Publications by authors named "Muhammad Ali"

1,265 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Leveraging large multi-center cohorts of Alzheimer disease endophenotypes to understand the role of Klotho heterozygosity on disease risk.

PLoS One 2022 26;17(5):e0267298. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Two genetic variants in strong linkage disequilibrium (rs9536314 and rs9527025) in the Klotho (KL) gene, encoding a transmembrane protein, implicated in longevity and associated with brain resilience during normal aging, were recently shown to be associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) risk in cognitively normal participants who are APOE ε4 carriers. Specifically, the participants heterozygous for this variant (KL-SVHET+) showed lower risk of developing AD. Furthermore, a neuroprotective effect of KL-VSHET+ has been suggested against amyloid burden for cognitively normal participants, potentially mediated via the regulation of redox pathways. However, inconsistent associations and a smaller sample size of existing studies pose significant hurdles in drawing definitive conclusions. Here, we performed a well-powered association analysis between KL-VSHET+ and five different AD endophenotypes; brain amyloidosis measured by positron emission tomography (PET) scans (n = 5,541) or cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 levels (CSF; n = 5,093), as well as biomarkers associated with tau pathology: the CSF Tau (n = 5,127), phosphorylated Tau (pTau181; n = 4,778) and inflammation: CSF soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2; n = 2,123) levels. Our results found nominally significant associations of KL-VSHET+ status with biomarkers for brain amyloidosis (e.g., CSF Aβ positivity; odds ratio [OR] = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.55-0.78], β = 0.72, p = 0.007) and tau pathology (e.g., biomarker positivity for CSF Tau; OR = 0.39 [95% CI, 0.19-0.77], β = -0.94, p = 0.007, and pTau; OR = 0.50 [95% CI, 0.27-0.96], β = -0.68, p = 0.04) in cognitively normal participants, 60-80 years old, who are APOE e4-carriers. Our work supports previous findings, suggesting that the KL-VSHET+ on an APOE ε4 genotype background may modulate Aβ and tau pathology, thereby lowering the intensity of neurodegeneration and incidence of cognitive decline in older controls susceptible to AD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0267298PLOS
May 2022

Genotoxic assessment of cerium and magnesium nanoparticles and their ionic forms in Eisenia hortensis coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay.

Microsc Res Tech 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.

The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of cerium oxide (CeO ), magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and their ionic forms by alkaline comet assay. Eisenia hortensis were exposed to different series of concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/ml) of chemicals for 48 h to find LC . The LC for MgO and CeO NPs were 70 and 80 μg/ml. Whereas, the LC for their ionic forms were 50 and 70 μg/ml. To assess the potential DNA damage caused by the chosen chemicals, E. hortensis was further exposed for 48 h to the following concentrations, based on their respective LC : LC , LC , and 2xLC . Comet scores demonstrated the significant increase (p < 0.05) in DNA damage at all concentrations, both for NPs and ionic forms in a concentration-dependent manner. Findings of the present study revealed the genotoxic effects of CeO NPs, MgO NPs and their ionic forms on E. hortensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.24168DOI Listing
May 2022

An Empirical Investigation of Virtual Networking Sites Discontinuance Intention: Stimuli Organism Response-Based Implication of User Negative Disconfirmation.

Front Psychol 2022 6;13:862568. Epub 2022 May 6.

College of Economy and Management, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

The study's prime objective is to investigate the user discontinuance intention in the shed of the negative disconfirmation of user expectation. The study has derived the theoretical structure from the expectancy disconfirmation theory (EDT) enacted through the stimuli organism response (SOR) framework to study the actual cause and effect relationship of human behavioral response. To investigate the user discontinuance intention behavioral response, a total of 434 correct and complete answers were shortlisted for analysis. To examine the data set, the study has used the modern partial least square method technique or simply SmartPLS service package to run the structural equation modeling (SEM). Moreover, the study has implied the 80/20 rule run the mediating analysis of the SOR framework. The statistical results show that all three stimuli make significant positive disconfirmation of the user beliefs in terms of dissatisfaction and the anxiety that ultimately leads to the discontinuance intention in virtual network users. Further, these results are validated through the six mediating relationships, which partially mediate the relationship between the stimuli and response. Besides all these findings, this study has made some practical and realistic theoretical and practical implications for both researchers and service-providing managers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.862568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9121128PMC
May 2022

Incorporation of engineered nanoparticles of biochar and fly ash against bacterial leaf spot of pepper.

Sci Rep 2022 May 20;12(1):8561. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan.

In agriculture, the search for higher net profit is the main challenge in the economy of the producers and nano biochar attracts increasing interest in recent years due to its unique environmental behavior and increasing the productivity of plants by inducing resistance against phytopathogens. The effect of rice straw biochar and fly ash nanoparticles (RSBNPs and FNPs, respectively) in combination with compost soil on bacterial leaf spot of pepper caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The application of nanoparticles as soil amendment significantly improved the chili pepper plant growth. However, RSBNPs were more effective in enhancing the above and belowground plant biomass production. Moreover, both RSBNPs and FNPs, significantly reduced (30.5 and 22.5%, respectively), while RSBNPs had shown in vitro growth inhibition of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria by more than 50%. The X-ray diffractometry of RSBNPs and FNPs highlighted the unique composition of nano forms which possibly contributed in enhancing the plant defence against invading X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. Based on our findings, it is suggested that biochar and fly ash nanoparticles can be used for reclaiming the problem soil and enhance crop productivity depending upon the nature of the soil and the pathosystem under investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10795-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9123008PMC
May 2022

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is obligatory for late pollen and early fruit development in tomato.

Hortic Res 2022 14;9:uhac048. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signal transduction modules regulating vegetative and reproductive development of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms of the gene in tomato pollen and fruit development remain elusive. is preferentially and highly expressed in tomato stamens and its mRNA levels increase during early flower development, peaking at the mature pollen stage. Either up- or downregulation of expression had no significant effect on tomato vegetative growth. However, RNAi-mediated suppression of caused defects in pollen development, resulting in pollen abortion. The aborted pollen grains were either malformed or collapsed and completely lacked viability, resulting in a predominantly reduced fruit set rate in RNAi lines compared with control and overexpressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, seed development was inhibited in RNAi lines. Moreover, >12% of emasculated RNAi flowers developed seedless fruits without pollination. Anthers can produce typical microspore mother cells as well as uninucleate microspores, according to cytological investigations, while binucleate pollen ceased to produce typical mature pollen. Pollen abortion was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis at the binucleate stage in RNAi plants. The exine layer in aberrant pollen had a normal structure, while the intine layer appeared thicker. Suppression of affects the transcript level of genes related to cell wall formation and modification, cell signal transduction, and metabolic and biosynthetic processes. A subset of genes that may be putative substrates of plant MAPKs were also differentially changed in RNAi transgenic flowers. Taken together, these results suggest that plays a critical role in regulating pollen development and fruit development in tomato plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hr/uhac048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9113226PMC
March 2022

A Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Trial of Clazakizumab for the Treatment of COVID-19 Pneumonia With Hyperinflammation.

Crit Care Med 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Objectives: We designed this study to test whether clazakizumab, a direct interleukin-6 inhibitor, benefits patients hospitalized with severe or critical COVID-19 disease accompanied by hyperinflammation.

Design: Multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, seamless phase II/III trial.

Setting: Five U.S. medical centers.

Patients: Adults inpatients with severe COVID-19 disease and hyperinflammation.

Interventions: Eighty-one patients enrolled in phase II, randomized 1:1:1 to low-dose (12.5 mg) or high-dose (25 mg) clazakizumab or placebo. Ninety-seven patients enrolled in phase III, randomized 1:1 to high-dose clazakizumab or placebo.

Measurements And Main Results: The primary outcome was 28-day ventilator-free survival. Secondary outcomes included overall survival ,frequency and duration of intubation, and frequency and duration of ICU admission. Per Data Safety and Monitoring Board recommendations, additional secondary outcomes describing clinical status and status changes, as measured by an ordinal scale, were added. Bayesian cumulative proportional odds, logistic, and Poisson regression models were used. The low-dose arm was dropped when the phase II study suggested superiority of the high-dose arm. We report on 152 patients, 74 randomized to placebo and 78 to high-dose clazakizumab. Patients receiving clazakizumab had greater odds of 28-day ventilator-free survival (odds ratio [OR] = 3.84; p [OR > 1] 99.9%), as well as overall survival at 28 and 60 days (OR = 1.75; p [OR > 1] 86.5% and OR = 2.53; p [OR > 1] 97.7%). Clazakizumab was associated with lower odds of intubation (OR = 0.2; p [OR] < 1; 99.9%) and ICU admission (OR = 0.26; p [OR < 1] 99.6%); shorter durations of ventilation and ICU stay (risk ratio [RR] < 0.75; p [RR < 1] > 99% for both); and greater odds of improved clinical status at 14, 28, and 60 days (OR = 2.32, p [OR > 1] 98.1%; OR = 3.36, p [OR > 1] 99.6%; and OR = 3.52, p [OR > 1] 99.8%, respectively).

Conclusions: Clazakizumab significantly improved 28-day ventilator-free survival, 28- and 60-day overall survival, as well as clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and hyperinflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005591DOI Listing
May 2022

Genetic Origins of the Two Canis lupus familiaris (Dog) Freight Dog Populations.

J Hered 2022 May;113(2):160-170

National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Building 51, Room 5351, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Despite periodic drops in popularity, Arctic sled dogs continue to play a vital role in northern societies, providing both freight transit and recreational race activities. In this study, we selected the Mackenzie River Husky, a freight dog of complex history, and the Chinook, an American Kennel Club recognized freight dog breed whose heritage reportedly overlaps that of the MKRH, for detailed population analysis. We tested each to determine their component breeds and used admixture analysis to ascertain their population structure. We utilized haplotype analysis to identify genomic regions shared between each population and their founding breeds. Our data show that the Alaskan Malamutes and modern Greenland sled dog contributed to both populations, but there are also unexpected contributions from the German Shepherd dog and Collie. We used haplotype analysis to identify genomic regions nearing fixation in population type and identify provocative genes in each region. Finally, in response to recent reports regarding the importance of dietary lipid genes in Arctic dogs, we analyzed 8 such genes in a targeted analysis observing signatures of selection in both populations at the MLXIPL gene loci. These data highlight the genetic routes that breeds of similar function have taken toward their occupation as successful sled dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esac002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9113510PMC
May 2022

Melatonin Rescues Photosynthesis and Triggers Antioxidant Defense Response in Plants Challenged by Low Temperature and High Humidity.

Front Plant Sci 2022 27;13:855900. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Environmental factors such as low temperature (LT) and high humidity (HH) hinder plant growth and development in plastic tunnels and solar greenhouses in the cold season. In this study, we examined the effect of melatonin (MT) on shoot-based tolerance to LT and HH conditions in cucumber () seedlings and explored its underlying mechanism. LT and HH stress inhibited growth and biomass accumulation, produced leaf chlorosis, led to oxidative stress, lowered chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, reduced photosynthetic and photosystem II (PSII) activities, and increased the level of intercellular carbon dioxide and the non-photochemical quenching of photosystem I (PSI) and PSII. However, foliar application of MT significantly improved the morphological indices and photosynthetic efficiency of cucumber seedlings, which entailed the elevation of electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species accumulation by boosting the antioxidant enzyme defense system under LT and HH conditions. Additionally, the measurement of nitrogen (N), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) contents in roots and leaves showed that MT significantly augmented the nutrient uptake of cucumber seedlings exposed to LT and HH stresses. Furthermore, MT application increased the transcripts levels of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes under LT and HH conditions, whereas treatment with LT and HH suppressed these genes, suggesting that MT application increases the LT and HH tolerance of cucumber seedlings. Overall, our results suggest that MT application increases the tolerance of cucumber seedlings to LT and HH stress by enhancing the plant morphometric parameters, regulating PSI and PSII, and activating the antioxidant defense mechanism. Thus, the exogenous application of MT could be potentially employed as a strategy to improve the LT and HH tolerance of cucumber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.855900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9094117PMC
April 2022

On the Application of Vickers Micro Hardness Testing to Isotactic Polypropylene.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Apr 28;14(9). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

School of Computing, Engineering and Intelligent Systems, Ulster University, Londonderry BT48 7JL, UK.

Hardness is a useful measure of a material's resistance to permanent indentation; but for viscoelastic polymers, hardness data are highly dependent on the test type and the parameter set chosen. Vickers microhardness testing is used to leave small indents (<150 µm) and is shown to be applicable to polymers. A detailed investigation of the required steps for microhardness testing in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is provided. Samples should be mounted in epoxy resin in order to maintain curing temperatures at room temperature. Mounted samples can be ground and polished in a semi-automatic polisher using graduated SiC paper (wet grinding) but progressing onto alumina suspension for polishing. Final polishing should be performed with 0.05-µm alumina suspension. The hardness measured was shown to be dependent on load and dwell time with a much greater dependency on dwell time. Strain recovery was shown to be completed after a time period equal to the dwell time. This study shows that indents can be measured thereafter, and it is recommended that they be measured within a 24 h period after the indent was created. After data fitting, the equation for hardness was shown to follow a power law with load and dwell time as the main variables. Fitting parameters were compared to those found in the literature, and it was found that parameters were significantly different to those reported elsewhere. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of calibrating on a case-by-case basis. Finally, to show the usefulness of the Vickers micro-hardness testing method, the calibrated test method was applied on iPP with additions of carbon black up to 3 wt.%. Comparisons were made with data from the literature, but the hardness data generated in our work were found to be at least twice that reported in the literature. The testing parameters were not cited in the literature: specifically, the dwell time was not provided, and this generated doubt on the usefulness of the cited data. Hence, this work is intended to serve as an exemplar of how to prepare and proceed with hardness testing of polymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14091804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9102282PMC
April 2022

Long-term functional independence after minimally invasive endoscopic intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation.

J Neurosurg 2022 May 13:1-11. Epub 2022 May 13.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; and.

Objective: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke with no proven treatment. However, minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation is a promising potential therapeutic option for ICH. Herein, the authors examine factors associated with long-term functional independence (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score ≤ 2) in patients with spontaneous ICH who underwent minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation.

Methods: Patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH who had presented to a large urban healthcare system from December 2015 to October 2018 were triaged to a central hospital for minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation. Inclusion criteria for this study included age ≥ 18 years, hematoma volume ≥ 15 ml, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 6, premorbid mRS score ≤ 3, and time from ictus ≤ 72 hours. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic factors previously shown to impact functional outcome in ICH were included in a retrospective univariate analysis with patients dichotomized into independent (mRS score ≤ 2) and dependent (mRS score ≥ 3) outcome groups, according to 6-month mRS scores. Factors that reached a threshold of p < 0.05 in a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic regression.

Results: A total of 90 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The median preoperative hematoma volume was 41 (IQR 27-65) ml and the median postoperative volume was 1.2 (0.3-7.5) ml, resulting in a median evacuation percentage of 97% (85%-99%). The median hospital length of stay was 17 (IQR 9-25) days, and 8 (9%) patients died within 30 days of surgery. Twenty-four (27%) patients had attained functional independence by 6 months. Factors independently associated with long-term functional independence included lower NIHSS score at presentation (OR per point 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.91, p = 0.002), lack of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH; OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.77, p = 0.02), and shorter time to evacuation (OR per hour 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99, p = 0.007). Specifically, patients who had undergone evacuation within 24 hours of ictus demonstrated an mRS score ≤ 2 rate of 36% and were associated with an increased likelihood of long-term independence (OR 17.7, 95% CI 1.90-164, p = 0.01) as compared to those who had undergone evacuation after 48 hours.

Conclusions: In a single-center minimally invasive endoscopic ICH evacuation cohort, NIHSS score on presentation, lack of IVH, and shorter time to evacuation were independently associated with functional independence at 6 months. Factors associated with functional independence may help to better predict populations suitable for minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation and guide protocols for future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2022.3.JNS22286DOI Listing
May 2022

Unravelling Alkali-Metal-Assisted Domain Distribution of Quasi-2D Perovskites for Cascade Energy Transfer toward Efficient Blue Light-Emitting Diodes.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 May 13:e2200393. Epub 2022 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou, 510640, P. R. China.

Solution processable quasi-2D (Q-2D) perovskite materials are emerging as a promising candidate for blue light source in full-color display applications due to their good color saturation property, high brightness, and spectral tunability. Herein, an efficient energy cascade channel is developed by introducing sodium bromide (NaBr) in phenyl-butylammonium (PBA)-containing mixed-halide Q-2D perovskites for a blue perovskite light-emitting diode (PeLED). The incorporation of alkali metal contributes to the nucleation and growth of Q-2D perovskites into graded distribution of domains with different layer number . The study of excitation dynamics by transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy confirms that NaBr induces more Q-2D perovskite phases with small n number, providing a graded energy cascade pathway to facilitate more efficient energy transfer processes. In addition, the nonradiative recombination within the Q-2D perovskites is significantly suppressed upon Na incorporation, as validated by the trap density estimation. Consequently, the optimized blue PeLEDs manifest a peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 7.0% emitting at 486 nm with a maximum luminance of 1699 cd m . It is anticipated that these findings will improve the understanding of alkali-metal-assisted optimization of Q-2D perovskites and pave the way toward high-performance blue PeLEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202200393DOI Listing
May 2022

Long non-coding RNA transcriptome landscape of anthers at different developmental stages in response to drought stress in tomato.

Genomics 2022 May 10;114(4):110383. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Ministry of Agricultural, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Pollen development is particularly susceptible to drought stress. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to play a role in plant development and responses to drought stress. However, the expression profile and putative function of lncRNAs in drought-induced male sterility remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the lncRNA transcriptome landscape of tomato anthers at early and late stages-tetrad-vacuolated microspore (TED-VUM) and binucleate-mature pollen (BIN-MP) anthers, respectively-in response to drought stress using RNA-sequencing. In total, we identified 67,770 lncRNAs, of which 3053 lncRNAs were drought responsive. Interestingly, there were more differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs in TED-VUM (2879) than in BIN-MP (174) anthers, which was consistent with the TED-VUM anthers being more drought sensitive. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the target genes of DE lncRNAs were significantly enriched in diverse metabolic processes, including in carbohydrate metabolism and hormone synthesis. Co-expression analysis also identified 1407 lncRNAs that strongly co-expressed with 8 target genes that are involved in hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) and carbohydrate (sucrose and starch) metabolisms and tapetum development, highlighting the potential of lncRNA-target-gene modulation of anther development under drought stress. Our results serve as a baseline for future investigations of the potential function of lncRNAs in plant reproductive development under drought stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2022.110383DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of Fluoride on Cytotoxicity Involved in Mitochondrial Dysfunction: A Review of Mechanism.

Front Vet Sci 2022 19;9:850771. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

College of Animal Science, Tibet Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College, Linzhi, China.

Fluoride is commonly found in the soil and water environment and may act as chronic poison. A large amount of fluoride deposition causes serious harm to the ecological environment and human health. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a shared feature of fluorosis, and numerous studies reported this phenomenon in different model systems. More and more evidence shows that the functions of mitochondria play an extremely influential role in the organs and tissues after fluorosis. Fluoride invades into cells and mainly damages mitochondria, resulting in decreased activity of mitochondrial related enzymes, weakening of protein expression, damage of respiratory chain, excessive fission, disturbance of fusion, disorder of calcium regulation, resulting in the decrease of intracellular ATP and the accumulation of Reactive oxygen species. At the same time, the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential leads to the release of Cyt c, causing a series of caspase cascade reactions and resulting in apoptosis. This article mainly reviews the mechanism of cytotoxicity related to mitochondrial dysfunction after fluorosis. A series of mitochondrial dysfunction caused by fluorosis, such as mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial Reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondrial autophagy apoptosis, mitochondrial fusion disturbance, mitochondrial calcium regulation are emphasized, and the mechanism of the effect of fluoride on cytotoxicity related to mitochondrial dysfunction are further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.850771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9062983PMC
April 2022

Success Rate and Complications of the Supraclavicular Approach for Central Venous Access: A Systematic Review.

Cureus 2022 Apr 3;14(4):e23781. Epub 2022 Apr 3.

Internal Medicine, Ibn e Sina Hospital, Kabul, AFG.

Central venous catheterization plays a key role in patients that require immediate resuscitation, long-term fluid management, and invasive monitoring. The supraclavicular (SC) and infraclavicular (IC) approaches are utilized for central venous catheterization and both have their benefits and limitations. In this systematic review, we aim to explore the success rate and various complications of the SC technique. A literature review was conducted on the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases. All relevant original articles that evaluated success rates and complications of SC access were retrieved and included for qualitative synthesis. After screening 1040 articles, 28 studies were included for further analysis. The overall success rate of SC access ranged between 79% and 100%. The overall complication rate in SC access ranged between 0% and 24.24% (Mean: 4.27%). The most prevalent complication was arterial puncture (1.39%) followed by catheter malposition (0.42%). The SC approach can be used as an alternative to the IC technique because of its low access time and high success rate. The SC approach should be more commonly used in day-to-day central venous cannulation. Further studies on the role of ultrasound guidance are warranted for the SC approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.23781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9063609PMC
April 2022

TULP3 NLS inhibition: an study to hamper cargo transport to nucleus.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2022 May 5:1-9. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Central Punjab Lahore, Pakistan.

TULP3 is involved in cell regulation pathways including transcription and signal transduction. In some pathological states like in cancers, increased level of TULP3 has been observed so it can serve as a potential target to hamper the activation of those pathways. We propose a novel idea of inhibiting nuclear localization signal (NLS) to interrupt nuclear translocation of TULP3 so that the downstream activations of pathways are blocked. In current study, 3D structure of TULP3 was modeled using 8 different tools including I-TASSER, CABS-FOLD, Phyre2, PSIPRED, RaptorX, Robetta, Rosetta and Prime by Schrödinger. Best structure was selected after quality evaluation by SAVES and implied for the investigation of NLS sequence. Mapped NLS sequence was further used to dock with natural ligand importin-α as control docking to validate the NLS sequence as binding site. After docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation validation, these residues were used as binding side for subsequent docking studies. 70 alkaloids were selected after intensive literature survey and were virtually docked with NLS sequence where natural ligand importin-α is supposed to be bound. This study demonstrates the virtual inhibition of NLS sequence so that it paves a way for future studies to use NLS as a new drug target for cancer therapeutics.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2022.2070283DOI Listing
May 2022

IRF4 drives clonal evolution and lineage choice in a zebrafish model of T-cell lymphoma.

Nat Commun 2022 May 3;13(1):2420. Epub 2022 May 3.

Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117599, Singapore, Singapore.

IRF4 is a master regulator of immunity and is also frequently overexpressed in mature lymphoid neoplasms. Here, we demonstrate the oncogenicity of IRF4 in vivo, its potential effects on T-cell development and clonal evolution using a zebrafish model. IRF4-transgenic zebrafish develop aggressive tumors with massive infiltration of abnormal lymphocytes that spread to distal organs. Many late-stage tumors are mono- or oligoclonal, and tumor cells can expand in recipient animals after transplantation, demonstrating their malignancy. Mutation of p53 accelerates tumor onset, increases penetrance, and results in tumor heterogeneity. Surprisingly, single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals that the majority of tumor cells are double-negative T-cells, many of which express tcr-γ that became dominant as the tumors progress, whereas double-positive T-cells are largely diminished. Gene expression and epigenetic profiling demonstrates that gata3, mycb, lrrn1, patl1 and psip1 are specifically activated in tumors, while genes responsible for T-cell differentiation including id3 are repressed. IRF4-driven tumors are sensitive to the BRD inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30053-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9065160PMC
May 2022

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Two Hydrogel Formulations Comprising Polyherbal Extract.

J Pain Res 2022 26;15:1203-1219. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Akson College of Pharmacy, Mirpur University of Science & Technology (MUST), Mirpur, AJ&K, Pakistan.

Background: Nature represents a basic source of medicinal scaffolds that can develop into potent drugs used in the treatment of many diseases.

Aim: The present study was planned to evaluate the combined effects of polyherbal methanolic extract of the herbs (fruit of capsicum, bark of cinnamon, rhizome of turmeric and rhizome of ginger) that were individually well known for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, we aimed to develop hydrogel formulation of this polyherbal extract and to characterize and evaluate its analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential.

Materials And Methods: (R.), (L.), (L.), and (J.) polyherbal extract (GCTC) was prepared by maceration and evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential. Then, two different types of hydrogel formulation were prepared. One is pH-based hydrogel in which carbopol-940 was used and the other is temperature-based gel in which methocel-K100 was used as gelling agent. Different concentrations of polyherbal extract (GCTC), at 1%, 3% and 5%, were used in hydrogel formulation. These prepared hydrogel formulations were characterized and evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential.

Results: Results show that polyherbal extract and all the developed formulations of polyherbal extract (GCTC), at concentrations of 1%, 3% and 5%, have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects with good appearance, homogeneity, spreadability, extrudability and stability.

Conclusion: It was concluded from this project that polyherbal extract (GCTC) and its hydrogel have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S351921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9056049PMC
April 2022

Sole and combined effect of foliar zinc and arbuscular mycorrhizae inoculation on basmati rice growth, productivity and grains nutrient.

PLoS One 2022 29;17(4):e0266248. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Mismanagement in foliar fertilizer application at different crop stages decreases the productivity of the crop. Likewise, higher application of phosphorus (P) beyond recommended application rates not only decrease zinc (Zn) uptake in rice but also increase fertilizer use cost. Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMF) may optimize the uptake of P and improve crops production via organic secretions. That's why the current study was conducted to examine the individual and coordinated effects of 0.5% Zn (0.5Zn) foliar spray (tillering (T) and/or panicle (P) initiation stage) and AMF application. Application of foliar 0.5Zn at tillering+panicle stage remained significantly better for significant enhancement in plant height, spike length, gas exchange attributes and total chlorophyll contents than control. A significant decrease in electrolyte leakage Also validated the effectiveness of treatment 0.5ZnT+P compared to control. Compared to control, the maximum increase in N (14.5 and 25.7%), P (42.1 and 33.3%), K (22.2 and 30.0%) and Zn (19.3 and 27.8%) accumulation was also found in 0.5ZnT+P, with and without AMF, respectively. In conclusion, 0.5ZnT+P with AMF is a better approach than sole application of Zn at tillering or panicle initiation stages. Nevertheless, more investigations are suggested at field level under variable climatic zones to confirm the effectiveness of 0.5ZnT+P with AMF for improvement in rice growth and production.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0266248PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9053806PMC
May 2022

In Silico Analysis Identified Putative Pathogenic Missense nsSNPs in Human Gene.

Genes (Basel) 2022 04 11;13(4). Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Gomal Center of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan 29111, Pakistan.

Human DNA contains several variations, which can affect the structure and normal functioning of a protein. These variations could be single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or insertion-deletions (InDels). SNPs, as opposed to InDels, are more commonly present in DNA and may cause genetic disorders. In the current study, several bioinformatic tools were used to prioritize the pathogenic variants in the gene. Out of all of the variants, 16 were commonly predicted to be pathogenic by these tools. All the variants had very low frequency, i.e., <0.0001 in the global population. The secondary structure of all filtered variants was predicted, but no structural change was observed at the site of variation in any variant. Protein stability analysis of these variants was then performed, which determined a decrease in protein stability of 10 of the variants. Amino acid conservation analysis revealed that all the amino acids were highly conserved, indicating their structural and functional importance. Protein 3D structure of wildtype SLITRK1 and all of its variants was predicted using I-TASSER, and the effect of variation on 3D structure of the protein was observed using the Missense3D tool, which presented the probable structural loss in three variants, i.e., Asn529Lys, Leu496Pro and Leu94Phe. The wildtype SLITRK1 protein and these three variants were independently docked with their close interactor protein PTPRD, and remarkable differences were observed in the docking sites of normal and variants, which will ultimately affect the functional activity of the SLITRK1 protein. Previous studies have shown that mutations in are involved in Tourette syndrome. The present study may assist a molecular geneticist in interpreting the variant pathogenicity in research as well as diagnostic setup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13040672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9030497PMC
April 2022

Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of pethoxamid herbicide on Allium cepa cells and its molecular docking studies to unravel genotoxicity mechanism.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Agricultural and Forestry Technology, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Craiova, 13 A.I. Cuza Street, 200585, Craiova, Romania.

Pethoxamid is chloroacetamide herbicide. Pethoxamid is commonly used to kill different weeds in various crops. Pethoxamid can leach in the water and soil and can cause toxic effects to other non-target species. Current study is therefore aimed to perform the investigation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of pethoxamid on Allium cepa cells.The root growth, mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and DNA damage were assessed through root growth inhibition, A. cepa ana-telophase, and alkaline comet assays, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to evaluate binding affinity of pethoxamid on DNA and very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) synthases. In root growth inhibition test, onion root length was statistically significantly decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Concentration- and time-dependent decreases in MI were observed, whereas increase in CAs such as disturbed ana-telophase, chromosome laggards, stickiness, anaphase bridges, and DNA damage was caused by the pethoxamid on A. cepa root cells. Molecular docking revealed that pethoxamid binds selectively to GC-rich regions in the minor groove of the DNA structure and showed remarkable binding affinity against all synthases taking part in the sequential biosynthesis of VLCFAs. It was concluded that the pethoxamid-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity may be through multiple binding ability of this herbicide with DNA and VLCFA synthases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20166-5DOI Listing
April 2022

EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF EARLY NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT AND INTERVENTION IN HOSPITALIZED LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS.

Arq Gastroenterol 2022 Jan-Mar;59(1):22-28

University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Department of Physiology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Background: Malnutrition is common in liver cirrhosis patients that is correlated with early complications, morbidity and mortality.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess nutritional status, impact of nutritional screening and intervention in liver cirrhosis patients by evaluating their actual energy and protein intake during hospital stay.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted wherein all patients' nutritional status was defined by Subjective Global Assessment tool. Adequate energy and protein supply were planned and executed by using individualized nutritional plan for patients with dietitian's collaboration. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body mass index, mid upper arm circumference, hand grip strength and triceps skin-fold thickness. Biochemical tests included haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, volume and concentration, albumin and liver function tests. To record the daily food intake, a 24-hour dietary recall was used.

Results: Overall 83 patients (mean age 55) were included, among them 46% of patients were moderately malnourished, 12% were normal, while 42% of cirrhotic patients were severely depleted according to Subjective Global Assessment. The mean intake of calories and protein was improved during stay in hospital after nutritional intervention and critical monitoring (P<0.05). Anthropometric measurements at baseline and discharge showed significant differences (P <0.05) in weight, body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and mid upper arm circumference values, but not in hand grip strength that was associated with malnourishment among patients.

Conclusion: Providing individualized nutritional intervention and its monitoring by qualified dietitians during hospital stay helps to improve intake in patients that prevent further risk of malnutrition and related complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-2803.202200001-05DOI Listing
April 2022

Morphological study of chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) normal modeling dose of T2 peptide in mice.

Int Urol Nephrol 2022 Jun 19;54(6):1199-1206. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital Affiliated to Yangzhou University, No.98 Nantong West Road, Yangzhou, 225001, Jiangsu Province, China.

Objectives: However, the pathogenesis and etiology of CP/CPPS are still poorly understood. Therefore, there is a need for further research through the Image J software to develop models capable of imitating the pathogenesis and etiology of CP/CPPS with different doses of the pathogenesis and the etiology of CP/CPPS is still poorly understood. The aim was to determine the area of the prostatic interstitium, the localization of the inflammation, and the impact of different doses on the group model.

Materials And Methods: A total of 30 male ICR mice were randomly grouped into 5 (n = 6): 45 μg group = 6, 60  μg group = 6, 90  μg group = 6, 120  μg group = 6, 120  μg group = 6, control group = 6. With the exception of the control group, all the groups were immunized by injecting 0.2 mL of T2 peptide emulsion and immune adjuvant CFA to induce non-bacterial chronic prostatitis on days 0 and 14 of the mice and finally executed on day 28. All injections were administered subcutaneously. HE staining was used to evaluate changes in prostate pathology. Image J was used to calculate the area of the prostate interstitium, which represents the degree of prostate edema. To compare statistical differences between groups, the ANOVA test was used.

Results: From the perspective of pathological scoring, the 60 μg, 90  μg, and 120  μg groups had the highest scores using Image J to treat inflammatory cells. In addition, in the prostate interstitium area treated, it was found that the 90  μg group attained the largest prostate interstitial area as well as the highest degree of swelling.

Conclusions: From the results, Image J software is an effective tool in the calculating the surface of the prostatic interstitium and the specific localization of the inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-022-03185-6DOI Listing
June 2022

AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE GRAFT FOR THE TREATMENT OF LARGE REFRACTORY MACULAR HOLE.

Retina 2022 Apr 11. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Ophtalmology, Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.

Aim: Study off-label human amniotic membrane (hAM) use outcomes for giant refractory macular hole closure.

Materials And Methods: The study was performed at Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, over 52 months on patients who had undergone standard MHs surgical procedures for treatment, but the hole failed to close. Refractory MHs dimensions ranged from 824 µm to 1568 µm. Before surgery, patients underwent slit-lamp examination, fundus photography, and OCT for macular scan. AMG used in surgery was harvested from a human placenta 24 hours prior. Before AMG application, enough internal limiting membrane peeling was done to ensure perfect fitting and recovery. All holes were plugged with AMG and SF6 gas tamponade.

Results: 29 patients, 20 male and 9 female, were included in this study. Mean age of patients was 58±6. Patients had refractory holes of average 1237.48±151.25 µm. Post-op, 100% MH closure was achieved in all patients. Type 1 closure was found in patients (37.93%) who underwent AMG surgery within 3 months after primary surgical failure. Type 2 closure was found in patients (62.07%) who were operated on 3 months after primary surgical failure.

Conclusion: Refractory MHs treated by AMG with SF6 gas tamponade achieve anatomical type 1 closure if performed within 3 months of primary surgical repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000003505DOI Listing
April 2022

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Dry Raw Garlic Stalk Amendment Alleviate Continuous Monocropping Growth and Photosynthetic Declines in Eggplant by Bolstering Its Antioxidant System and Accumulation of Osmolytes and Secondary Metabolites.

Front Plant Sci 2022 31;13:849521. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang, China.

Vegetable production under plastic sheds severely threatens regional eco-sustainability anthropogenic activities (excessive use of agrochemicals, pesticides) and problems associated with replanting. Long-term successive cropping across growing seasons induces continuous cropping stress, whose effects manifest as diminished plant growth. Therefore, it is imperative that we develop environmentally sustainable approaches, such as replacing agrochemicals with vegetable waste like dry raw garlic stalk (DRGS) or use biofertilizers like arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (e.g., ). In this study, the influence of AMF on the growth, biochemical attributes, antioxidant defense system, phytohormones, accumulation of osmolytes, phenols, and mineral elements in eggplant grown on DRGS-amended soils under continuous monocropping (CMC) was studied. The results showed that inoculation with AMF or the DRGS amendment could improve the pigments' content, photosynthesis, and antioxidant defense system; augmented phytohormones synthesis (except for ABA), and increased the leaves' mineral nutrients. These parameters were enhanced most by the combined application of AMF and DRGS, which also increased the concentration of osmolytes, including proline, sugars, and free amino acids in eggplant when compared with the control. Furthermore, either AMF and DRGS alone, or in combination, ameliorated the induced stress from continuous cropping by reducing the incidence of wilt and production of ROS (reactive oxygen species); lipid peroxidation underwent maximal reduction in plants grown under the combined treatments. The AMF, DRGS, and AMF + DRGS exhibited a lower disease severity index (33.46, 36.42, and 43.01%), respectively, over control. Hence, inoculation with AMF coupled with DRGS amendment alters the photosynthetic attributes in eggplant through the upregulation of its antioxidant system and greater accumulation of osmolytes, which led to the improved growth and yield of eggplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.849521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9008779PMC
March 2022

Pomegranate trees quality under drought conditions using potassium silicate, nanosilver, and selenium spray with valorization of peels as fungicide extracts.

Sci Rep 2022 Apr 16;12(1):6363. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Forestry and Wood Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria, 21545, Egypt.

The current study was performed on 8 years old "Succary" pomegranate cultivar (Punica granatum L.) during the 2019 and 2020 seasons. One hundred pomegranate trees were chosen and sprayed three times at the beginning of flowering, full bloom, and 1 month later with the following treatments: water as control, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L Se; 5 mL/L, 7.5 and 10 mL/L Ag NPs, and 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L KSiO. The results showed that spraying of SE, Ag NPs, and KSiO ameliorated the shoot length, diameter, leaf chlorophyll content, set of fruiting percentage, and fruit yield per tree and hectare compared to control through studying seasons. Moreover, they improved the fruit weight, length, and diameter, as well as total soluble solids, total, reduced, and non-reduced sugars percent, while they lessened the juice acidity percentage compared to control. The most obvious results were noticed with Se at 0.1 mg/L, Ag NPs at 10 mL/L, and KSiO and KSiO in both experimental seasons over the other applied treatments. By HPLC analysis, peel extracts showed the presence of several bioactive compounds of catechol, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, pyrogallol, gallic acid, ferulic acid, salicylic acid, cinnamic acid, and ellagic acid. The extracts applied to Melia azedarach wood showed promising antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and were considered wood-biofingicides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10354-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9013366PMC
April 2022

Current Status of Monoclonal Antibodies-Based Therapies in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

Cureus 2022 Mar 7;14(3):e22942. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

Background Multiple patients with prostate cancer become resistant to castration therapies, which is termed castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Purpose The purpose of this review is to assess the status of efficacy (≥50% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS)) and safety (grade 3-4 adverse effects) of monoclonal antibodies in CRPC. Data source We searched databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Results Hazard ratios of PFS and OS were 0.77 (95% CI = 0.69-0.87, I = 53%) and 0.98 (95% CI = 0.86-1.11, I = 40%), respectively, in the favor of monoclonal antibodies as compared to placebo. Risk ratio (RR) of >50% decline in PSA was 1.99 (95% CI = 0.97-4.08, I = 53%) in favor of monoclonal antibodies. Pooled incidence of >50% decline in PSA levels was 15% (95% CI = 0.1-0.23, I = 83%), 29% (95% CI = 0.14-0.51, I = 93%), 63% (95% CI = 0.49-0.76, I = 77%), and 88% (95% CI = 0.81-0.93, I = 0%) in single, two, three, and four-drug regimens, respectively. Conclusion Monoclonal antibodies are well tolerated and showed better PFS as compared to placebo. However, OS was only improved with ipilimumab. Denosumab delayed skeletal-related adverse events as compared to zoledronic acid. More multicenter double-blind clinical trials may be needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.22942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8989703PMC
March 2022

Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles with a Novel Biogenic Process for Dental Application.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Mar 25;12(7). Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

The prevalence of dental caries has been largely consonant over time despite the enhancement in dental technologies. This study aims to produce novel GIC restorative material by incorporating TiO nanoparticles synthesized by for the treatment of dental caries. The TiO nanoparticles were prepared by inoculating a fresh culture of into a nutrient broth for 24 h, which was then characterized by XRD, DRS, FTIR, AFM, SEM, TEM and EDX. These TiO nanoparticles were incorporated in GIC restorative material at different concentrations (0-10% TiO -GIC) and were tested for their mechanical properties in a universal testing machine. The XRD analysis revealed synthesis of anatase and rutile-phased TiO nanoparticles with a particle size of 70.17 nm that was further confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. The EDX spectrum indicated prominent peaks of titanium and oxygen with no impurities in the prepared material. Treatment with 5% TiO -GIC proved to be most effective for the treatment of dental caries with no observable cytotoxic effect. An increase in the compressive strength of TiO nanoparticle-reinforced GIC was observed as the concentration of the TiO nanoparticles was increased up to 5%; subsequently, the compressive strength was lowered. An increase in the flexural strength was observed in GIC containing 0%, 3% and 5% TiO nanoparticles sequentially. Based on the results, it can be concluded that -derived TiO nanoparticles have excellent potential for developing next generation of restorative materials for dental issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12071078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9000351PMC
March 2022

Induce defense response of DADS in eggplants during the biotrophic phase of Verticillium dahliae.

BMC Plant Biol 2022 Apr 5;22(1):172. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Purpose: Verticillium wilt is a destructive vascular disease in eggplants. The complex defensive mechanisms of eggplant against this disease are very limited.

Methods: Our work examined the bioactive properties of garlic allelochemical diallyl disulfide (DADS) as potential biostimulants for defense against V. dahliae in eggplant seedlings. We, therefore, foliar sprayed DADS on eggplants to study the defense response during the early biotrophic phase of V. dahliae (a hemibiotroph).

Results: DADS application significantly increased root peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, and reduced HO levels after 24 h of fungal inoculation. Salicylic acid (SA) in leaves and roots was significantly increased while, the jasmonic acid (JA), indole acetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) levels were decreased. The microscopic examinations of V. dahliae infection in roots displayed that the progression of infection was restricted in DADS-treated plants. Depositions of lignin and phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid content were significantly higher in DADS-treated plants at 48 h post-inoculation. Similarly, the DADS application up-regulated pathogenesis-related (PR1, PR2, and PR5), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK1), and lipoxygenase (LOX) genes. Furthermore, DADS-treated plants exhibited a lower disease severity index (23.3% vs. 57.0% in controls), indicating successful defense against V. dahliae.

Conclusions: Our findings concluded that the biological function of garlic allelochemical DADS has a prominent role in the higher defense resistance of eggplants during the early infection of V. dahliae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-022-03527-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8981950PMC
April 2022

FMD virus spillover from domestic livestock caused outbreak in captive wild ungulates: First report from Pakistan.

Acta Trop 2022 Jul 1;231:106439. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Institute of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

The potential spillover of foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus at the wildlife-livestock interface is mainly responsible for the outbreaks in captive wild ungulates. The current study was planned to investigate an FMD outbreak in the wild ungulate species in the Jallo Wildlife Park and breeding facility, Lahore, Pakistan from Mar 2021- Jun 2021. The disease was confirmed based on ELISA through the detection of antibodies against the non-structural protein of FMD virus and typical clinical signs of oral and feet lesions, and even partial or complete hoof shedding in severe cases. To investigate the possible cause of FMD spillover and its pattern, a series of interviews were conducted with wildlife practitioners, animal handlers, and the local veterinarians in villages adjacent to the park. The data revealed neither vaccination nor any FMD outbreak in the last 10 years. The epidemic curve and time-series analysis showed a mixed outbreak characterized by the introduction of disease and then propagative spread from infected to susceptible animals. After the first reports of clinical signs in Blackbuck, Urial and Mouflon sheep were infected while in the end, the cases were reported from the enclosures of Sambar deer and Spotted deer. The morbidity rate among all the wild ungulate species was 92% and the mean mortality rate was 27%. The study concluded that possible sources for primary disease incidence might be animal handlers having FMD infected animals in their houses and transport vehicles coming from adjacent disease-affected villages. For the disease spread between enclosures, another possibility of wind-borne FMD virus spread could also be considered. This is the first report regarding the FMD outbreak and its spillover pattern in captive wild ungulates in Pakistan. These findings will be helpful in understanding the importance of wildlife livestock interface in FMD transmission and to design effective strategies to control the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2022.106439DOI Listing
July 2022

Assessment of Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, and Oxidative Stress of Dibutyl Phthalate on Cultured Bovine Peripheral Lymphocytes.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 24;2022:9961513. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

Recently, there have been numerous reports showing that phthalates have negative human health impacts and may cause several diseases such as asthma, breast cancer, obesity, type II diabetes, and male infertility. Animals are also exposed to phthalate through the environment and can cause adverse health effects on them. Several studies have been found on the cytogenetic effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on different organisms but no documented evidence has been found on the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on bovine cultured lymphocytes. MTT assay was performed on different series of DBP concentrations (10 M, 20 M, 30 M, 50 M, 70 M, 100 M). A concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed by the DBP. The LD50, LD50/2, and 2∗LD50 were found to be 50 M, 30 M, and 80 M on bovine lymphocytes, respectively. Then, these concentrations of DBP were utilized to perform comet, micronucleus assays, and oxidative stress. A concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage, oxidative stress, and micronuclei formation was observed in lymphocytes by the DBP as compared to the control group. Highest genotoxic effects were observed at a concentration of 2∗LD50. Similarly, total oxidative stress was found higher, and antioxidative stress was lower in concentration-dependent manner by the DBP. The current study revealed a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic, and oxidative stress of DBP on cultured bovine lymphocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9961513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8970799PMC
April 2022
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