Publications by authors named "Muhammad Ajmal Khan"

8 Publications

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Phylogenetic analysis of the 5' untranslated region of HCV from cirrhotic patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):15023. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Abasyn University Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a small, single-stranded RNA virus with a 9.6 kb genome, is one of the most common causes of liver diseases. Sequencing of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) is usually used for HCV genotyping, but it is less important in numerous subtypes due to its scarce sequence variations. This study aimed to identify genotypes using the 5' UTR of HCV from cirrhotic patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). Serum RNA samples (44) were screened by real time PCR to determine the HCV viral load. Nested PCR was performed to identify cDNA and the 5' UTR. The HCV 5' UTR was sequenced using the Sanger method. MEGA-7 software was used to analyze evolutionary relatedness. After 5' UTR sequencing, 26 samples (59%) were identified as genotype 3, and 2 samples (6%) were identified as genotypes 1, 2 and 4. The most predominant genotype was 3a, and genotype 4 was rarely reported in the phylogenetic tree. Analysis of the HCV 5' UTR is an efficient alternative method for confirmation of various genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that genotype 3 was dominant in the area of KP, Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94063-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298656PMC
July 2021

Global research on the air quality status in response to the electrification of vehicles.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 3;795:148861. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Prince Sultan Institute for Environmental, Water and Desert Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Soil Science, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

Electric vehicles (EVs) can substantially decrease atmospheric pollutant emissions, thereby improving air quality, decreasing global warming, and improving human health. In this study, we performed a comprehensive bibliometric analysis using Web of Science to understand the research developments and future perspectives in EVs between 1974 and 2021. The analysis of indicators such as research trends, publication growth, and keywords revealed that most research in the selected timeframe was focused on applying and optimizing the existing technologies of different types of EVs to decrease air pollution and mortality. The changes in air quality owing to such electrification received special attention, with approximately 441 publications preferably in the English language. Among all the retrieved documents, research articles were most common (n = 295; 66.89% of the global output), dominated by the research domains of environmental sciences, followed by energy fuels and transportation science technology. Journal analysis revealed that Sustainability (n = 19, 4.30%) was the leading journal, followed by Journal of Cleaner Production and Science of the Total Environment. The most frequently used keywords were "electric vehicles," "air quality," and "air pollution." The most highly impactful article was published by Jacobson et al. (2005) in Science, with 620 total citations and 38.82 average annual citations. Furthermore, the United States (n = 118; 26.75% of the global output) had the highest publication rate, followed by China and the United Kingdom. The leading institutions were Tsinghua University (n = 16; 3.62% of the global research output) in China, followed by the University of Michigan and Cornell University in the United States. The current analysis warrants more focus on comprehensive analysis employing transport and chemistry modeling and using the latest technology for long life and sustainable batteries. This study provides a basis for future studies on improving air quality through innovative work in the electrification of vehicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148861DOI Listing
November 2021

Intrinsic and chemically-induced daughter number variations in cancer cell lines.

Cell Cycle 2021 Mar-Mar;20(5-6):537-549. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Life Science and Applied Genomics Center, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.

Multipolar mitosis was observed in cancer cells under mechanical stress or drug treatment. However, a comprehensive understanding of its basic properties and significance to cancer cell biology is lacking. In the present study, live-cell imaging was employed to investigate the division and nucleation patterns in four different cell lines. Multi-daughter divisions were observed in the three cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa and A549, but not in the transformed non-cancer cell line RPE1. Multi-daughter mother cells displayed multi-nucleation, enlarged cell area, and prolonged division time. Under acidic pH or treatment with the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or the phytochemical compound wogonin, multi-daughter mitoses were increased to different extents in all three cancer cell lines, reaching as high as 16% of all mitoses. While less than 0.4% of the bi-daughter mitosis were followed by cell fusion events under the various treatment conditions, 50% or more of the multi-daughter mitoses were followed by fusion events at neutral, acidic or alkaline pH. These findings revealed a "Daughter Number Variation" (DNV) process in the cancer cells, with multi-daughter divisions in Stage 1 and cell fusions leading to the formation of cells containing up to five nuclei in Stage 2. The Stage 2-fusions were inhibited by 5-FU in A549 and HeLa, and by wogonin in A549, HeLa and HepG2. The parallel relationship between DNV frequency and malignancy among the different cell lines suggests that the inclusion of anti-fusion agents exemplified by wogonin and 5-FU could be beneficial in combinatory cancer chemotherapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2021.1883363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018351PMC
February 2021

Suppressing the efficiency droop in the AlGaN-based UVB LED.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN Wako Institute, Koriyama-Shi, JAPAN.

Optoelectronic properties of semiconducting aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) - based ultraviolet - B (UVB) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are crucial for the real-world medical applications such as cancer and immunotherapy. Therefore, we have numerically investigated the performances of AlGaN-based UVB LEDs for the suppression of efficiency droop as well as for the enhancement of hole injection in the multiquantum wells (MQWs). The influence of the undoped (ud)-AlGaN final barrier (FB) as well as Mg-doped multiquantum barrier electron blocking layer (p-MQB EBL) on the efficiency droop has been specifically focused. For the evaluation of the proposed device performance, we have compared its internal quantum efficiency (IQE), carrier concentration, energy band diagram, and radiative recombination rate with the conventional device structure. Furthermore, the influence of Al-composition in the p-AlGaN hole source layer (HSL) on the operating voltages of the proposed UVB LEDs was considered. The simulation results suggest that our proposed structure has high peak efficiency and much lower efficiency droop as compared to the reference structure (conventional). Ultimately, the radiative recombination rate in the MQWs of the proposed structure has been found to raise up to ~73%, which is attributed to the enhanced level of electron and hole concentrations by ~64% and 13% , respectively, in the active region. Finally, a high efficiency droop up to ~42% in RLED has been found successfully suppressed to ~7% by using optimized ud-AlGaN FB and p-MQB EBL in the proposed UVB device structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe4f9DOI Listing
February 2021

Bibliometric analysis of road traffic injuries research in the Gulf Cooperation Council region.

F1000Res 2020 18;9:1155. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Deanship of Library Affairs, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Eastern Province, 31441, Saudi Arabia.

Despite governmental interventions, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region continues to experience higher road traffic crash and fatality rates relative to Western nations. This trend suggests a potential disconnect between Road Traffic Injuries (RTI) research and the mitigation measures put in place. Here, we present an in-depth bibliometric analysis to obtain a comprehensive understanding of RTI research in the GCC region. The Web of Science database was used to search and retrieve the relevant articles during the period of 1981-2019. The volume of RTI research increased from 2015-2019, suggesting an increased focus on traffic safety in the GCC region. Saudi Arabia had the highest RTI research productivity level (126 publications); Bahrain had the lowest (7 publications). Inconsistent with its low publication volume, Hammad Medical Corps of Qatar had the highest citation impact score of 16.33. Global collaboration for RTI research was highest between Saudi Arabia and the United States. The most prevalent publication journal for the region was . The most common keywords were " " and " "; terms such as " ", " ", " ", and " " were least common. In the five most productive GCC nations with respect to RTI research (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, and Oman), researchers tended to publish works related to road traffic safety in traffic safety-oriented journals. The quantity and quality of RTI publications in GCC is insufficient to meet the increasing related public health and economic burden in the region. The trends among publication volumes, citations, and impact were inconsistent. There is a lack of research collaboration among the institutions. Most of the research related to RTI is being conducted by researchers with a medical background. Research focusing on pedestrians, cyclists and road user behavior is also inadequate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.25903.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542249PMC
April 2021

Impact of weaning age on rumen development in artificially reared lambs1.

J Anim Sci 2019 Jul;97(8):3498-3510

Animal Nutrition & Physiology Team, AgResearch Limited, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

This study examined the impact of weaning age (4 vs. 6 wk) on rumen morphological and metabolic development in artificially reared lambs. Thirty-two mixed-sex lambs (2 to 5 d old) were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 weaning groups: early weaning (EW; 4 wk) and control (Ctrl; 6 wk). Lambs were individually penned and fed milk replacer (MR; 24% CP and 25% fat, DM basis) at 20% of their corresponding initial BW. Weaning was achieved by gradual reduction of MR allowance over a period of 3 wk using a step-down procedure. Concentrate and meadow hay were offered ad libitum from 1 d of the study until 6 wk, when lambs were transferred to a mixed sward pasture. At week 4, individual DMI were recorded and blood samples collected to measure β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and NEFA. Eight animals per group were euthanized at week 4 and 16 to evaluate short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and histomorphometry of the rumen walls: dorsal (DS), ventral (VS), dorsal blind (DBS), and ventral blind (VBS) sacs. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the effect of weaning treatments at week 4 and 16, and to compare between timepoints and between rumen sites. Dry matter intake and rumen SCFA profiles were similar between groups (P > 0.10) at week 4 and 16. Plasma concentrations of BHBA were greater (P = 0.03) in EW than in Ctrl lambs, while NEFA did not differ (P > 0.10) between groups at week 4. No effect of weaning age on rumen empty weight, and papillae density, length, width, surface area ratio, and muscle layer thickness at any of the 4 rumen sites was found (P > 0.10) at either week 4 or week 16, except for greater (P = 0.02) papillae epithelium thickness in the DBS at week 4 in EW than Ctrl lambs. Papillae morphology and muscular thickness differed across rumen sites at week 4 and week 16 (P < 0.05), except for papillae density and surface area ratio at 4 week (P > 0.10). Rumen papillae length, width, and muscle layer thickness increased while papillae density and surface area ratio decreased (P < 0.05) between 4 and 16 wk. The results of this study indicate that morphological and physiological development of the rumen can be accelerated to support weaning of artificially reared lambs at 4 wk, using a step-down weaning system. Morphological differences between rumen sacs denote that future studies in lambs evaluating the impact of different diets should involve representative sampling across the rumen rather than a single site to more accurately study rumen development and ontogenic changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skz148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667252PMC
July 2019

In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Morphological Assessments of GO-ZnO against the MCF-7 Cells: Determination of Singlet Oxygen by Chemical Trapping.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2018 Jul 18;8(7). Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Graphene-based materials have attracted considerable interest owing to their distinctive characteristics, such as their biocompatibility in terms of both their physical and intrinsic chemical properties. The use of nanomaterials with graphene as a biocompatible agent has increased due to an uptick in dedication from biomedical investigators. Here, GO-ZnO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Raman spectroscopy for structural, morphological, and elemental analysis. The toxic extent of GO-ZnO was noted by a methyl-thiazole-tetrazolium (MTT), while cellular morphology was observed towards the MCF-7 cells using an inverted microscope at magnification 40×. The cytotoxic effect of GO-ZnO investigated the cell viability reduction in a dose-dependent manner, as well as prompted the cell demise/destruction in an apoptotic way. Moreover, statistical analysis was performed on the experimental outcomes, with -values < 0.05 kept as significant to elucidate the results. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) demonstrated the potential applicability of graphene in tumor treatment. These key results attest to the efficacy of GO-ZnO nanocomposites as a substantial candidate for breast malignancy treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano8070539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070898PMC
July 2018

Excreting and non-excreting grasses exhibit different salt resistance strategies.

AoB Plants 2014 Jul 4;6. Epub 2014 Jul 4.

Shell Professorial Chair of Sustainable Development, Department of International Affairs, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, PO Box 2713, Doha, Qatar

The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na(+) ratio than non-excreting grasses. K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ψs and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na(+) uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plu038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224665PMC
July 2014
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