from Tasmania were significantly more likely to support a licensing system compared to those from other jurisdictions (adjusted OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.52).

Conclusions: A clear majority of the public support a tobacco retailer licensing system, regardless of whether or not such a system is already in place in their jurisdiction of residence. Tobacco control initiatives other than a retailer licensing system may explain some of the residual variations in support observed between jurisdictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08920-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247215PMC
May 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences - Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences - Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

A Scoping Review of Intravenous Opioid Pain Protocols and Their Dose-Time Intervals in the Management of Acute Postoperative Pain in the Postanesthesia Care Unit.

J Perianesth Nurs 2020 Aug 12;35(4):374-381. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia; School of Nursing and Healthcare Professions, Federation University, Berwick, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: This review aims to explore intravenous opioid pain protocols and their dose-time intervals in managing acute postoperative pain in adults in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU).

Design: A scoping review using a systematic search strategy.

Methods: Sixteen articles were identified from MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane specific to the aims.

Findings: The literature demonstrated several variations on dose-time intervals used for opioid pain protocol administration globally. Furthermore, opioid analgesic pain protocols in the PACU appear to be effective in postoperative pain management. However, the literature did not identify optimal time intervals related to dose administration within these protocols.

Conclusions: Literature gaps were identified regarding the significance of dose-time intervals when using opioid analgesic pain protocols in the PACU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jopan.2019.12.002DOI Listing
August 2020

Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 8;26(Supp 1):i12-i26. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

School of Public Health, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

Methods: Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

Results: For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

Conclusions: The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571356PMC
October 2020

Organophosphate exposure and the chronic effects on farmers: a narrative review.

Rural Remote Health 2020 01 6;20(1):4508. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

National Centre for Farmer Health, Deakin University, Western District Health Service, Hamilton, Victoria 3300, Australia

Introduction: Organophosphates are a class of insecticides used globally by the agricultural industry for insect control. Acute consequences of organophosphate exposures are well known, while there has been limited research on their long-term effects. The objective of this review was to discuss the health effects of chronic organophosphate exposure in farmers.

Methods: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science were searched to find the relevant articles. Articles published only in English and until December 2018 were reviewed. The selected articles were then categorised as neurological (neurobehaviour, neurodevelopmental, neurological signs and symptoms) or non-neurological subheadings.

Results: A total of 53 articles for neurological effects and 17 articles for non-neurological effects were identified. Chronic organophosphates exposure was associated with deficits in the neurobehaviour subsets of attention and short-term memory, increased incidence of neurodegenerative diseases and effects on peripheral nerves and neurodevelopment. However, research to support non-neurological effects such as respiratory symptoms, increased cancer risk, endocrine disruption, cardiac issues, chronic fatigue and infertility was limited.

Conclusion: Chronic organophosphate exposure was found to affect four of the five areas of described neurological effects in the literature. A large proportion of the research in this area was not methodologically strong, therefore few recommendations can be conclusively made. Future research is warranted to investigate the non-neurological effects of chronic exposure to ensure the occupational risks of low-level chronic exposure are clearly communicated to farmers and farm workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22605/RRH4508DOI Listing
January 2020

Association between height and hypertension in the adult Nepalese population: Findings from a nationally representative survey.

Health Sci Rep 2019 Dec 7;2(12):e141. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Centre of Excellence for Non-Communicable Diseases and Nutrition, BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health BRAC University Dhaka Bangladesh.

Background And Aims: The burden of hypertension is increasing in Nepal. Different studies have evaluated the relationship between height and blood pressure in different regions, with mixed results. The relationship between height and hypertension has not yet been explored in the Nepalese context. Given this knowledge gap, this study aims to determine the relationship between height and hypertension among Nepalese adults (aged ≥18 years).

Methods: This study utilized the dataset from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2016. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. Height, measured in centimeters (cm), was analyzed as a continuous variable. Based on previous evidence, the following covariates were considered: age, sex, presence of overweight or obesity, educational status, household wealth status, and place, province, and ecological zone of residence. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was done to evaluate the association between height and hypertension. Both crude odds ratio (COR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) are reported, along with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Sample weight of NDHS was adjusted during analysis.

Results: Among 13 393 weighted individuals over the age of 18 years, the prevalence of hypertension in Nepal was found to be 21.1% (95% CI, 19.9%-22.4%). In the final multivariable model, after adjusting for relevant covariates, it was found that height was inversely associated with hypertension. For a Nepalese adult, the odds of hypertension decreased by 10% with each 10-cm increase in height (AOR 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9;  = 0.003).

Conclusion: Awareness should be raised among people with low stature for prevention of hypertension. Longitudinal studies are recommended to include genetic and social/environmental determinants of stature in the analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920697PMC
December 2019

Temporal Dynamics in Rumen Bacterial Community Composition of Finishing Steers during an Adaptation Period of Three Months.

Microorganisms 2019 Oct 1;7(10). Epub 2019 Oct 1.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

The objective of this study was to explore whether collecting rumen samples of finishing steers at monthly intervals differed, and whether this difference or similarity varied with diets. For these purposes, 12 Chinese Holstein steers were equally divided into two groups. The dietary treatments were either standard energy and standard protein (C) or low energy and low protein (L). Rumen samples were obtained on day 30, day 60 and day 90 from both dietary treatments and were analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that monthly intervals had no effect on the richness and evenness of the rumen bacterial community in the two diets. However, taxonomic difference analysis (relative abundance >0.5%) revealed that the relative abundance of three phyla (, and ) and six genera (, , , , and ) were significantly different between monthly sampling intervals, and the difference was prominent between sampling in the first month and the subsequent two months. Moreover, the differences in abundances of phyla and genera between monthly sampling intervals were affected by diets. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) showed no significant differences between monthly sampling intervals in the C diet. However, ANOSIM results revealed that significant differences between the first month and second month and between the first month and third month were present in the L diet. These results indicated that temporal dynamics in rumen bacterial community composition did occur even after an adaptation period of three months. This study tracked the changes in rumen bacterial populations of finishing cattle after a shift in diet with the passage of time. This study may provide insight into bacterial adaptation time to dietary transition in finishing steers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6843415PMC
October 2019
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