Publications by authors named "Muhammad Abdullah"

139 Publications

Phytochemical profiling, in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of Sesuvium sesuvioides (Fenzl) Verdc. (Aizoaceae).

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Sesuvium sesuvioides (Fenzl) Verdc is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and gout The aim of present study was to assess the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of the methanol extract of Sesuvium sesuvioides (SsCr) to prove scientifically its folklore use in the inflammatory diseases and to screen its total antioxidant capacity by multiple methods and phytocompounds by GC-MS. The preliminary phytochemical studies showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, coumarin, terpenoids, saponins, fats and carbohydrates in crude extract. The total phenolic contents (27.31 ± 0.28 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoids (3.58 ± 0.12 mgRE/g) values were observed. The antioxidant capacity of SsCr showed significant DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, PBD and metal chelating results. GC-MS analysis displayed the phytoconstituents with anti-inflammatory potentials such as 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, vanillin, umbelliferone, methyl ferulate, palmitoleic acid, methyl palmitate and phytol. SsCr presented noteworthy HRBC membrane stability with maximum inhibition of cell hemolysis (47.79%). In carrageenan-induced hind paw edema assay result showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory action. SsCr presented significant (p < 0.05) analgesic activity in hot-plate and tail flicking tests similarly it also showed the noteworthy inhibition in pain latency against formalin induced analgesia at 1st and 2nd phases. SsCr reduced the acetic acid-induced writhes at different doses (250, 500 and 750 mg). Results of antipyretic activity of SsCr extract were significant at 500 and 750 mg. The results of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies verified the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of Sesuvium sesuvioides and supported the folklore uses of this plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-021-00824-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Memristive Behavior of Mixed Oxide Nanocrystal Assemblies.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 3;13(18):21635-21644. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States.

Recent advances in memristive nanocrystal assemblies leverage controllable colloidal chemistry to induce a broad range of defect-mediated electrochemical reactions, switching phenomena, and modulate active parameters. The sample geometry of virtually all resistive switching studies involves thin film layers comprising monomodal diameter nanocrystals. Here we explore the evolution of bipolar and threshold resistive switching across highly ordered, solution-processed nanoribbon assemblies and mixtures comprising BaZrO (BZO) and SrZrO (SZO) nanocrystals. The effects of nanocrystal size, packing density, and A-site substitution on operating voltage ( and ) and switching mechanism were studied through a systematic comparison of nanoribbon heterogeneity (i.e., BZO-BZO vs BZO-SZO) and monomodal vs bimodal size distributions (i.e., small-small and small-large). Analysis of the current-voltage response confirms that tip-induced, trap-mediated space-charge-limited current and trap-assisted tunneling processes drive the low- and high-resistance states, respectively. Our results demonstrate that both smaller nanocrystals and heavier alkaline earth substitution decrease the onset voltage and improve stability and state retention of monomodal assemblies and bimodal nanocrystal mixtures, thus providing a base correlation that informs fabrication of solution-processed, memristive nanocrystal assemblies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03722DOI Listing
May 2021

Strategies Regarding High-Temperature Applications w.r.t Strength, Toughness, and Fatigue Life for SA508 Alloy.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

In this work, the stabilities of secondary phases, including carbides, brittle phases, and inclusions, were simulated by computational thermodynamics. Calphad strategical optimization is preferable for all steel alloys regarding energy resource consumption during manufacturing and processing. The alloy composition has been changed to enhance the strength, hardenability, and longevity of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel by computing the phase equilibrium calculations and predicting mechanical properties such as yield and tensile strengths hardness and martensitic and bainitic volume fractions. The stabilities of the pro-eutectoid carbides (cementite), inclusions, and brittle phases in SA508 steel are critical to the toughness and fatigue life related to the crack initiation and expansion of this steel. Overall, the simulations presented in this paper explain the mechanisms that can affect the fatigue resistance and toughness of steel and offer a possible solution to controlling these properties at elevated temperatures by optimizing the steel composition and heat treatment process parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14081953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069931PMC
April 2021

Expansion and Molecular Characterization of AP2/ERF Gene Family in Wheat ( L.).

Front Genet 2021 31;12:632155. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, China.

The AP2/ERF is a large protein family of transcription factors, playing an important role in signal transduction, plant growth, development, and response to various stresses. AP2/ERF super-family is identified and functionalized in a different plant but no comprehensive and systematic analysis in wheat ( L.) has been reported. However, a genome-wide and functional analysis was performed and identified 322 TaAP2/ERF putative genes from the wheat genome. According to the phylogenetic and structural analysis, TaAP2/ERF genes were divided into 12 subfamilies (Ia, Ib, Ic, IIa, IIb, IIc, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IVa, IVb, and IVc). Furthermore, conserved motifs and introns/exons analysis revealed may lead to functional divergence within clades. -Acting analysis indicated that many elements were involved in stress-related and plant development. Chromosomal location showed that 320 AP2/ERF genes were distributed among 21 chromosomes and 2 genes were present in a scaffold. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed that maximum orthologous between , rice followed by wheat. Segment duplication events have contributed to the expansion of the AP2/ERF family and made this family larger than rice and . Additionally, AP2/ERF genes were differentially expressed in wheat seedlings under the stress treatments of heat, salt, and drought, and expression profiles were verified by qRT-PCR. Remarkably, the RNA-seq data exposed that AP2/ERF gene family might play a vital role in stress-related. Taken together, our findings provided useful and helpful information to understand the molecular mechanism and evolution of the AP2/ERF gene family in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.632155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044323PMC
March 2021

Service Innovation in Human Resource Management During COVID-19: A Study to Enhance Employee Loyalty Using Intrinsic Rewards.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:627659. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Management Sciences, Comsats University Islamabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan.

This research focuses on the employee loyalty aspect of private hospitals in Pakistan during the COVID-19 pandemic, seriously impacted by strict work demand and work-family conflict. To manage this issue, social rewards and psychological rewards played a role as a mediator. The study uses a causal research design with a correlational study design in a non-contrived environment. Minimal researcher interference has been assured. AMOS 24 has been used to deal with the mediation in study design with bootstrap methodology. The study was conducted on 250 nurses of different private hospitals across Punjab province using a proportionate stratified sampling technique. A finding of this study suggests that nurses remain loyal to their organizations despite having uncompromising work demands and facing work-family conflict when they are provided with social and psychological rewards on their job by their organizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.627659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947336PMC
February 2021

A Comparison of Disease Severity and Outcomes in COVID-19 Cases Taking Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Versus Other Antihypertensive Drugs.

Cureus 2021 Jan 18;13(1):e12757. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Internal Medicine, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, PAK.

Objective In this study, we aimed to compare the severity and outcomes in hypertensive patients presenting with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and those who were on other antihypertensive drugs. Methods This retrospective cohort study involved 182 hypertensive patients who presented with COVID-19 infection. The study population comprised 91 patients who were taking ACEIs/ARBs (group A) and 91 patients who were taking other antihypertensive drugs such as β-blockers (BBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), or thiazides (group B). All patients were provided the same type of treatment for the management of COVID-19. We recorded the data related to demographic and anthropometric variables as well as clinical symptoms during the treatment period. Disease severity and hospital mortality were the primary study endpoints. Results There was no significant difference in COVID-19-related outcomes between the groups except for the severity of lung infiltration on chest X-rays. There were 37 (41.1%) patients having >50% lung infiltration in group A and 53 (58.2%) in group B (p-value: 0.02). Severe disease was diagnosed in 37 (40.7%) patients in group A compared to 39 (42.7%) patients in group B (p-value: 0.76). In-hospital mortality was noted in 17 (18.7%) patients in group A and 22 (24.2%) patients in group B (p-value: 0.36). Conclusion Based on our results, we did not find any significant association between the use of ACEIs/ARBs and either the severity of COVID-19 infection necessitating admission to ICU or in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.12757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887438PMC
January 2021

Continuous medication monitoring: A clinical model to predict adherence to medications among chronic kidney disease patients.

Res Social Adm Pharm 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Center of Quality Medicine Management, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: An adherence model is required to optimise medication management among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, as current assessment methods overestimate the true adherence of CKD patients with complex regimens. An approach to assess adherence to individual medications is required to assist pharmacists in addressing non-adherence.

Objective: To develop an adherence prediction model for CKD patients.

Methods: This multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 tertiary hospitals in Malaysia using simple random sampling of CKD patients with ≥1 medication (sample size = 1012). A questionnaire-based collection of patient characteristics, adherence (defined as ≥80% consumption of each medication for the past one month), and knowledge of each medication (dose, frequency, indication, and administration) was performed. Continuous data were converted to categorical data, based on the median values, and then stratified and analysed. An adherence prediction model was developed through multiple logistic regression in the development group (n = 677) and validated on the remaining one-third of the sample (n = 335). Beta-coefficient values were then used to determine adherence scores (ranging from 0 to 7) based on the predictors identified, with lower scores indicating poorer medication adherence.

Results: Most of the 1012 patients had poor medication adherence (n = 715, 70.6%) and half had good medication knowledge (n = 506, 50%). Multiple logistic regression analysis determined 4 significant predictors of adherence: ≤7 medications (constructed score = 2, p < 0.001), ≤3 co-morbidities (constructed score = 1, p = 0.015), absence of complementary/alternative medicine use (constructed score = 1, p = 0.003), and knowledge score ≥80% (constructed score = 3, p < 0.001). A higher total constructed score from the prediction model indicated a higher likelihood of adherence (odds ratio [OR]: 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.112-2.744; p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the developed model (n = 677) had good accuracy (ROC: 0.867, 95% CI: 0.840-0.896; p < 0.001). The validated model (n = 335) also had good accuracy (ROC: 0.812, 95% CI: 0.765-0.859; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the development and validation groups (p = 0.11, Z-value:1.62, standard error: 0.034).

Conclusion: The score constructed from the medication adherence prediction model for CKD patients had good accuracy and could be useful for identifying patients with a higher risk of non-adherence, to ensure optimised adherence management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.02.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of internal service quality on nurses' job satisfaction, commitment and performance: Mediating role of employee well-being.

Nurs Open 2021 03 25;8(2):607-619. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Department of Management Sciences, Comsats University Islamabad, Lahore, Pakistan.

Aim: The attitudes and behaviours of nursing staff are critical to determine patients' satisfaction and to have a competitive advantage for any healthcare organization. This study is set to investigate the effects of internal service quality (ISQ) on nurses' job satisfaction, employee commitment, well-being and job performance in the healthcare sector of Pakistan. Further, this study also examines the mediating role of nurses' well-being for the relationship of job satisfaction and commitment with their job performance.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional quantitative research. A self-administered survey was used to collect data from 412 nursing employees of 20 private sector healthcare centres operating in Pakistan. Partial least square of structural equation model (PLS-SEM) and structural equation modelling (SEM) were employed through Smart PLS 3.2.8 for data analysis.

Results: Study results revealed that ISQ directly effects employees' satisfaction, commitment, well-being of the nursing employees. Moreover, employees' well-being has mediated job satisfaction and job performance relationship; however, well-being did not mediate the relationship between commitment and job performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877139PMC
March 2021

Organochlorine pesticide residues in raw milk samples collected from dairy farms and urban areas of Lahore district, Pakistan.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Jan 22;58(1):129-137. Epub 2020 May 22.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

The current study was employed to investigate the organochlorine pesticides (OCP) concentrations in milk, as the milk we consume, has residues of these notorious pesticides. The residual concentrations of OCP in milk have numerous harmful effects on health especially the children. Therefore, milk was analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with µECD for seven OCP residues, namely α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, Endosulfan-sulphate, DDE, γ-HCH, Dieldrin, and DDT. Three hundred and sixty raw milk samples were collected from urban areas (10 areas of Lahore N = 300) and Dairy Farms (10 farms in Lahore N = 60) from September 2012 to September 2013. Samples were collected after an interval of 2 months, for 12 months. Mean values of OCPs in milk samples from urban areas were reported as α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, Endosulfan-sulphate, DDE, γ-HCH, and Dieldrin with concentration of 17.44 ± 3.99, 35.74 ± 7.50, 20.28 ± 3.95, 2.51 ± 0.55, 0.93 ± 0.16 and 1.12 ± 0.18 µg kg, respectively, while the milk samples from dairy farms with concentration of 26.94 ± 4.63, 59.88 ± 6.76, 32.07 ± 4.51, 4.64 ± 0.48, 1.20 ± 0.17 and 1.93 ± 0.18 µg kg, respectively. None of the samples analyzed were found positive for the presence of DDT, just as none of the samples from area milk shops exceeded the Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs). γ-HCH and β-endosulfan were found higher in dairy farm milk samples than the MRLs. Conclusively, these pesticide residues are present in milk available in Lahore in enough quantity (some exceeding the MRLs) to threaten human health, particularly the infant and children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04522-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813927PMC
January 2021

Galactosylated iron oxide nanoparticles for enhancing oral bioavailability of ceftriaxone.

Pharm Dev Technol 2021 Mar 25;26(3):291-301. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, H.E.J Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

The current study focuses on the development, characterization, biocompatibility investigation and oral bioavailability evaluation of ceftriaxone (CFT)-loaded lactobionic acid (LBA)-functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP-LBA). Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that the developed CFT-loaded MNP-LBA is spherical, with a measured hydrodynamic size of 147 ± 15.9 nm and negative zeta potential values (-35 ± 0.58 mV). Fourier transformed infrared analysis revealed interactions between the nanocarrier and the drug. Nanoparticles showed high drug entrapment efficiencies of 91.5 ± 2.2%, and the drug was released gradually and shows prolonged stability using simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. The formulations were found to be highly biocompatible (up to 100 µg/mL) and hemocompatible (up to 1.0 mg/mL). Using an albino rabbit model, the formulation showed a significant enhancement in drug plasma concentration up to 14.46 ± 2.5 µg/mL in comparison with its control (1.96 ± 0.58 µg/mL). Overall, the developed MNP-LBA formulation was found promising for provision of high-drug entrapment, gradual drug release and was appropriate for enhancing the oral delivery of CFT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2020.1866602DOI Listing
March 2021

Polyphenolics and triterpenes presence in chloroform extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves attenuated paracetamol-induced liver intoxication in rat.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Jan 14;21(1):35. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Introduction: Water-soluble, but not lipid-soluble, extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves has been proven to possess hepatoprotective activity. The present study aimed to validate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities, and phytoconstituents of lipid-soluble (chloroform) extract of D. linearis leaves.

Methods: The extract of D. linearis leaves (CEDL; 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats for 7 consecutive days followed by the oral administration of 3 g/kg PCM to induce liver injury. Blood was collected for liver function analysis while the liver was obtained for histopathological examination and endogenous antioxidant activity determination. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant evaluation and phytochemicals determination via phytochemical screening, HPLC and UPLC-HRMS analyses.

Results: CEDL exerted significant (p < 0.05) hepatoprotective activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg and significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the PCM-induced decrease in rat's liver endogenous antioxidant (catalase and superoxide dismutase) level. CEDL possessed a high antioxidant capacity when measured using the ORAC assay, but a low total phenolic content value and radical scavenging activity as confirmed via several radical scavenging assays, which might be attributed particularly to the presence of triterpenes. Phytochemicals screening demonstrated the presence of triterpenes and flavonoids, while UPLC-HRMS analysis showed the presence of polyphenols belonging to the hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinammates and flavonoid groups.

Discussion And Conclusion: Lipid-soluble bioactive compounds of CEDL demonstrated hepatoprotective effect against PCM intoxication partly via the modulation of the endogenous antioxidant defense system, and exerted high antioxidant capacity. Further investigation is warranted to identify the potential hepatoprotective leads from CEDL for future drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03200-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809736PMC
January 2021

The role of VvMYBA2r and VvMYBA2w alleles of the MYBA2 locus in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis for molecular breeding of grape (Vitis spp.) skin coloration.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Jun 1;19(6):1216-1239. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Key Laboratory of Genetics and Fruit development, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

In grape, MYBA1 and MYBA2 at the colour locus are the major genetic determinants of grape skin colour, and the mutation of two functional genes (VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2) from these loci leads to white skin colour. This study aimed to elucidate the regulation of grape berry coloration by isolating and characterizing VvMYBA2w and VvMYBA2r alleles. The overexpression of VvMYBA2r up-regulated the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and resulted in higher anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic tobacco than wild-type (WT) plants, especially in flowers. However, the ectopic expression of VvMYBA2w inactivated the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and could not cause obvious phenotypic modulation in transgenic tobacco. Unlike in VvMYBA2r, CA dinucleotide deletion shortened the C-terminal transactivation region and disrupted the transcriptional activation activity of VvMYBA2w. The results indicated that VvMYBA2r positively regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis by forming the VvMYBA2r-VvMYCA1-VvWDR1 complex, and VvWDR1 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation by interacting with the VvMYBA2r-VvMYCA1 complex; however, R L substitution abolished the interaction of VvMYBA2w with VvMYCA1. Meanwhile, both R L substitution and CA dinucleotide deletion seriously affected the efficacy of VvMYBA2w to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, and the two non-synonymous mutations were additive in their effects. Investigation of the colour density and MYB haplotypes of 213 grape germplasms revealed that dark-skinned varieties tended to contain HapC-N and HapE2, whereas red-skinned varieties contained high frequencies of HapB and HapC-Rs. Regarding ploidy, the higher the number of functional alleles present in a variety, the darker was the skin colour. In summary, this study provides insight into the roles of VvMYBA2r and VvMYBA2w alleles and lays the foundation for the molecular breeding of grape varieties with different skin colour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196647PMC
June 2021

Nanoparticle-based amelioration of drought stress and cadmium toxicity in rice via triggering the stress responsive genetic mechanisms and nutrient acquisition.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Feb 28;209:111829. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium and drought are the most destructive of the abiotic stresses with negative consequences in terms of impaired metabolism, restricted nutrient use efficiency and disruptive photosynthesis of plants. The present study investigated the mitigation strategy of both aforementioned stresses by the application of iron oxide (IONPs) and hydrogel nanoparticles (HGNPs) simultaneously probably for the first time. IONPs were biofabricated by using a locally identified Bacillus strain RNT1, while HGNPs were produced chemically followed by the confirmation and characterization of both NPs through nanomaterials characterization techniques. Results of FTIR and XRD showed the capping of NPs by different functional groups together with their crystalline structure, respectively. SEM and TEM analysis showed the spherical shape along with the particle size ranging from 18 to 94 nm of both NPs, while EDS analysis confirmed the elemental purity of NPs. The results revealed that IONPs-treated rice plants increased biomass, antioxidant enzyme contents, photosynthesis efficiency, nutrient acquisition together with the decrease in reactive oxygen species and acropetal Cd translocation under normal and drought stress conditions as compared with control plants. Furthermore, the expression of the Cd transporter genes, OsHMA2, OsHMA3 and OsLCT1 were curtailed in NPs-treated rice plants under normal and drought stress conditions. The overall significance of the study lies in devising the NPs-based solutions of increasing heavy metal pollution and water availability challenges being faced the farmers around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111829DOI Listing
February 2021

Development and Evaluation of an Electrochemical Biosensor for Detection of Dengue-Specific IgM Antibody in Serum Samples.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Dec 26;11(1). Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Malaysia.

Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted mainly by mosquitoes. As dengue shares similar clinical symptoms with other infectious diseases, prompt and accurate diagnosis is pivotal to clinicians' decisions on appropriate management. Conventional diagnostic tests to detect the dengue-specific IgM antibody are limited in their performance and ease of use. To address these issues, we developed and evaluated a biosensor based on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the detection of dengue-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Various optimisations were performed in order to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biosensor. For optimal and proper orientation of the paratope sites of goat anti-human IgM capture antibodies (GAHICA), various antibody techniques, including passive, covalent, protein A, protein G and streptavidin/biotin systems, were tested on the SPCEs. The assay reagents for the biosensor were also optimised prior to its evaluation. Analytical sensitivity evaluation was carried out using pooled sera, while analytical specificity evaluation was conducted on a panel of six non-dengue serum samples. Subsequently, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity evaluation were performed using 144 reference samples. Electrochemical current signals generated from HO catalysed by HRP-labelled anti-dengue detection antibodies were measured using the chronoamperometric technique. With a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 serum dilution, the analytical sensitivity of the developed biosensor was 10 times higher than commercial ELISA. The analytical specificity of this dengue IgM biosensor was 100%. Similarly, the biosensor's diagnostic performance was 100% for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). These findings suggest that the developed biosensor has a great potential to be used to diagnose dengue after seroconversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824051PMC
December 2020

Population demographic history and population structure for Pakistani Nili-Ravi breeding bulls based on SNP genotyping to identify genomic regions associated with male effects for milk yield and body weight.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(11):e0242500. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

The domestic Nili-Ravi water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is the best dairy animal contributing 68% to total milk production in Pakistan. In this study, we identified genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate various population genetic parameters such as diversity, pairwise population differentiation, linkage disequilibrium (LD) distribution and for genome-wide association study for milk yield and body weight traits in the Nili-Ravi dairy bulls that they may pass on to their daughters who are retained for milking purposes. The genotyping by sequencing approach revealed 13,039 reference genome-anchored SNPs with minor allele frequency of 0.05 among 167 buffalos. Population structure analysis revealed that the bulls were grouped into two clusters (K = 2), which indicates the presence of two different lineages in the Pakistani Nili-Ravi water buffalo population, and we showed the extent of admixture of these two lineages in our bull collection. LD analysis revealed 4169 significant SNP associations, with an average LD decay of 90 kb for these buffalo genome. Genome-wide association study involved a multi-locus mixed linear model for milk yield and body weight to identify genome-wide male effects. Our study further illustrates the utility of the genotyping by sequencing approach for identifying genomic regions to uncover additional demographic complexity and to improve the complex dairy traits of the Pakistani Nili-Ravi water buffalo population that would provide the lot of economic benefits to dairy industry.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242500PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685427PMC
January 2021

Tylophora hirsuta (Wall.) extracts ameliorates diabetes associated with inflammation in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2020 Aug 21. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

College of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha. Pakistan.

Background: Tylophora hirsuta Wall. has long been used as traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Current study is designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial parts of Tylophora hirsuta.

Methods: Sequential maceration was conducted to obtain extracts. Total phenolic contents were determined by FolinCiocalteau method. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were tested for its inhibitory activity against α-amylase in-vitro. In-vivo anti diabetic assay was conducted using alloxan induced diabetic model and OGTT was conducted on normal rats. ELISA was used to determine the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6). Polyphenolic composition of the extract was analyzed using a HPLC system.

Results: Aqueous extract exhibited highest total phenolic contents (985.24± 3.82 mg GAE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity (IC50 = 786.70 ± 5.23.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530320666200821154340DOI Listing
August 2020

Incredible Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Grain Yield Sustainability under Water Scarcity Conditions in Wheat ( L.).

Plants (Basel) 2020 Sep 15;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.

Interrogations of local germplasm and landraces can offer a foundation and genetic basis for drought tolerance in wheat. Potential of drought tolerance in a panel of 30 wheat genotypes including varieties, local landraces, and wild crosses were explored under drought stress (DS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. Considerable variation for an osmotic adjustment (OA) and yield components, coupled with genotype and environment interaction was observed, which indicates the differential potential of wheat genotypes under both conditions. Reduction in yield per plant (YP), thousand kernel weight (TKW), and induction of OA was detected. Correlation analysis revealed a strong positive association of YP with directly contributing yield components under both environments, indicating the impotence of these traits as a selection-criteria for the screening of drought-tolerant genotypes for drylands worldwide. Subsequently, the association of OA with TKW which contributes directly to YP, indicates that wheat attains OA to extract more water from the soil under low water-potential. Genotypes including WC-4, WC-8 and LLR-29 showed more TKW under both conditions, among them; LLR-29 also has maximum OA and batter yield comparatively. Result provides insight into the role of OA in plant yield sustainability under DS. In this study, we figure out the concept of OA and its incredible role in sustainable plant yield in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9091208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569908PMC
September 2020

Cloning and functional characterization of two cinnamate 4-hydroxylase genes from Pyrus bretschneideri.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Nov 28;156:135-145. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, No. 130, Changjiang West Road, Hefei, 230036, China. Electronic address:

Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants and is involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as lignin and flavonoids. However, the function of C4H in pear plants (Pyrus bretschneideri) has not yet been fully elucidated. By searching pear genome databases, we identified three C4H genes (PbC4H1, PbC4H2 and PbC4H3) encoding proteins that share higher identity with bonafide C4Hs from several species with typical cytochrome P450 domains, suggesting that all three PbC4Hs are also bonafide C4Hs that have close evolutionary relationships with C4Hs from other land plants. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results indicated that the three PbC4Hs were specifically expressed in one or more tissues. The expression levels of PbC4H1 and PbC4H3 first increased and then decreased during pear fruit development. Treatment with exogenous hormones (ABA, MeJA, and SA) altered the expression of the three PbC4Hs to varying degrees. The expression levels of the PbC4Hs were first induced and then decreased under ABA treatment, while MeJA treatment significantly increased the expression levels of the PbC4Hs. Following treatment with SA, expression levels of PbC4H1 and PbC4H2 increased, while expression levels of PbC4H3 decreased. Enzymatic analysis of the recombinant proteins expressed in yeast indicated that PbC4H1 and PbC4H3 catalysed the conversion of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid. Moreover, the expression of PbC4H1 and PbC4H3 in Arabidopsis resulted in an increase in both the lignin content and the thickness of cell walls for intervascular fibres and xylem cells. Taken together, the results of our study not only revealed the potential role of PbC4H1 and PbC4H3 in lignin biosynthesis but also established a foundation for future investigations of the regulation of lignin synthesis and stone cell development in pear fruit by molecular biological techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.07.035DOI Listing
November 2020

Gene structure, evolution and expression analysis of the P-ATPase gene family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

Comput Biol Chem 2020 Oct 26;88:107346. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China. Electronic address:

P-ATPase are a large protein family of integral membrane, playing an important role in plant growth, development and stress. P-ATPase genes family have been identified and characterized in several model plants such as cotton, grapes, tobacco, rice, rubber plant and Arabidopsis. However, still lack of comprehensive study of P-ATPase genes in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri). A systematic analysis was performed and identified 30 P-ATPase genes from the pear genome to evaluate the qualities and diversity of P-ATPase proteins. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using A. thaliana P-ATPase genes as a model, allowing us to categorize into 4 subfamilies (PbHMA, PbECA, PbACA, and PbAHA) and two subfamilies (ALA and P) is absent in pear. Even Within the same subclade, P-ATPase genes also shows the similar exon-intron structure and conserved motif structure. Continuing chromosomal localization analysis showed that 23 P-ATPase genes were distributed among 13 chromosome and 7 gene on the scaffold of pear. Promoter regions of P-ATPase genes revealed that several cis-acting elements were involved in plant growth/development, stress responses as well as hormone responses. Additionally, P-ATPase genes were also differentially expressed under hormones treatments of ABA (abscisic acid) and SA (salicylic acid) treatments. Remarkably, the transcriptome data exposed that P-ATPase gene might play an important role in lignin biosynthesis during fruit development. The real time qRT-PCR was performed, and the expression analysis indicated that various P-ATPase genes extremely expressed during different developmental stages of fruit. Our study provides valuable information about the P-ATPase gene family in pear fruit development and lignin polymerization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2020.107346DOI Listing
October 2020

A University-Wide Preparedness Effort in the Alert Phase of COVID-19 Incorporating Community Mental Health and Task-Shifting Strategies: Experience from a Bornean Institute of Higher Learning.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Sep;103(3):1201-1203

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the world by surprise, causing millions of confirmed cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Hence, the Malaysian government announced a Movement Control Order at the start of the containment phase to flatten the epidemiological curve. Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), a public university in Borneo, was accelerated into alert phase because of high risk of case importation from more than 400 China incoming undergraduates. Measures to mitigate the potential COVID-19 outbreaks in its population were taken by using conventional public health measures with special attention to task-shifting and widespread community mental health interventions. A Preparedness and Response Centre was established to overseer the mitigating measures happening inside the university. Measures taken included empowerment of frontline staff, strengthening of restrictions, strengthening university health center, vigorous contact tracing, widespread health education, maintaining cultural sensitivity, and establishment of early standard operating procedures and university continuity plans. Hence, UMS was able to ensure no importation of cases into its campus during both acute and containment phases at the nationwide level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470528PMC
September 2020

Post discharge positive re-tests in COVID-19: common but clinically non-significant.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2020 10 24;52(10):743-745. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Medicine, RIPAS Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2020.1780309DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of increasing pre-pubertal concentrate levels on reproductive and lactation performance of Nili-Ravi Buffalo heifers.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Nov 16;52(6):2897-2903. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Livestock Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing total nutrient supply by increasing level of concentrate supplementation in forage-based diet of growing Nili-Ravi buffalo replacement heifers on pre-pubertal growth rate and its impact on age at puberty and post-pubertal productive and reproductive performance. Twenty-eight Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers of 7 ± 1 month age were divided into 3 groups. The treatments were 3 levels of concentrate (crude protein (CP) = 17.9%, metabolisable energy (ME) = 2.66 Mcal/kg), i.e. 0.5, 1, and 1.5% of the body weight referred as low, medium, and high treatments, respectively. Irrespective of pre-pubertal treatment, all the heifers received similar feed after puberty up to completion of their first lactation. The results of the study showed a similar response across the treatments in age, weight, and condition at puberty, weight at calving, lactation length, and yield. The medium and high treatments resulted in poor reproductive performance because of higher services per conception and less number of heifers confirmed conceived compared with low treatment. The low treatment resulted in less mortality compared with medium and high treatments. The feeding cost per animal at puberty, conception, and calving was lowest for treatment low as compared with medium and high. In conclusion, the results of the study showed that Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers achieved puberty at 23 months with feeding of concentrate (CP = 17.9%, ME = 2.66 Mcal/kg) during pre-pubertal stage at the rate of 0.5% of the body weight with better reproductive performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02285-8DOI Listing
November 2020

Management of medical record in installation of inpatient Regional Public Hospital Batara Guru Belopa.

Enferm Clin 2020 06;30 Suppl 4:481-483

Faculty of Economy and Business, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia.

Objective: This study aims to obtain information about the management of the patient's medical record completeness in the inpatient installation of Regional Public Hospital Batara Guru Belopa.

Methods: Research method is qualitative using phenomenology approach. Determination of informants using purposive sampling method (18 informants). Data analysis using emik data reduction.

Result: Human Resources who still need additional staff because large number of patients and workload of the officers, doctors rarely fill in the full medical record sheets due to negligence of doctors due to other activities. Procedure, there are still officers who do not know the flow of exit and entry of the medical record file to the inpatient installation. Medical record completeness is seen from the information, implementation of hospital policy regarding the completeness of filling in medical record is not maximal.

Conclusion: Hospital should be conducted a routine evaluation related to the completeness of the medical record and activated hospital Management Information System.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.10.125DOI Listing
June 2020

Relationship of the container type and material with the density of Aedes aegypti larvae in Gowa and Maros Regency.

Enferm Clin 2020 06;30 Suppl 4:399-402

Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aims to determine the relationship of the container type and material with the density of Aedes aegypti larvae.

Method: This type of study was observational by using cross-sectional design. The samples on this study were 100 houses in each region which were taken by purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.

Results: The results showed that there was relationship between the container type with the density of A. aegypti larvae (p=0.012<0.05) in Maros Regency, whereas in there was no relationship (p=0.935 >0.05) in Gowa Regency. There was relationship between container material with the density of A. aegypti larvae (p=0.001<0.05) in Maros Regency, whereas there was no relationship (p=0.956>0.05) in Gowa Regency.

Concusion: It is expected that relevant agencies will make efforts to control the A. aegypti larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.10.109DOI Listing
June 2020

How Does Workplace Ostracism Lead to Service Sabotage Behavior in Nurses: A Conservation of Resources Perspective.

Front Psychol 2020 26;11:850. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Management Sciences, Bahria University, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

This article aims to investigate how workplace ostracism acts as a motive behind customer service sabotage. We examine the role of stress as a meditating variable along with the moderation of perceived organizational support (POS) on the said association by using conservation of resources and equity theory. A total of 217 nurses from hospitals of the southern Punjab region in Pakistan participated in the study. Data were collected through survey and structured questionnaires. SPSS and AMOS were used to analyze data with the latest techniques of bootstrapping and process macros. The results showed that stress mediated between the association of workplace ostracism and service sabotage behavior. POS was confirmed as a moderator between this relationship. POS buffered the harmful effects of ostracism and stress on customer service, as POS demonstrates to personnel that they are cherished and respected by the organization. This lessens the strength of perceived stress due to workplace ostracism. Organizational leadership should take advantage of the stress-alleviating effect of POS, which is important in producing adequate levels of work performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264410PMC
May 2020

Cytoprotective Role of Omentin Against Oxidative Stress-Induced Vascular Endothelial Cells Injury.

Molecules 2020 May 29;25(11). Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Endothelial cell injury caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Omentin, an adipocytokine that is abundantly expressed in visceral fat tissue, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. However, endothelial protective effects of omentin against oxidative stress remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of omentin against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity and cytoprotective effects of omentin were evaluated using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic activity of HUVECs was detected using Annexin-V/PI and Hoechst 33258 staining methods. Antioxidant activity of omentin was evaluated by measuring both reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. No cytotoxicity effect was observed in HUVECs treated with omentin alone at concentrations of 150 to 450 ng/ml. MTT assay showed that omentin significantly prevented the cell death induced by HO ( < 0.001). Hoechst staining and flow cytometry also revealed that omentin markedly prevented HO-induced apoptosis. Moreover, omentin not only significantly inhibited ROS production ( < 0.01) but also significantly ( < 0.01) increased GPx activity in HUVECs. In conclusion, our data suggest that omentin may protect HUVECs from injury induced by HO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321413PMC
May 2020

Does 'fast - track' axillary node clearance following positive core biopsy lead to overtreatment of axilla?

Surgeon 2021 Jun 20;19(3):135-141. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Surgery, Russells Hall Hospital, Pensnett Road, Dudley DY1 2HQ, West Midlands, UK.

Aims: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the preferred axillary staging procedure, although axillary node clearance (ANC) is still indicated in subgroups of patients. This study aims to review our practice of axillary treatment in node positive cancer, to determine the proportion of patients requiring ANC and to identify if this can be avoided in some patients.

Methods: Retrospective data for all breast cancer patients who underwent surgery between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2018 were included in this study. The histopathology results of ANC were correlated with axillary ultrasound findings, axillary biopsy or SLNB results and effect of neoadjuvant treatment. These were analysed against the available guidelines to evaluate the current practice.

Results: 82 patients out of 520 had ANC (15.7%). Four groups were identified: Group A included 45 patients with nodal infiltration on preoperative biopsy; Group B included 24 patients with nodal infiltration who had neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT); Group C included 11 patients with involved nodes on SLNB; Group D included 2 patients with axillary recurrence. 35.5% of patients in Group A had only 1-2 positive nodes following ANC. Complete pathological response was observed in 37.5% patients following NACT. No further nodes were subsequently found in a majority of patients who underwent ANC following positive SLNB (63.6%).

Conclusions: 15.7% of breast cancer patients required ANC. Few patients now require ANC following positive SLNB. The practice of direct (fast-track) ANC after axillary biopsy may lead to overtreatment of the axilla, which needs re-evaluation. Targeted axillary dissection could avoid unnecessary axillary dissection in patients with abnormal nodes and in patients who have received NACT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surge.2020.04.009DOI Listing
June 2021

Prevention of occupational injuries and accidents: A social capital perspective.

Nurs Inq 2020 10 13;27(4):e12354. Epub 2020 May 13.

COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore, Pakistan.

Prior research has consistently established the pragmatic nature of literature regarding occupational injuries and accidental happenings faced by nursing professionals. However, current realities require a subjective approach to identify preventative measures that could influence occupational health and safety in healthcare sectors. A qualitative design followed a descriptive approach to assess unbiased opinions towards occupational obstructions that lead to accidental happenings. This study used the social capital framework in particular as a support resource to eliminate its detrimental effects on nurse's capacity to serve their patients. The findings extended the fundamental understanding of social capital from social ties to workplace and personal ties as potential mechanisms of support. Healthcare organizations need to redefine their control policies to provide the ultimate support to their care agents. A social capital model offers nursing practitioners and nursing managers an approach for building evidence-based policies with implications for nurse's safety, education and training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nin.12354DOI Listing
October 2020