Publications by authors named "Muhammad Akhtar"

378 Publications

Spectrum of Electroencephalography Findings in Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy.

Cureus 2021 Jun 26;13(6):e15938. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, The Children's Hospital and The Institute Of Child Health, Lahore, PAK.

Background Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that presents with recurrent seizures associated with erratic brain activity which can be measured through EEG in addition to other neurological investigations. However, EEG may show abnormal patterns and waveforms while the patient is having a seizure which is crucial for making an accurate diagnosis. Objective This study aims to evaluate the spectrum of EEG findings in newly diagnosed epileptic patients as part of a neurological investigation. Material and methods This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Paediatric Neurology, the Children's Hospital, and the Institute of Child Health, Lahore for six months. A sample of 122 patients was enrolled in this study with an age range of >1 month and <18 years, with a diagnosis of epilepsy based upon ≥2 unprovoked seizures that occurred ≥ 24 hours apart. After obtaining informed consent from the patients, a one-time EEG was carried out and details were noted such as type and frequency of the discharge, site of maximum amplitude, paroxysm morphology, and onset and offset (focal/generalized) of the discharges. The data was analyzed using SPSS v.25 (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Armonk, NY). Results The mean age of children enrolled in this study was 5.58 ± 3.46 years. There were 70 (57.4%) males and 52 (42.6%) females. The mean age at the onset of seizures was 4.85 ± 3.16 years. Out of 122 children, focal onset aware epilepsy type was noted in 8 cases, focal onset impaired awareness was noted in 19 cases and generalized onset motor type of epilepsy was noted in 95 cases. Furthermore, EEG findings were normal in 41 (33.61%) patients; however, 81 (66.39%) EEG findings of the patients place them in the abnormal range. On EEG, paroxysm morphology was typical in 78 (96.3%) patients while atypical in 3 (3.7%) patients. Discharge spectrum was generalized in 46 (56.8%) patients, localized in 19 (23.5%) patients, bilateral independent in 1 (1.2%) patient and multifocal in 15 (18.5%) patients. Discharge pattern was periodic in seven (8.6%) cases, rhythmic delta activity was noted in 4 (4.9%) cases, spike and wave pattern was noted in 68 (84.0%) cases and sharp and wave pattern was observed in 36 (44.4%) patients. Conclusion Our study concluded that EEG findings were abnormal in 81 (66.39%) patients. Thus to make the recommendations locally and nationally, we observed that EEG can highlight the abnormal pattern and discharges in newly diagnosed individuals with epilepsy. Our findings could be instrumental to identify the type of EEG discharges in a timely fashion while making diagnoses and treatment plan protocols accordingly. This study finding recommends the early application of EEG after the presentation of epileptic symptoms by the patient. We further recommend that further similar studies be conducted in multiple tertiary care settings to reach a firm and valuable conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.15938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312348PMC
June 2021

Recent updates on immunological, pharmacological, and alternative approaches to combat COVID-19.

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt.

The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is instigated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is mainly transmitted via the inhalation route and characterized by fever, coughing and shortness of breath. COVID-19 affects all age groups with no single cure. The drug discovery, manufacturing, and safety studies require extensive time and sources and, therefore, struggled to match the exponential spread of COVID-19. Yet, various repurposed drugs (antivirals, immune-modulators, nucleotide analogues), and convalescent plasma therapy have been authorized for emergency use against COVID-19 by Food and Drug Administration under certain limits and conditions. The discovery of vaccine is the biggest milestone achieved during the current pandemic era. About nine vaccines were developed for human use with varying claims of efficacy. The rapid emergence of mutations in SARS-CoV-2, suspected adverse drug reactions of current therapies in special population groups and limited availability of drugs in developing countries necessitate the development of more efficacious, safe and cheap drugs/vaccines for treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Keeping in view these limitations, the current review provides an update on the efficacy and safety of the repurposed, and natural drugs to treat COVID-19 as well as the vaccines used for its prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-021-00850-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324454PMC
July 2021

Comparison of characteristics and ventilatory course between coronavirus disease 2019 and middle east respiratory syndrome patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Acute Crit Care 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Both coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, the former is postulated to lead to an atypical ARDS course and characteristics. We directly compare COVID-19 and MERS patients with ARDS to evaluate this issue.

Methods: MERS patients with ARDS seen during the March to May 2014 outbreak and COVID-19 patients with ARDS seen between March and December 2020 in our hospital were included, and their clinical characteristics, ventilatory course, and outcomes were compared.

Results: Among 1,091 confirmed cases, 133 were admitted to the intensive care unit. Forty-nine and 14 patients met the inclusion criteria for ARDS in the COVID-19 and MERS groups, respectively. Both groups had a median of four comorbidities with a high Charlson comorbidity index value of 5 points (P>0.22). COVID-19 patients were older, more obese, with significantly higher initial C-reactive protein (CRP) level and more likely to obtain a trial of high-flow oxygen and delayed intubation (P≤0.04). The postintubation course was similar between the groups. Patients in both groups experienced a prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, and the majority received paralytics, dialysis, and vasopressor agents (P>0.28). The respiratory and ventilatory parameters after intubation (including tidal volume, FiO2, and peak and plateau pressures) and their progression over 3 weeks were similar (P>0.05). Rates of mortality in the intensive care unit (53% vs. 64%) and hospital (59% vs. 64%) among COVID-19 and MERS patients (P≥0.54) were high and reflective of their baseline comorbid status.

Conclusion: Despite some distinctive differences between COVID-19 and MERS patients prior to intubation, the respiratory and ventilatory parameters postintubation were not different. The higher initial CRP level in COVID-19 patients might explain the greater steroid responsiveness in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00388DOI Listing
July 2021

Natural bioactive molecules: An alternative approach to the treatment and control of glioblastoma multiforme.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 19;141:111928. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most deadly malignant tumors, with more than 10,000 cases recorded annually in the United States. Various clinical analyses and studies show that certain chronic diseases, including cancer, interact between cell-reactive radicals rise and pathogenesis. Reactive oxygen and nitrogenous sources include endogenous (physiological processes), and exogenous sources contain reactive oxygen and nitrogen (xenobiotic interaction). The cellular oxidation/reduction shifts to oxidative stress when the regulation mechanisms of antioxidants are surpassed, and this raises the ability to damage cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. OBJECTIVE: This review is focused on how phytochemicals play crucial role against glioblastoma multiforme and to combat these, bioactive molecules and their derivatives are either used alone, in combination with anticancer drugs or as nanomedicine formulations for better cancer theranostics over the conventional approach. CONCLUSION: Bioactive molecules found in seeds, vegetables, and fruits have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties that may help cancer survivors feel better throughout chemotherapy or treatment. However, incorporating them into the nanocarrier-based drug delivery for the treatment of GBMs, which could be a promising therapeutic strategy for this tumor entity, increasing targeting effectiveness, increasing bioavailability, and reducing side effects with this target-specificity, drug internalization into cells is significantly improved, and off-target organ aggregation is reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111928DOI Listing
July 2021

Clitorienolactones and Isoflavonoids of Roots Alleviate Stress-Like Symptoms in a Reserpine-Induced Zebrafish Model.

Molecules 2021 Jul 7;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Natural Medicines and Products Research Laboratory (NaturMeds), Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a brain stimulant to treat mental illnesses and mental functional disorders. In this study, the metabolite profiles of crude root extract (CTRE), ethyl acetate (EA), and 50% aqueous methanol (50% MeOH) fractions were investigated using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS), while their effect on the stress-like behavior of zebrafish, pharmacologically induced with reserpine, was investigated. A total of 32 compounds were putatively identified, among which, a series of norneolignans, clitorienolactones, and various flavonoids (flavone, flavonol, isoflavone, and isoflavanone) was found to comprise the major constituents, particularly in the EA and 50% MeOH fractions. The clitorienolactones, presently unique to the species, were present in both the free and glycosylated forms in the roots. Both the EA and 50% MeOH fractions displayed moderate effects on the stress-induced zebrafish model, significantly decreasing freezing duration and elevating the total distance travelled and average velocity, 72 h post-treatment. The results of the present study provide further evidence that the basis for the use of roots in traditional medicine to alleviate brain-related conditions, such as stress and depression, is attributable to the presence of clitorienolactones and the isoflavonoidal constituents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304078PMC
July 2021

NEU4 inhibits motility of HCC cells by cleaving sialic acids on CD44.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang Provence, China, 150008.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an extremely metastatic tumor. Sialic acids (SAs) are associated with cancer development and metastasis. NEU4 is a sialidase that removes SAs from glycoconjugates, while the function of the NEU4 in HCC has not been clearly explored. In our research, we found the NEU4 expression was significantly down-regulated in HCC tissues, which was correlated with high grades and poor outcomes of HCC. The NEU4 expression could be regulated by histone acetylation. In the functional analysis of NEU4, the cell motility was inhibited when NEU4 was overexpressed, and restored when NEU4 expression was down-regulated. Similarly, NEU4 over-expressed HCC cells showed less metastasis in athymic nude mice. Further study revealed that NEU4 could inhibit cell migration by enzymatic decomposition of SAs. Our results verified a NEU4 active site (NEU4) and overexpressing inactivates NEU4 that weakens the inhibition ability to cell migration. Further, 70 kinds of specific interacting proteins of NEU4 including CD44 were identified through mass spectrum. Moreover, the α2,3-linked SAs on CD44 were decreased and the hyaluronic acid (HA) binding ability was increased when NEU4 over-expressed or activated. Additionally, the mutation of CD44 with six N-glycosylation sites showed less sensibility to NEU4 on cell migration compared with wild-type CD44. In summary, our results revealed the mechanism of low expression of NEU4 in HCC and its inhibitory effect on cell migration by removal of SAs on CD44, which may provide new treatment strategies to control the motility and metastasis of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01955-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Protective effect of Heliotropium strigosum 70% aqueous methanolic extract against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Mar;34(2(Supplementary)):693-698

Cadson College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Khariaan Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of aqueous methanolic extract of Heliotropium strigosum (HSME) against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. The plant powder (1.5Kg) was macerated in aqueous methanol (30:70) for 7 days. The extract was evaluated for the presence of different phytochemicals and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. HSME was orally administered to mice at 125, 250 and 500mg/kg for 8 days followed by paracetamol intoxication (500mg/kg orally) on the 8th day using silymarin as standard control. All the therapy was administered by oral gavage. The liver biochemical parameters and histopathological evaluation were carried out to assess changes in liver function and histology. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of quercetin, kaempferol, and other phenolic compounds. Treatment with the extract resulted in notable (p<0.05) reduction in liver parameters in dose dependent manner. The action of HSME 500mg/kg dose was comparable to silymarin. The effect of HSME against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity was demonstrated by protective changes in the liver histopathological which proved the traditional uses of the plant.
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March 2021

Caecal microbiota could effectively increase chicken growth performance by regulating fat metabolism.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China.

It has been established that gut microbiota influences chicken growth performance and fat metabolism. However, whether gut microbiota affects chicken growth performance by regulating fat metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, seven-week-old chickens with high or low body weight were used in the present study. There were significant differences in body weight, breast and leg muscle indices, and cross-sectional area of muscle cells, suggesting different growth performance. The relative abundance of gut microbiota in the caecal contents at the genus level was compared by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results of LEfSe indicated that high body weight chickens contained Microbacterium and Sphingomonas more abundantly (P < 0.05). In contrast, low body weight chickens contained Slackia more abundantly (P < 0.05). The results of H & E, qPCR, IHC, WB and blood analysis suggested significantly different fat metabolism level in serum, liver, abdominal adipose, breast and leg muscles between high and low body weight chickens. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that fat metabolism positively correlated with the relative abundance of Microbacterium and Sphingomonas while negatively correlated with the abundance of Slackia. Furthermore, faecal microbiota transplantation was performed, which verified that transferring faecal microbiota from adult chickens with high body weight into one-day-old chickens improved growth performance and fat metabolism in liver by remodelling the gut microbiota. Overall, these results suggested that gut microbiota could affect chicken growth performance by regulating fat metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13841DOI Listing
July 2021

How does responsible leadership affect employees' voluntary workplace green behaviors? A multilevel dual process model of voluntary workplace green behaviors.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 9;296:113205. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Business Administration, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang, China. Electronic address:

This study aims to explore how to encourage employees to engage in voluntary workplace green behavior. Drawing upon social identity and social information processing theories, we theorized and tested a multilevel model in which responsible leadership triggers employee voluntary workplace green behavior by fostering organizational identification and a green work climate. Additionally, we distinguished these two critical processes by introducing employees' green values as a moderator. A multilevel, multisource study collected from 299 employees and 71 supervisors generally supported our predictions. Specifically, responsible leadership was a significant predictor of voluntary workplace green behavior. Moreover, employees' green values strengthened the organizational identification mechanism and attenuated the green work climate process in the relationship between responsible leadership and voluntary workplace green behavior. The findings and the theoretical underpinning of our study shed a new light on the green work climate, identity, and values in a responsible way shape the voluntary green behaviors among organizational actors and provide practical implications for leaders determined to improve environmental sustainability in organizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113205DOI Listing
July 2021

Exploration of therapeutic applicability and different signaling mechanism of various phytopharmacological agents for treatment of breast cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 10;139:111584. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, India. Electronic address:

Background: Cancer is one of the most dreaded diseases characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells that occurs due to impairment of cell division and apoptosis process. Cancer is categorized into several types on the basis of affected organs and breast cancer (BC) is the most predominant cause of mortality among women. Although, several synthetic and semi-synthetic therapies have been developed for the treatment of BC but they exhibit numerous serious adverse effects therefore; pharmacological agents with fewer/no side effects need to be explored. Plants and phytoconstituents perhaps fulfill the aforementioned requirement and could serve as a potential and alternative therapy for BC treatment. The ongoing biomedical research, clinical trials and number of patents granted have further boosted the acceptance of the plants and plant-derived constituents in the effective treatment of BC.

Purpose Of Study: Various treatment strategies such as checkpoint inhibitors, targeting micro RNA, apoptotic pathway, BRCA-1 gene, P protein, P13K/Akt/mTOR pathway, notch signaling pathway, hedgehog/gli-1 signaling pathway, poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors etc. are available for BC. In addition to these synthetic and semi-synthetic drug therapies, several natural constituents such as alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids and diterpenoids from medicinal plants, vegetables and fruits are reported to possess promising anti-cancer activity. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the various signaling pathways through which plants/herbs show the anti-cancer potential especially against the BC.

Study Design: The literature for the present study was collected from various databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and aromatic plant abstracts, Web of Science etc. The different patent databases were also reviewed for the anti-cancer (BC) potential of the particular herbs/plants and their formulations.

Result And Conclusion: In this review, we have discussed the number of plants along with their patents of different herbal formulations which are being used for the treatment of BC and other types of cancers. We have also delineated the different signaling mechanisms through which they inhibit the growth of BC cells. In nutshell, we can conclude that large numbers of herbs or their extracts are reported for the treatment of BC. But still, there is further need for research in-depth to translate the use of natural products clinically BC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111584DOI Listing
July 2021

Transtibial Osseointegration for Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease: A Case Series of 6 Patients with Minimum 3-Year Follow-up.

JB JS Open Access 2021 Apr-Jun;6(2). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Norwest Private Hospital, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia.

The management of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) can require amputation. Osseointegration surgery is an emerging rehabilitation strategy for amputees. In this study, we report on 6 patients who had PVD requiring transtibial amputation (PVD-TTA) and either simultaneous or subsequent osseointegration (PVD-TTOI).

Methods: Six patients (aged 36 to 84 years) with transtibial amputation and preexisting PVD underwent osseointegration between 2014 and 2016 and were followed for 3 to 5 years. Pre- and postoperative clinical and functional outcomes (pain, prosthesis wear time, mobility, walking ability, and quality of life) and adverse events (infection, fracture, implant failure, revision surgery, additional amputation, and death) were prospectively recorded.

Results: All patients' mobility improved following osseointegration. Three patients initially had required the use of a wheelchair, precluding baseline walking tests; the other 3 were classified as K level 1 or 2, with mean baseline Timed Up and Go (TUG) test = 14.0 ± 2.2 s and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) = 262 ± 75 m. At the time of the latest follow-up, all patients were K level 2 or 3; mean TUG = 12.7 ± 7.2 s and 6MWT = 353 ± 148 m. Four patients wore their prosthesis ≥16 hours daily. Three patients had superficial soft-tissue infections. One other patient experienced recurrent infections 2.8 years after osseointegration requiring debridements and transfemoral amputation; the patient died 2 days following surgery from myocardial infarction caused by coronary atherosclerosis.

Conclusions: All 6 patients who underwent PVD-TTOI in this case series survived through 2 years. Patients who initially had used a wheelchair achieved and maintained independent, unaided ambulation until PVD-related impairments in the contralateral leg occurred in 1 patient. Patients previously using a traditional socket prosthesis reported improvement in mobility and quality of life. One patient's death underscores the importance of careful patient selection. However, marked improvement in the other 5 patients suggests cautious optimism that PVD-TTA is not an absolute osseointegration contraindication. Conscientious further investigation seems appropriate.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.OA.20.00113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238302PMC
June 2021

Leaves; UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS Based Metabolite Profiling and Molecular Docking Insights to Explore Bioactives Role Towards Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Food Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

The present work was aimed at investigating hydroethanolic leaf extracts of for their antioxidant and pancreatic lipase (PL) enzyme inhibitory properties. The most active extract was selected to profile the phytoconstituents by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS technique. Among the tested extracts, the 80% hydroethanolic extract exhibited the maximum levels of total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC) with a contribution of 201.3 ± 2.6 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract (GAE/g extract), and 116.3 ± 2.4 mg of rutin equivalent per gram of extract (RE/g extract), respectively. The same extract also showed promising 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and PL inhibitory activity with an IC (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 30.5 ± 2.8 µg/mL and 17.31 ± 1.18 μg/mL, respectively. The phytochemical profiling of 80% hydroethanolic extract confirmed the presence of 23 metabolites of immense medicinal significance. Docking studies were conducted to investigate the potential interactions of compounds identified in the study. The docking study-based binding energy data and the interaction scheme both revealed the possible role of the identified compounds towards PL inhibitor. Moreover, energies of frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), ionization potentials (IP), electron affinities (EA) and molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) were also explored. The findings of the current work suggest that is a promising natural source of antioxidant and antiobesity agents, which may be exploited to add pharmacological functionalities to food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10071334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309037PMC
June 2021

COVID-19 Community Transmission among Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Care Cardiac Center.

Med Sci (Basel) 2021 Jun 30;9(3). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Adult Cardiology, Prince Sultan Cardiac Center, Riyadh 12233, Saudi Arabia.

To determine the frequency, mode of transmission, and outcome of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in a tertiary care cardiac center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective study of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected HCWs and was conducted from 2 March to 31 December 2020. Data related to the presence of COVID-19 symptoms, mode of transmission, hospitalization, and mortality were collected from the patients' medical records. Of the 4462 patients tested for COVID-19 by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 203 (4.5%) HCWs were positive; of these, 125 (61.6%) were males, and the most common age group was <40 years. The most commonly encountered health professionals were nurses (74, 36.4%), followed by therapists/technicians (48, 23.6%), housekeepers (25, 12.3%), and physicians (21, 10.4%). The majority (184, 90.6%) of the HCWs contracted COVID-19 in the community, and only 19 (9.4%) were healthcare-associated infections. Of the infected HCWs, 169 (83.3%) had mild symptoms and were managed in home isolation. The most common symptoms were fever (128, 63.1%), body ache (124, 61.8%), headache (113, 55.7%), dry cough (123, 60.6%), sore throat (97, 47.8%), body weakness (97, 47.8%), and fatigue (94, 46.3%). Comparing males and females, there was a significantly higher number of female nurses; in contrast, there was a higher number of male physicians, housekeepers, therapists/technicians, and other specialty HCWs. A significantly lower number of nurses, therapists/technicians were infected in the ≥40 years age group compared to <40 years. Furthermore, a significantly higher difference was observed among non-Saudi nurses compared to Saudi nurses. No mortality was documented among the included HCWs. In the largest tertiary cardiac center in KSA, most HCWs who contracted COVID-19 developed mild symptoms; nurses and those aged <40 years were most commonly infected, and most infections were acquired in the community. HCWs' adherence to mitigation measures outside of the workplace is vital to curb the current pandemic and decrease nosocomial transmission risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medsci9030049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293443PMC
June 2021

Anti-Metastatic and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Curcumin Analog DK1 on Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Jun 3;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Osteosarcoma (OS) is a life-threatening malignant bone tumor associated with poor prognosis among children. The survival rate of the patient is still arguably low even with intensive treatment provided, plus with the inherent side effects from the chemotherapy, which gives more unfavorable outcomes. Hence, the search for potent anti-osteosarcoma agent with promising safety profile is still on going. Natural occurring substance like curcumin has gained a lot of attention due to its splendid safety profile as well as it pharmacological advantages such as anti-metastasis and anti-angiogenesis. However, natural curcumin was widely known for its poor cellular uptake, which undermines all potential that it possesses. This prompted the development of synthetically synthesized curcuminoid analog, known as (Z)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2- en-1-one (DK1). In this present study, in vitro scratch assay, transwell migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, and ex vivo rat aortic ring assays were performed in order to investigate the anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic potential of DK1. For further comprehension of DK1 mechanism on human osteosarcoma cell lines, microarray gene expression analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and proteome profiler were adopted, providing valuable forecast from the expression of important genes and proteins related to metastasis and angiogenesis. Based on the data gathered from the bioassays, DK1 was able to inhibit the metastasis and angiogenesis of human osteosarcoma cell lines by significantly reducing the cell motility, number of migrated and invaded cells as well as the tube formation and micro-vessels sprouting. Additionally, DK1 also has significantly regulated several cancer pathways involved in OS proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis such as PI3K/Akt and NF-κB in both U-2 OS and MG-63. Regulation of PI3K/Akt caused up-regulation of genes related to metastasis inhibition, namely, PTEN, FOXO, PLK3, and GADD45A. Meanwhile, NF-κB pathway was regulated by mitigating the expression of NF-κB activator such as IKBKB and IKBKE in MG-63, whilst up-regulating the expression of NF-κB inhibitors such as NFKBIA and NFKBIE in U-2 OS. Finally, DK1 also has successfully hindered the metastatic and angiogenic capability of OS cell lines by down-regulating the expression of pro-metastatic genes and proteins like MMP3, COL11A1, FGF1, Endoglin, uPA, and IGFBP2 in U-2 OS. Whilst for MG-63, the significantly down-regulated oncogenes were Serpin E1, AKT2, VEGF, uPA, PD-ECGF, and Endoglin. These results suggest that curcumin analog DK1 may serve as a potential new anti-osteosarcoma agent due to its anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic attributes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14060532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228595PMC
June 2021

Bioactive compounds and their libraries: An insight into prospective phytotherapeutics approach for oral mucocutaneous cancers.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 15;141:111809. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Medical Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

Oral mucocutaneous cancers (OMCs) are cancers that affect both the oral mucosa and perioral cutaneous structures. Common OMCs are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). Anatomical similarities and conventions which categorizes these lesions blur the magnitude of OMCs in diverse populations. The burden of OMC is high in the sub-Saharan Africa and Indian subcontinents, and the cost of management is prohibitive in the resource-limited, developing world. Hence, there is a pressing demand for the use of cost-effective in silico approaches to identify diagnostic tools and treatment targets for diseases with high burdens in these regions. Due to their ubiquitousness and accessibility, the use of therapeutic efficacy of plant bioactive compounds in the management of OMC is both appropriate and plausible. Furthermore, screening known mechanistic disease targets with well annotated plant bioactive compound libraries is poised to improve the routine management of OMCs provided that the requisite access to database resources are available and accessible. Using natural products minimizes the side effects and morbidities associated with conventional therapies. The development of innovative treatments approaches would tremendously benefit the African and Indian populace and reduce the mortalities associated with OMCs in the developing world. Hence, we discuss herein, the potential benefits, opportunities and challenges of using bioactive compound libraries in the management of OMCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111809DOI Listing
June 2021

Antiviral activities of flavonoids.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 11;140:111596. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Flavonoids are natural phytochemicals known for their antiviral activity. The flavonoids acts at different stages of viral infection, such as viral entrance, replication and translation of proteins. Viruses cause various diseases such as SARS, Hepatitis, AIDS, Flu, Herpes, etc. These, and many more viral diseases, are prevalent in the world, and some (i.e. SARS-CoV-2) are causing global chaos. Despite much struggle, effective treatments for these viral diseases are not available. The flavonoid class of phytochemicals has a vast number of medicinally active compounds, many of which are studied for their potential antiviral activity against different DNA and RNA viruses. Here, we reviewed many flavonoids that showed antiviral activities in different testing environments such as in vitro, in vivo (mice model) and in silico. Some flavonoids had stronger inhibitory activities, showed no toxicity & the cell proliferation at the tested doses are not affected. Some of the flavonoids used in the in vivo studies also protected the tested mice prophylactically from lethal doses of virus, and effectively prevented viral infection. The glycosides of some of the flavonoids increased the solubility of some flavonoids, and therefore showed increased antiviral activity as compared to the non-glycoside form of that flavonoid. These phytochemicals are active against different disease-causing viruses, and inhibited the viruses by targeting the viral infections at multiple stages. Some of the flavonoids showed more potent antiviral activity than the market available drugs used to treat viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192980PMC
August 2021

Exploring the Role of Intramolecular Interactions in the Suppression of Quantum Tunneling of the Magnetization in a 3d-4f Single-Molecule Magnet.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 14;60(13):9302-9308. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Instituto de Ciencia Molecular (ICMol), Universidad de Valencia, Catedrático José Beltran 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain.

Hydroxide-bridged FeLn clusters having the general formula [FeLn(μ-OH)(mdea)(SCN)(NO)(HO)]·4HO·2MeCN {Ln = Y (), Dy (), mdea = -methyldiethanolamine} were synthesized and magnetically characterized. The thermal relaxation of the magnetization for and the diluted FeDyY complex (with and without applied field) has been analyzed. The diluted sample shows a dominant QTM at low temperatures that can be removed with a 0.15 T field. Both and show moderately high barriers and exhibit hysteresis loops until 5 K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c03682DOI Listing
July 2021

Multiple strategies with the synergistic approach for addressing colorectal cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 31;140:111704. Epub 2021 May 31.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt. Electronic address:

Cancer treatment is improving widely over time, but finding a proper defender to beat them seems like a distant dream. The quest for identification and discovery of drugs with an effective action is still a vital work. The role of a membrane protein called P-glycoprotein, which functions as garbage chute that efflux the waste, xenobiotics, and toxins out of the cancer cells acts as a major reason behind the therapeutic failure of most chemotherapeutic drugs. In this review, we mainly focused on a multiple strategies by employing 5-Fluorouracil, curcumin, and lipids in Nano formulation for the possible treatment of colorectal cancer and its metastasis. Eventually, multidrug resistance and angiogenesis can be altered and it would be helpful in colorectal cancer targeting.We have depicted the possible way for the depletion of colorectal cancer cells without disturbing the normal cells. The concept of focusing on multiple pathways for marking the colorectal cancer cells could help in activating one among the pathways if the other one fails. The activity of the 5-Fluorouracil can be enhanced with the help of curcumin which acts as a chemosensitizer, chemotherapeutic agent, and even for altering the resistance. As we eat to survive, so do the cancer cells. The cancer cells utilize the energy source to stay alive and survive. Fatty acids can be used as the energy source and this concept can be employed for targeting the colorectal cancer cells and also for altering the resistant part.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111704DOI Listing
August 2021

Meat Quality, Fatty Acid Content and NMR Metabolic Profile of Dorper Sheep Supplemented with Bypass Fats.

Foods 2021 May 19;10(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

The supplementation of rumen bypass fat (RBF) has remained one of the preferred approaches used to decrease undesirable saturated fatty acids (FA) and increase beneficial unsaturated FA in the meat. This study was planned to evaluate the influences of rumen bypass fats on meat quality, fatty acid and metabolic profiles in male Dorper sheep ( = 36) with 24.66 ± 0.76 kg (mean ± standard error) initial body weight. Treatment comprised a basal diet (30:70 rice straw to concentrate) with no added RBF as a control (CON), basal diet with prilled fat (PF), basal diet with prilled fat plus lecithin (PFL) and basal diet with calcium soap of palm fatty acids (CaS). The findings revealed that cooking loss, drip loss and shear force in (LD) muscle were not affected by RBF supplementation, while meat pH was significantly higher in the CaS on aging day 1. However, the diet supplemented with prilled fat and lecithin modified the meat's fatty acid profile significantly by increasing unsaturated fatty acids and decreasing saturated fats. The relative quantification of the major differentiating metabolites found in LD muscle of sheep showed that total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, choline, glycerophosphocholine and glycerophospholipids were significantly lower in CaS and PFL diets, while glycerol and sphingomyelin were significantly higher in CaS and PFL diets. Most of the metabolites in the liver did not show any significant difference. Based on our results, the supplementation of protected fats did not have a negative influence on meat quality and the meat from Dorper sheep fed prilled fat with lecithin contained more healthy fatty acids compared to other diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10051133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160904PMC
May 2021

Recovery of Gelatin from Bovine Skin with the Aid of Pepsin and Its Effects on the Characteristics of the Extracted Gelatin.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 12;13(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Pepsin enzyme was used to pretreat the bovine skin at the rate of 5, 15, and 25 units of enzyme/g of skin to recover gelatin, and the recovered gelatins were referred to as Pe5, Pe15, and Pe25, respectively. The gelatin yield increased significantly ( < 0.05) from 18.17% for Pe5 to 24.67% for Pe25 as the level of pepsin increased, but the corresponding gel strength and viscosity decreased significantly ( < 0.05) from 215.49 to 56.06 g and 9.17 to 8.17 mPa·s for Pe5 and Pe25, respectively. β- and α1- and α2-chains were degraded entirely in all the gelatins samples as observed in protein pattern elaborated by gel electrophoresis. H nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR) analysis indicated the coiled structure of gelatin protein chains. The lowest amide III amplitude of Pe25 as found by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that α-helix structure of protein chains were lost to more irregular coiled structure. Thus, it could be summarized that pepsin might be used at the lower level (5 units/g of wet skin) to extract gelatin from bovine skin with good functional properties and at higher level (15/25 units/g of wet skin) to obtain gelatin of industrial grade with high yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13101554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150742PMC
May 2021

Tubulin Beta 2C Chain (TBB2C), a Potential Marker of Ovarian Cancer, an Insight from Ovarian Cancer Proteome Profile.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 13;6(16):10506-10514. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan.

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal among female reproductive system malignancies. Depending upon the stage at presentation, the five year survival ratio varies from ∼92 to ∼30%. The role of biomarkers in early cancer diagnosis, including OC, is well understood. In our previous study, through an initial screening, we have analyzed eleven proteins that exhibited differential expression in OC using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. In continuation of our previous study, the present work describes analysis of twenty more proteins that showed aberrant expression in OC. Among these, six showed consistent significant deregulation in the OC false discovery rate [FDR ≤ 0.05]. Upon MS analysis, they were identified as vimentin, tubulin beta 2C chain, tubulin alpha 1C chain, actin cytoplasmic 2, apolipoprotein A-I, and collagen alpha 2(VI) chain [peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) score ≥ 79]. One of the differentially regulated proteins, tubulin beta 2C chain, was found to be significantly (fold change, 2.5) enhanced in OC. Verification by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated that the tubulin beta 2C chain may serve as a valuable marker for OC (ANOVA < 0.0001). The assessment of the likely association of TBB2C with OC in a larger population will not only help in developing clinically useful biomarkers in the future but also improve our understanding of the progression of OC disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c03262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153795PMC
April 2021

Mechanistic insights and perspectives involved in neuroprotective action of quercetin.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 25;140:111729. Epub 2021 May 25.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are the primary cause of disabilities in the elderly people. Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and apoptosis are associated with aging and the basis of most neurodegenerative disorders. Quercetin is a flavonoid with significant pharmacological effects and promising therapeutic potential. It is widely distributed among plants and typically found in daily diets mainly in fruits and vegetables. It shows a number of biological properties connected to its antioxidant activity. Neuroprotection by quercetin has been reported in many in vitro as well as in in vivo studies. However, the exact mechanism of action is still mystery and similarly there are a number of hypothesis exploring the mechanism of neuroprotection. Quercetin enhances neuronal longevity and neurogenesis by modulating and inhibiting wide number of pathways. This review assesses the food sources of quercetin, its pharmacokinetic profile, structure activity relationship and its pathophysiological role in various NDDs and it also provides a synopsis of the literature exploring the relationship between quercetin and various downstream signalling pathways modulated by quercetin for neuroprotection for eg. nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Paraoxonase-2 (PON2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), Sirtuins, Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signalling cascades, CREB (Cyclic AMP response element binding protein) and Phosphoinositide 3- kinase(PI3K/Akt). Therefore, the aim of the present review was to elaborate on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the quercetin involved in the protection against NDDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111729DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and End-of-Life Care Between COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Muslim Patients During the 2020 Pandemic.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2021 Sep 27;38(9):1159-1164. Epub 2021 May 27.

Consultant 66787King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Jeddah & Staff Physician John D Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA.

Background: Little is known about end-of-life care among Muslim patients, particularly during Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) pandemic, which we report here.

Methods: The clinical characteristics, end-of-life care and resuscitation status of Muslim patients who died in the ICU of our tertiary care hospital in year 2020 from COVID were compared to Non-COVID patients.

Results: There were 32 patients in COVID and 64 in the Non-COVID group. A major proportion, mainly of Non-COVID patients, already had a hospice eligible terminal disease at baseline (p=.002). COVID patients were admitted to the ICU sooner after hospitalization (2.2 vs. 17 days), had prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation (18.5 vs. 6 days) and longer ICU stay (24 vs. 8 days) than non-COVID patients, respectively (p<.001). Almost all patients were "Full Code" initially. However, status was eventually changed to 'do-not-attempt resuscitation' (DNAR) in about 60% of the cohort. COVID patients were made DNAR late in their ICU stay, predominantly in the last 24 hours of life (p=.04). Until the very end, patients in both groups were on tube feeds, underwent blood draws and imaging, required high dose vasopressors, with few limitations or withdrawal of therapies. Family members were usually not present at bedside at time of death. There was minimal involvement of chaplain and palliative care services.

Conclusions: Muslim COVID-19 patients had prolonged mechanical ventilation and ICU stay and a delayed decision to DNAR status than non-COVID Muslim patients. Limitation or withdrawal of therapy occurred infrequently. The utilization of chaplain and palliative care service needs improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10499091211018657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160924PMC
September 2021

Ginsenoside Rb1 protects from Staphylococcus aureus-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-stress and death receptor-mediated pathways.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 23;219:112353. Epub 2021 May 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Acute lung injury (ALI) is acute uncontrolled inflammation of lung tissue that leads to high fatality both in human and animals. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) could be an opportunistic, versatile bacterial etiology of ALI. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is extracted from the Panax ginseng, which displays a wide range of biological and pharmacological effects. However, protective effects of Rb1 in S. aureus-induced ALI though endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and death receptor-mediated pathways have not yet been reported. Therefore, present study was planned with the aims to investigate the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of Rb1 through regulation of ER stress as well as death receptor-mediated pathways in ALI induced by S. aureus in mice. In this study, four groups of healthy Kunming mice (n = 48) were used. The S. aureus (80 µl; 1 ×10 CFU/10 µl) was administered intranasally to establish mice model of ALI. After 24 h of onset of S. aureus-induced ALI, the mice were injected thrice with Rb1 (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally six hours apart. Histopathology, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Immunohistochemistry and western blotting assay were employed in the current study. Our results suggested that Rb1 administration save lungs from pulmonary injury by reducing wet to dry (W/D) ratio, protein levels, total cells, neutrophilic count, reactive oxygen species (ROS), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx)1 depletion. Meanwhile, Rb1 therapy ameliorated histopathology alteration of lung tissue and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. The gene expression of ER stress marker (PERK, AFT-6, IRE1 and CHOP) were upregulated markedly (P < .05) in S. aureus-instilled groups, which was reduced by Rb1 administration that is reveled from the result findings of the RT-qPCR and immunoblot assay. The results of immunohistochemistry for CHOP indicated the increased expression in S. aureus groups which in turn ameliorated by Rb1 treatment. The mRNA expression demonstrated that death receptor-associated genes (FasL, Fas, FADD and caspase-8) showed up-regulation in S. aureus group. The similar findings were observed for the protein expression of caspase-8, FADD and Fas. Rb1 treatment markedly (P < .05) reversed protein and mRNA expression levels of these death receptor-associated genes when compared to the S. aureus group. Taken together, Rb1 attenuated S. aureus-induced oxidative damage via the ER stress-mediated pathway and apoptosis through death receptor-mediated pathway. Conclusively, our findings provide an insight into preventive mechanism of Rb1 in ALI caused by S. aureus and hence proven a scientific baseline for the therapeutic application of Rb1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112353DOI Listing
August 2021

Environmental impact and diversity of protease-producing bacteria in areas of leather tannery effluents of Sialkot, Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Bioscience, University of Wah, Wah Cantt, 47000, Punjab, Pakistan.

Massive discharge of wastes produced by the processing of leather so far confers the most important environmental challenge facing the tanneries worldwide. Waste material from tanneries mostly consists of skin remnants and proteinaceous substances as by-products of leather processing. In these conditions, protease-producing bacteria play a vital role in degrading wastes in this sludge. Therefore, an investigation was made to study the effect of long-term tannery sludge contamination on the diversity of both protease-producing microbes and of bacterial extracellular proteases near tanneries of Sambrial and Sialkot. The high amount of carbon and nitrogen in the soil samples reflected their effect on the diversity of the microbial communities in these areas. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggest that the isolated proteolytic bacteria belonged to 9 different genera including Pseudomonas (26.19%), Proteus (19.04%), Serratia (16.66%), Klebsiella (14.28%), Providencia (9.52%), Achromobacter (7.14%), Enterobacter (2.38%), Myroides (2.38%), and Acinetobacter (2.38%). Enzyme activity showed that among all Pseudomonas and Proteus showed relatively high protease production, and inhibition studies revealed that proteases produced by all isolates were strongly inhibited by serine and/or metalloprotease inhibitors, and a smaller proportion was inhibited by inhibitors of cysteine and/or aspartic proteases. Furthermore, isolated bacteria revealed promising degradation activities against casein and/or gelatin with only a few that could hydrolyze elastin, suggesting proteases produced by these isolated bacteria belong to different classes of proteases, i.e., serine and metalloproteases. This study provided new insights on the community structure of cultivable protease-producing bacteria near tannery sludge of Sambrial and Sialkot. This study would be beneficial not only for establishing the way for effective degradation of tannery slugs but also for questing the novel properties of proteases for a future technological application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14477-2DOI Listing
May 2021

The effective transfection of a low dose of negatively charged drug-loaded DNA-nanocarriers into cancer cells via scavenger receptors.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Apr 22;11(2):174-182. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60000, Pakistan.

DNA-nanotechnology-based nano-architecture scaffolds based on circular strands were designed in the form of DNA-nanowires (DNA-NWs) as a polymer of DNA-triangles. Circularizing a scaffold strand (84-NT) was the critical step followed by annealing with various staple strands to make stiff DNA-triangles. Atomic force microcopy (AFM), native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), UV-analysis, MTT-assay, flow cytometry, and confocal imaging were performed to assess the formulated DNA-NWs and cisplatin (CPT) loading. The AFM and confocal microscopy images revealed a uniform shape and size distribution of the DNA-NWs, with lengths ranging from 2 to 4 μm and diameters ranging from 150 to 300 nm. One sharp band at the top of the lane (500 bp level) with the loss of electrophoretic mobility during the PAGE (native) gel analysis revealed the successful fabrication of DNA-NWs. The loading efficiency of CPT ranged from 66.85% to 97.35%. MTT and flow cytometry results showed biocompatibility of the blank DNA-NWs even at 95% concentration compared with the CPT-loaded DNA-NWs. The CPT-loaded DNA-NWs exhibited enhanced apoptosis (22%) compared to the apoptosis (7%) induced by the blank DNA-NWs. The release of CPT from the DNA-NWs was sustained at < 75% for 6 h in the presence of serum, demonstrating suitability for systemic applications. The IC of [email protected] was reduced to 12.8 nM CPT, as compared with the free CPT solution exhibiting an IC of 51.2 nM. Confocal imaging revealed the targetability, surface binding, and slow internalization of the DNA-NWs in the scavenger-receptor-rich cancer cell line (HepG2) compared with the control cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2020.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116213PMC
April 2021

Swyer Syndrome: A Case of Dysgerminoma Solely within the Fallopian Tube.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Gynaecology Department, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Saint Mary's Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Background: 46XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is a rare disorder of sexual development. Patients have a 46XY karyotype, though phenotypically they appear female with normal external genitalia and vagina. Although patients exhibit normal Müllerian structures (uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina), they possess a pair of bilateral undifferentiated gonad streaks. Delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea are the common presentations. There is an increased risk of developing tumors in the gonads and therefore a bilateral gonadectomy is recommended.

Case: A 16-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea was diagnosed with Swyer syndrome. She underwent prophylactic bilateral gonadectomy and salpingectomies. She was discovered to have no gonadal malignancy, conversely dysgerminoma solely within the fallopian tube.

Summary And Conclusion: Both bilateral salpingectomies and bilateral gonadectomies should be recommended as the operation of choice in patients with Swyer Syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2021.04.008DOI Listing
May 2021

Correction to: Bacillus subtilis Y16 and biogas slurry enhanced potassium to sodium ratio and physiology of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to mitigate salt stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug;28(29):38648

Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture by Ministry of Agriculture of China, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14344-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Structure, DFT studies and evaluation of catechol oxidase (CO) mimic activity of mononuclear Co(II) complexes derived from aminoalcohols: an experimental and theoretical approach.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 6:1-11. Epub 2021 May 6.

Functional Inorganic Materials Lab (FIML), Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

The impetus to modeling of enzyme mimics comes from their potential to provide insight to the alternate mechanistic pathways of the native enzymes. The present study demonstrates the syntheses and characterization of two different cobalt(II) complexes, [Co(pdm)(Phen)Cl]Cl·HO () and [Co(pmmH)(SCN)] () with the aminoalcohol ligands such as pyridine-2,6-dimethanol (pdmH) or 2-pyridinemonomethanol (pmmH) and their assessment as catechol oxidase (CO) enzyme mimic. Single Crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction data suggest the octahedral environment around the Co(II) ion and the complexes form extensive 1D or 2D propagating network as a result of non-covalent interactions (O···H and C-H···π). TD-DFT calculations were used to explain the spectral bands obtained during the UV-Vis absorption studies and it is ascertained that the transitions were mainly of the intra-ligand charge transfer (ILCT) type. The catecholase biomimetic catalytic activity of the synthesized complexes has been investigated in detail and the kinetics is also performed. The results obtained show that both the complexes catalyze the aerobic oxidation of catechol to the corresponding o-quinone. The value for is 106.99 h and for is 90.32 h in methanol. It may be mentioned here that and are effective catalysts, with the order of activity being >. The order of enzymatic activity is well justified by CV and DFT studies.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1916598DOI Listing
May 2021

Dysbiosis and Alzheimer's Disease: A Role for Chronic Stress?

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable, neuropsychiatric, pathological condition that deteriorates the worth of geriatric lives. AD is characterized by aggregated senile amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal loss, gliosis, oxidative stress, neurotransmitter dysfunction, and bioenergetic deficits. The changes in GIT composition and harmony have been recognized as a decisive and interesting player in neuronal pathologies including AD. Microbiota control and influence the oxidoreductase status, inflammation, immune system, and the endocrine system through which it may have an impact on the cognitive domain. The altered and malfunctioned state of microbiota is associated with minor infections to complicated illnesses that include psychosis and neurodegeneration, and several studies show that microbiota regulates neuronal plasticity and neuronal development. The altered state of microbiota (dysbiosis) may affect behavior, stress response, and cognitive functions. Chronic stress-mediated pathological progression also has a well-defined role that intermingles at various physiological levels and directly impacts the pathological advancement of AD. Chronic stress-modulated alterations affect the well-established pathological markers of AD but also affect the gut-brain axis through the mediation of various downstream signaling mechanisms that modulate the microbial commensals of GIT. The extensive literature reports that chronic stressors affect the composition, metabolic activities, and physiological role of microbiota in various capacities. The present manuscript aims to elucidate mechanistic pathways through which stress induces dysbiosis, which in turn escalates the neuropathological cascade of AD. The stress-dysbiosis axis appears a feasible zone of work in the direction of treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11050678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147174PMC
April 2021
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