Publications by authors named "Mu Li"

421 Publications

The anterior segment biometrics in high myopia eyes.

Ophthalmic Res 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Introduction: To investigate and compare the anterior segment biometrics in high myopia and control groups.

Methods: Thirty-four eyes of 34 high myopia patients and 42 eyes of 42 control subjects were included. The Schlemm's canal (SC) area, trabecular meshwork (TM) thickness and length, scleral spur (SS) length and anterior scleral thickness (AST) were measured using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Associations between SC area, TM thickness, TM length, SS length and AST were also estimated.

Results: SC area, TM thickness and SS length were significantly associated with AST0 (AST at 0mm from SS) in both high myopia and control groups. AST0 (702.61±78.05 vs. 729.12±95.87 μm, p=0.085) and SS length (206.25±52.25 vs. 212.09±51.86 μm, p=0.556) were not significantly different between high myopia and control groups, whereas SC area (6622.68±1130.06 vs. 6105.85±1297.84 μm2, p=0.015) was significantly greater and TM thickness (96.15±34.40 vs. 107.93±29.97 μm, p=0.048) was significantly thinner in high myopia group than in control group.

Conclusion: SC area and TM thickness were significantly associated with AST0, while AST0 and SS length were not significantly different between high myopia and control groups. The changes in SC and TM dimensions in high myopia eyes might be caused by factors other than AST0 and SS length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000526280DOI Listing
August 2022

Prevalence of, and factors associated with anaemia in children aged 1-3 years in Aceh, Indonesia: A cross-sectional study.

Nutr Health 2022 Jul 25:2601060221116195. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia.

Child anaemia continues to represent a major public health challenge in lower-and-middle income countries. It has serious long-term consequences for child growth and development. In Indonesia, there was a 10% increase in the national prevalence of child anaemia between 2013 and 2018. This study aims to assess the prevalence of, and factors associated with anaemia among children aged one to three years in eight districts in Aceh Province, Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1148 mother-child dyads aged one to three years between November and December 2018. The sampling process involved a three-stage cluster sampling design using the probability proportionate to size methodology. Anaemia status was determined using haemoglobin level (Hb < 11.0 g/dL). Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associated factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 76.1% (869/1142). 44.7% (510/1142) and 28.6% (327/1142) had moderate and mild anaemia, respectively. Child aged 12-24 months (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), not receiving routine immunisation (aOR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.34-5.10), and maternal anaemia (aOR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.59-2.90) were significantly associated with anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia among the children in this study was high, and was associated with child age, immunisation status, and maternal anaemia. These findings provide further insight into anaemia as a public health issue at a sub-national level in Indonesia and for development of targeted programmes to address associated risk factors of child anaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02601060221116195DOI Listing
July 2022

Surface Doping of Anionic Clusters Facilitated Direct Fabrication of Commercial Cellulose Nanofibrils for Long-Range Ordered Layer Structures.

Biomacromolecules 2022 Aug 24;23(8):3329-3335. Epub 2022 Jul 24.

South China Advanced Institute for Soft Matter Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640, China.

The fabrication of commercial cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) into arrays with long-range ordering is of great significance for their extended applications, which, however, is severely hindered by their high disorder, aggregation, and hornified features. Herein, sub-nanoscale anionic metal oxide clusters (phosphotungstic acid, HPWO, PTA) are applied to complex with commercial CNFs (dried powder DCNF and aqueous suspension WCNF) in aqueous media, and a long-range ordered layer structure can be facilely fabricated typical unidirectional freezing. The surface complexation of the commercial CNFs and PTA can be confirmed through the small-angle scattering studies of the complex hydrogels. The hydrogels present similar correlation lengths in small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering measurements, suggesting the homogeneous distribution of PTA along the commercial CNFs. This gives rise to the negatively charged surface feature and further leads to strong repulsion among the commercial CNFs. Due to the disparity in sizes, the influence of PTA on the density of hydrogel networks is suppressed, and the network density is mainly dependent on the mass content of CNFs. The studies provide guidance to fabricate hydrogels with catalytic and photosensitive properties and also to design and stabilize long-range ordered structured aerogels during the removal of the nonfreezing bound water absorbed by the commercial CNFs after unidirectional freezing. This facile strategy shows great potential to broaden the application of commercial CNFs in thermal insulators, super-adsorbent materials, and supercapacitors in electrical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.2c00438DOI Listing
August 2022

Pyeloplasty with the Kangduo surgical robot vs. the da Vinci Si robotic system: preliminary results.

J Endourol 2022 Jul 21. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Beijing, China;

Objective: To share our experience in robot-assisted pyeloplasty (RAP) with the Kangduo (KD) surgical robot vs. the da Vinci Si (DV) robotic system (KD-RAP vs. DV-RAP, respectively).

Methods: From August 2019 to February 2021, 16 patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) underwent KD-RAP and other 16 patients with UPJO accepted DV-RAP. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The perioperative results and follow-up data were prospectively collected and compared.

Results: There was no conversion to open or laparoscopic surgery. The mean operation time was significantly longer in the KD-RAP group than the DV-RAP group (141 ± 28 vs. 118 ± 31 min, respectively, p = 0.04). The time per stitch was significantly longer in the KD-RAP group than the DV-RAP group (1.7 ± 0.5 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3 min, respectively, p = 0.05). No significant difference was noted in the estimated blood loss and the postoperative length of hospitalization. At a median follow-up of 19 (range, 17-21) and 19.5 (range, 14-33) months for the KD-RAP and DV-RAP groups respectively, no difference was noted in the success rates between the KD-RAP and DV-RAP groups (93.75% and 100%, respectively; p = 0.31). Complications were comparable between the two groups (p = 0.54). One (6.3%) patient developed urinary infection which responded well to oral antibiotics in KD-RAP group and 2 (12.5%) patients suffered from irritation symptoms of bladder which improved after removal of D-J stent in DV-RAP group.

Conclusion: The RAP with the use of the KD system was feasible, safe and effective. The DV-RAP group showed advantage in the operation time and the time per stitch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2022.0366DOI Listing
July 2022

Novel Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymer-Based Nanomicelles for Photothermal Therapy in the NIR Window.

Biomacromolecules 2022 Aug 21;23(8):3243-3256. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Biomedical Materials and Engineering Research Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

In this study, a novel donor-acceptor conjugated polymer PDPPDTP was designed and synthesized by D-A polymerization using 2,6-di(trimethyltin)--dithieno[3,2-:20,30-]pyrrole as the electron-donating (D) unit and 3,6-bis(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-2,5-dihexadecylpyrrolo[3,4-]pyrrole-1,4-dione as the electron-accepting (A) unit. The prepared polymer has strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) range of 700-900 nm. Moreover, it shows excellent photothermal performance under irradiation at 808 nm. Next, the biodegradable amphiphilic polymer polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone was used to encapsulate the new conjugated polymer into nanomicelles by the microemulsion method. The obtained PDPPDTP-loaded micelles exhibited a regular spherical structure, and their hydrodynamic diameter was about 78 nm, characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Notably, the micelles exhibited good stability, and the encapsulation efficiency of the conjugated polymer in the micelles was ∼80%. In vitro cell experiments demonstrated that the nanomicelles not only showed good biocompatibility and low toxicity but also could effectively inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells 4T1 under the NIR light irradiation of 808 nm. Furthermore, in vivo studies of photothermal therapy (PTT) efficacy showed that the PDPPDTP-loaded micelles exhibited a remarkable tumor growth inhibition in a syngeneic murine tumor model, indicating that the nanomicelles loaded with this novel conjugated polymer could be further explored as a new type of theranostic agent and applied in the PTT of tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.2c00330DOI Listing
August 2022

Machine learning in the identification, prediction and exploration of environmental toxicology: Challenges and perspectives.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jun 27;438:129487. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education)/Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China. Electronic address:

Over the past few decades, data-driven machine learning (ML) has distinguished itself from hypothesis-driven studies and has recently received much attention in environmental toxicology. However, the use of ML in environmental toxicology remains in the early stages, with knowledge gaps, technical bottlenecks in data quality, high-dimensional/heterogeneous/small-sample data analysis and model interpretability, and a lack of an in-depth understanding of environmental toxicology. Given the above problems, we review the recent progress in the literature and highlight state-of-the-art toxicological studies using ML (such as learning and predicting toxicity in complicated biosystems and multiple-factor environmental scenarios of long-term and large-scale pollution). Beyond predicting simple biological endpoints by integrating untargeted omics and adverse outcome pathways, ML development should focus on revealing toxicological mechanisms. The integration of data-driven ML with other methods (e.g., omics analysis and adverse outcome pathway frameworks) endows ML with widely promising application in revealing toxicological mechanisms. High-quality databases and interpretable algorithms are urgently needed for toxicology and environmental science. Addressing the core issues and future challenges for ML in this review may narrow the knowledge gap between environmental toxicity and computational science and facilitate the control of environmental risk in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129487DOI Listing
June 2022

Programing a cyanide-free transformation of aldehydes to nitriles and one-pot synthesis of amides through tandem chemo-enzymatic cascades.

RSC Adv 2022 Jun 16;12(28):17873-17881. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

College of Material, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University Hangzhou 311121 PR China

Nitriles are broadly applied to synthesize pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials because of their versatile transformation. Although various methods have been developed for introducing a nitrile group into organic molecules, most of them entail the use of highly toxic chemicals, transition metals, or harsh conditions. In this work, we reported a greener chemo-enzymatic cascade to synthesize alky and aryl nitriles from readily accessible aldehydes, that were further transformed into corresponding amides an artificial enzyme cascade. A biphasic reaction system was designed to bridge chemical synthesis and enzymatic catalysis through simple phase separation. The biphasic system mainly perfectly avoided the inactivation of hydroxylamine on aldoxime dehydratase from (OxdF1) and nitrile hydratase from ATCC BAA-1229 (NHase1229). For the synthesis of various nitriles, moderate isolation yields of approximately 60% were obtained by the chemo-enzymatic cascade. Interestingly, two seemingly conflicting reactions of dehydration and hydration were sequentially proceeded to synthesize amides by the synergistic catalysis of OxdF1 and NHase1229 in cells. An isolation yield of approximately 62% was achieved for benzamide at the one-liter scale. In addition, the shuttle transport of substrates and products between two phases is convenient for the product separation and -hexane recycling. Thus, the chemo-enzymatic cascade shows a potential application in the cyanide-free and large-scale synthesis of nitriles and amides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra03256bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201870PMC
June 2022

Humic acids alleviate the toxicity of reduced graphene oxide modified by nanosized palladium in microalgae.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Aug 20;241:113794. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education)/Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China.

The use of graphene-family materials modified by nanosized palladium (Pd/GFMs) has intensified rapidly in various fields; however, the effects of environmental factors (e.g., natural organic matter (NOM)) on the transformation and ecotoxicity of Pd/GFMs remain largely unknown. In this study, reduced graphene oxide modified by nanosized Pd (Pd/rGO) was incubated with humic acid (HA) under light irradiation for 56 d to explore the effects of NOM on the physicochemical transformations (e.g., defects, surface charges and dispersity) and biological toxicity (e.g., growth inhibition, oxidative stress and ultrastructural damage on algae cells) of Pd/GFMs. The results revealed that HA increased the defects and dispersity of Pd/rGO. Growth inhibition, damage to cellular ultrastructures, and oxidative stress in microalgae cells were induced by Pd/rGO, and corresponding defense responses (e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione) were activated. HA diminished the above defense responses in microalgae triggered by Pd/rGO by regulating GSH metabolism and the alanine biosynthesis pathway. In the presence of HA, cell wall damage (i.e., hole formation) caused by exposure to Pd/rGO was restored, and the plasmolysis area was reduced by 28.6 %. In addition, growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS formation induced by 1.0 mg/L MoSNPs were decreased by 1.4-65.6 %, 13.9-26.1 %, 21.8-58.3 % and 9.6-16.1 %, respectively. These findings highlight the need to consider the effects of HA on the environmental transformation and biological toxicity of Pd/GFMs, which presents significant implications for the management of Pd/GFMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113794DOI Listing
August 2022

A novel nanofibrous PAN ultrafiltration membrane embedded with ZIF-8 nanoparticles for effective removal of Congo red, Pb(II), and Cu(II) in industrial wastewater treatment.

Chemosphere 2022 Oct 14;304:135285. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Shenzhen Environmental Science and New Energy Laboratory, Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen Institute, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, China.

A novel Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite membrane involving ZIF-8 nanoparticles, named as ZIF-8/PAN membrane, was obtained via electrospinning to remove the Congo red (CR), Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions in industrial wastewaters, during which the adsorption mechanisms were examined in this study. The adsorption efficiency of the electrospun ZIF-8/PAN membrane was as high as 89%, 92% and 76% for CR, Pb(II) and Cu(II), respectively. Comparative analysis showed that ZIF-8 nanoparticles embedded in the ZIF-8/PAN membrane accounted for these enhanced adsorption capabilities. The adsorption behaviors of the ZIF-8 nanoparticles were investigated through experiments and theoretical analysis, and the results unraveled that the adsorption for CR by the ZIF-8 was mainly including electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding and π-π interaction, while those for Pb(II) and Cu(II) were mainly caused by ion-exchange and chemical adsorption. Parametric studies were conducted to optimize the conditions for removing CR, Pb(II), and Cu(II) by ZIF-8 nanoparticles, during which all of pollutants showed different reactions to the solution pH. This work not only develops a novel ZIF-8/PAN composite membrane for effective removals of pollutants, but also reveals the underlying mechanisms of pollutants adsorption in terms of molecular interactions, providing important understandings on fibrous materials design for efficient heavy metals and dyes removals in industrial wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135285DOI Listing
October 2022

Combination therapy of tacrolimus, high doses of glucocorticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide against existing historical treatment for patients in severe conditions of interstitial lung diseases complicated with dermatomyositis: A retrospective analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jun 17;101(24):e29108. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Rheumatology & Immunology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Abstract: The high-dose glucocorticosteroid (GC) treatment is the first choice for dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial lung disease (DM-ILD) but patients are resistant to the high-dose GC monotherapy. Besides, the high dose of GC, the secondary immunosuppressive agent(s) is necessary but there is controversy for the selection of immunosuppressive agent(s). The objectives of the study were to analyze the efficacy of different therapeutic options for DM-ILD to identify the optimal therapy. A total of 60 patients had received intravenous 1.0-2.0 mg/ kg/day prednisolone for DM-ILD. In severe conditions, patients had received oral 1 to 3 mg/day tacrolimus (TAC), 500 mg/ m2/month cyclophosphamide (CY), and/or 1 g/ day methylprednisolone pulse (TI cohort, n = 24). In severe conditions, patients had received 1 g/day methylprednisolone pulse and 2-3 mg/ kg/day cyclosporine A (CsA) and/or 500 mg/ m2/month CY (existing historical treatment; CT cohort, n = 36). Patients of the TI cohort did not receive CsA. Patients in the CT cohort were received CY in significantly fewer numbers than those of the TI cohort during treatment (P = .0112). A total of 11 (46%) patients from the TI cohort and 14 (39%) patients from the CT cohort were developed relapsed. At the end of the 30-months, higher numbers of patients of the TI cohort had an event(s) free survival than those of the CT cohort (7 (29%) vs 2 (6%), P = .0229). Also, higher numbers of patients of the TI cohort had survived irrespective of an event(s) than those of the CT cohort (21 (87%) vs 22 (61%), P = .0399). Patients of the TI cohort had developed herpes zoster (2 (8%)) and cytomegalovirus (4 (17%)) infections. Patients of the CT cohort developed renal dysfunction (10 (28%)). Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and fracture (GC-related toxicities) were also reported in both cohorts and these toxicities were fever in the TI cohort. The addition of TAC to high doses GC with CY is an ideal treatment for severe conditions of DM-ILD (Level of Evidence: III; Technical Efficacy Stage: 4).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000029108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9276089PMC
June 2022

Characterization of the Prognostic Values of CXCL Family in Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Gastric Cancer.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 1;2022:2218140. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005, China.

Background: CXCL family is a class of secreted growth factors signaling through G-protein-coupled receptors, and abnormal expression is associated with the growth and progression of many tumors. However, their prognostic value has been poorly studied in Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV-) associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC). Therefore, it is of great significance to explore the prognostic value of the CXCL family in EBVaGC.

Methods: CXCL family mRNA expression was analyzed in STAD data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Kaplan-Meier Plotter was used to assess the prognostic value of the CXCL family. Transcription factors (TFs) and miRNAs associated with the CXCL family were identified by TFCheckpoint, miRWalk, and ViRBase databases. The prognostic model was evaluated using the EBVaGC patient cohort GSE51575.

Results: The mRNA expression of CXCL1/3/5/6/8/9/10/11/16 was significantly upregulated, while the expression of CXCL12/14 was downregulated in EBVaGC compared with normal tissues from TCGA-STAD. The mRNA expressions of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL17 in EBVaGCs were higher than those in EBVnGCs, but the mRNA expressions of CXCL6, CXCL12, and CXCL17 were lower than those in EBVnGCs. The mRNA expression levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in EBVaGCs were higher than those in EBVnGCs regardless of the tumor stage. High mRNA expression of CXCL8 was associated with better OS in patients with EBVaGC, while high expression of CXCL9 was associated with better OS in patients with EBVnGC. We obtained 10 candidate potential transcription factors (TFs) associated with CXCLs: OTOP3, NKX6-2, NKX2-2, FEV, SMYD1, TRIMSO, TBX10, CDX1, SLC26A3, and ARC. 576 miRNA-mRNA interactions were obtained. Among them, 65 miRNAs were predicted to be correlated with CXCL6, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Similar to the results of TCGA-STAD, the GSE51575 dataset also showed that the mRNA expression levels of CXCL1/3/9/10/11/16 were markedly enhanced in EBVaGC tissues compared with corresponding normal gastric mucosa tissues, while the mRNA expression levels of CXCL12/14 were significantly reduced. The mRNA expression levels of CXCL3/9/10/11/13/17 were increased in EBVaGC compared with EBVnGC tissues.

Conclusions: The expression differences of CXCL family members are closely associated with the progression of EBVaGC. Expression of CXCL9/10/11/17 mRNA may be a promising prognostic indicator for EBVaGC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2218140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9177340PMC
June 2022

Macular Retinal Microvasculature of Hyperopia, Emmetropia, and Myopia in Children.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 20;9:900486. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Purpose: To compare macular retinal microcirculation in myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia groups and investigate the relationship between macular retinal microcirculation and axial length (AL) in children.

Methods: Forty myopic, 29 emmetropic, and 34 hyperopic eyes were included. All the recruited eyes underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) examinations. After adjusting the image size by the Littmann method and Bennett formula, the vessel density (VD) of the deep capillary plexus (DCP) and superficial vascular plexus (SVP) were assessed.

Results: The VD of the DCP was significantly lower in the myopia group than in the hyperopia group, whereas no significant differences in the VD of the SVP were observed among the myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia groups. The VD of the DCP was significantly associated with AL, spherical equivalent (SE), and foveal retinal thickness (FRT), whereas the VD of the SVP was only significantly associated with FRT but not with AL or SE.

Conclusions: The myopic VD of the DCP was significantly lower than the hyperopic one, and the VD of the DCP was significantly associated with AL, indicating that myopia has a lower VD of the DCP, and AL could have a negative effect on the VD of the DCP. Thus, early myopic axial stretching might decrease retinal blood perfusion of the DCP in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.900486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9163362PMC
May 2022

Decoupling Segmental Dynamics and Ionic Transport for Superionic Anhydrous Proton Conductors of Polyoxometalate-poly(ethylene glycol) Nanocomposites.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2022 Jun 1:e2200227. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

South China Advanced Institute for Soft Matter Science and Technology & State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Superionic anhydrous proton conductors can be obtained from the complexation of nanoscale polyoxometalates (POMs) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the "polymer in salt" regime. The reduced energy barrier of H hopping is facilitated from the increased H concentration and shortened inter-POM distances. POMs with identical structure/size (≈1 nm) but different charge densities are complexed with PEG, respectively, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 % wt. Increasing trends of viscosities can be observed with the rising charge densities of POMs due to the increasing confinement strength on PEG substrate from POMs. Fractional Walden rule is further applied to analyze the viscosity and proton conductivity correlations, and microscopic mechanisms of proton conduction for PEG-POM nanocomposites are revealed: 1) ion transport is highly associated with polymer chain dynamic for POMs concentrations ranging from 10 to 30 % wt.; 2) ionic conduction is largely decoupled from chain dynamic of polymer matrix for concentrations ranging from 40 to 60 % wt. with Walden plots shifted to the superionic regime. The decoupling of proton transport from polymer segment dynamics allows the simultaneous enhancements of the nanocomposites' mechanical properties and proton conductions, providing guidelines for the rational design of anhydrous proton conductors with integrated functionalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202200227DOI Listing
June 2022

Bedtime procrastination in the relationship between self-control and depressive symptoms in medical students: From the perspective of sex differences.

Sleep Med 2022 Jul 30;95:84-90. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, China; Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Province, Dalian, China. Electronic address:

Background: Depressive symptoms typically exhibit sex differences among medical students and are associated with bedtime procrastination (BP) and self-control. However, it remains unclear whether sex differences exist in the relationship between these variables.

Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 402 medical students from a public university in China. Students' depressive symptoms, BP, and trait self-control were assessed using the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the Bedtime Procrastination Scale, and the Self-control Scale, respectively. Applying a BDI cutoff value of 14, 364 valid participants were divided into non-depressed (<14) and depressed (≥14) groups.

Results: Binary logistic regression revealed that BP was an independent predictor of the prevalence of depressive symptoms in women only. Hierarchical regression showed that high BP levels were independently positively correlated to more depressive symptoms only in non-depressed women. In contrast, low self-control levels were independently negatively correlated to more depressive symptoms in non-depressed and depressed female students. Furthermore, structural equation modeling reflected the mediating role of BP between self-control and depressive symptoms in the non-depressed female group only.

Conclusions: Sex differences exist in the effect of BP on depressive symptoms as well as the relationship between self-control and depressive symptoms among Chinese medical students. As a moderator, sex regulates the mediating effect of BP on the relationship between self-control and depressive symptoms in the non-depressed group. These findings provide a sex-specific perspective for targeted prevention and intervention of depressive symptoms among high-risk medical students, especially during the non-depressed period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2022.04.022DOI Listing
July 2022

Vector-Controlled Wheel-Like Magnetic Swarms With Multimodal Locomotion and Reconfigurable Capabilities.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 25;10:877964. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Inspired by the biological collective behaviors of nature, artificial microrobotic swarms have exhibited environmental adaptability and tasking capabilities for biomedicine and micromanipulation. Complex environments are extremely relevant to the applications of microswarms, which are expected to travel in blood vessels, reproductive and digestive tracts, and microfluidic chips. Here we present a strategy that reconfigures paramagnetic nanoparticles into a vector-controlled microswarm with 3D collective motions by programming sawtooth magnetic fields. Horizontal swarms can be manipulated to stand vertically and swim like a wheel by adjusting the direction of magnetic-field plane. Compared with horizontal swarms, vertical wheel-like swarms were evaluated to be of approximately 15-fold speed increase and enhanced maneuverability, which was exhibited by striding across complex 3D confinements. Based on analysis of collective behavior of magnetic particles in flow field using molecular dynamics methods, a rotary stepping mechanism was proposed to address the formation and locomotion mechanisms of wheel-like swarm. we present a strategy that actuates swarms to stand and hover under a programming swing magnetic fields, which provides suitable solutions to travel across confined space with unexpected changes, such as stepped pipes. By biomimetic design from fin motion of fish, wheel-like swarms were endowed with multi-modal locomotion and load-carrying capabilities. This design of intelligent microswarms that adapt to complicated biological environments can promote the applications ranging from the construction of smart and multifunctional materials to biomedical engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.877964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9081439PMC
April 2022

Trends in Preoperative Chemotherapy Utilization for Proximal Pancreatic Cancer: Are We Making Progress?

J Gastrointest Surg 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Surgery, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: While it has been shown that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) for pancreatic cancer (PDAC) undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is critical for optimal oncologic management, NCT is (A) not universally practiced and (B) the reasons ill-defined. This study investigates national rates, trends, and factors affecting NCT utilization.

Patients And Methods: Using the National Cancer Database, patients who underwent PD for PDAC between 2006 and 2017 were identified. Changes in chemotherapy sequence over time were identified. For patients diagnosed after 2010, multivariable logistic regression models for factors affecting NCT were created.

Results: A total of 128,980 patients were diagnosed and 23,206 underwent surgery. Three thousand five (12.9%) received NCT with a preoperative chemotherapy (NCT + PCT) utilization rate of 7.3% in 2004 that increased to 36.8% in 2017. Factors affecting utilization of preoperative chemotherapy were age (OR 0.972), academic and integrated network institutions (OR 1.916, OR 1.559), institutional case volume (OR 1.007), distance from the hospital (OR 1.002), stage (IB OR 3.108, IIA OR 3.133, IIB OR 3.775, III OR 3.782), grade IV (OR 1.977), and insurance status (private OR 2.371, Medicaid OR 1.811, and Medicare OR 2.191, government OR 2.645).

Conclusion: Even though more than 3/5 of patients receive no preoperative chemotherapy (NCT + PCT) and nearly 1/5 of patients still receive no chemotherapy at all, utilization of NCT is increasing. Moreover, since this study demonstrates that omission of NCT is associated with modifiable factors such as type of institution and health care disparity, mechanisms (reimbursement, policy) geared to change current national practice patterns may most immediately affect optimal oncologic management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-022-05336-7DOI Listing
May 2022

The impact of a package of behaviour change interventions on breastfeeding practices in East Java Province, Indonesia.

Matern Child Nutr 2022 07 29;18(3):e13362. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Regional Center for Food and Nutrition, Pusat Kajian Gizi Regional Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Suboptimal infant young child feeding practices are frequently reported globally, including in Indonesia. This analysis examined the impact of a package of behaviour change interventions on breastfeeding practices in Malang and Sidoarjo Districts, East Java Province, Indonesia. The BADUTA study (which in the Indonesian Language is an acronym for BAwah DUa TAhun, or children aged less than 2 years) was an impact evaluation using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with two parallel treatment arms. We conducted household surveys in 12 subdistricts from Malang and Sidoarjo. We collected information from 5175 mothers of children aged 0-23 months: 2435 mothers at baseline (February 2015) and 2740 mothers at endline (January to February 2017). This analysis used two indicators for fever and diarrhoea and seven breastfeeding indicators (early initiation of breastfeeding, prelacteal feeding, exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months, predominant breastfeeding, continued breastfeeding, age-appropriate breastfeeding and bottle-feeding). We used multilevel logistic regression analysis to assess the effect of the intervention. After 2 years of implementation of interventions, we observed an increased odds of exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-2.53) and age-appropriate breastfeeding (aOR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.07-1.79) in the intervention group than in the comparison group, at the endline survey. We found significantly lower odds for prelacteal feeding (aOR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.41-0.65) in the intervention than in the comparison group. Our findings confirmed the benefits of integrated, multilayer behaviour change interventions to promote breastfeeding practices. Further research is required to develop effective interventions to reduce bottle use and improve other breastfeeding indicators that did not change with the BADUTA intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218323PMC
July 2022

The Effect of Trait Anxiety on Bedtime Procrastination: the Mediating Role of Self-Control.

Int J Behav Med 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, No. 850 Huanghe Road, Shahekou District, Dalian, 116029, China.

Background: Bedtime procrastination (BP), a special type of health behavior procrastination, is considered to be a failure of self-control. Notably, self-control may mediate the effect of trait anxiety on general procrastination. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the role of self-control in the relationship between trait anxiety and BP. Moreover, the association between BP and trait anxiety has not yet been thoroughly studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the direct relationship between them as well as the mediating role of self-control in this relationship.

Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 718 college students enrolled in Chinese universities between October 2018 and January 2020. The Chinese versions of the Bedtime Procrastination Scale, the Self-Control Scale, and the Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to evaluate BP, self-control, and trait anxiety, respectively.

Results: Multiple linear regression analysis revealed trait anxiety independently predicted BP while controlling for demographic characteristics. Correlation analyses showed that BP was positively correlated with trait anxiety, but negatively related to self-control. Structural equation modeling further revealed a mediating role of self-control in the relationship between trait anxiety and BP.

Conclusions: Trait anxiety is a significant independent predictor of BP and may induce BP directly or indirectly through the effect of self-control. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between trait anxiety and BP and the underlying mechanism by exploring the mediating effect of self-control. As such, trait anxiety and self-control should be included in prevention and intervention strategies to address BP behavior in college students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-022-10089-3DOI Listing
April 2022

Neuropathologic damage induced by radiofrequency ablation at different temperatures.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2022 15;77:100033. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Thyroid Breast, People's Hospital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Yinchuan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the molecular mechanism of neuropathologic damage induced by radiofrequency ablation at different temperatures.

Methods: This is basic research, and 36 SD rats were used to construct the neuropathological injury model. The rats were subjected to radiofrequency stimulation at different temperatures and were divided into 6 groups according to the temperature injury: 42°, 47°, 52°, 57°, 62°, and 67°C groups. Conduction time, conduction distance, and nerve conduction velocity were recorded after temperature injury. HE-staining was used to observe the histopathological morphology of the sciatic nerve. The expression of SCN9A, SCN3B, and NFASC protein in sciatic nerve tissue were detected by western blot.

Results: With the increase in temperature, nerve conduction velocity gradually decreased, and neurons were damaged when the temperature was 67°C. HE-staining showed that the degrees of degeneration of neurons in rats at 47°, 52°, 57°, 62°, and 67°C were gradually increased. The expression of SCN9A, SCN3B protein in 57°, 62°, 67°C groups were much higher than that of NC, 42°, 47°, 52°C groups. However, the expression of NFASC protein in 57°, 62°, 67°C groups was much lower than that of the NC, 42°, 47°, 52°C groups.

Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between temperature caused by the radiofrequency stimulation to neuropathological damage. The mechanism is closely related to the expression of SCN9A, SCN3B, and NFASC protein in nerve tissue caused by heat transfer injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinsp.2022.100033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9035646PMC
May 2022

High-Quality Surgery for Gallbladder Carcinoma: Rare, Associated with Disparity, and Not Substitutable by Chemotherapy.

J Gastrointest Surg 2022 06 8;26(6):1241-1251. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Surgery, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 11 Nevins St., Suite 201, Brighton, Boston, MA, 02135, USA.

Background: Oncologic surgery for T1b-T3 gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) consists of gallbladder fossa resection or bisegmentectomy IVb/V with negative margins and portal/retropancreatic lymphadenectomy. Frequency of high quality oncologic surgery, factors associated with its use, and the ability of chemotherapy to rescue low-quality surgery (LQS) remain unknown.

Methods: The NCDB was queried for patients diagnosed with stage I-III (T1b-T3) GBC undergoing curative-intent surgery from 2004 to 2016. These patients were divided into two groups based on receiving high quality surgery (HQS) or not; HQS was defined as cholecystectomy with partial hepatectomy, lymph node harvest ≥ 6, and negative margins. Logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 3796 patients met inclusion criteria; only 364 (9.6%) met HQS criteria, and 3432 (90.4%) did not achieve HQS and were deemed low-quality surgery (LQS). HQS was associated with improved median overall survival (55.1 vs. 25.5 months, P < .001). Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) was not able to rescue LQS with poorer survival compared to HQS without AC (27.9 vs 55.1 months, P < .001). Factors associated with HQS included private insurance (OR 1.809, P < .001), higher income (OR 1.380, P = .038), urban/rural residence (vs metropolitan) (OR 1.641, P = .001), higher education (OR 1.342, P = .031), Medicaid expansion states (OR 1.405, P = .005), stage 3 GBC (OR 1.642, P = .020), and reresection (OR 2.685, P < .001). Factors associated with LQS included older age (OR 0.974, P < .001), comorbidities (OR 0.701, P = .004), and laparoscopic approach (0.579, P < .001). Facility type incrementally improved HQS rate (integrated cancer network vs. comprehensive community, 9.8% vs. 6.1%, OR 1.694, P = .003; academic/research center vs. integrated cancer network, 14.9% vs. 9.8%, OR 1.599, P = .003).

Conclusion: While HQS for GBC strongly improves survival, it is infrequently practiced. The newly identified factors that improve survival for GBC, such as centralization, open approach, and insurance coverage, are modifiable and, therefore, should be considered to achieve optimal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-022-05290-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Uncovering the effects of bilingual language control on rational decisions: An ERP study.

Psychophysiology 2022 Apr 5:e14066. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, China.

A growing body of research suggests that the language in which bilinguals make decisions affects the rationality of such decisions. Furthermore, bilinguals constantly confront cross-language interference that requires complex language control processes to resolve this competition. However, the relationship between language control and decision-making is unclear. In the current study, we analyze electrophysiological and behavior data elicited from two groups of Chinese-English bilinguals. One group was trained in intensive language switching and then completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the other group completed the two tasks in the reverse order. We found that bilinguals who first received language switching training significantly scored higher on the IGT, with the score positively correlating with L1 and L2 switch costs. More importantly, training with language switching first led to an N2 component for L1 switching costs that negatively correlated with both loss feedback-related negativity and the P3 component. These effects did not emerge among the group of bilinguals who performed the IGT first. Taken together, the findings suggest that bilinguals are assisted in making rational decisions by language control on feedback evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.14066DOI Listing
April 2022

Assessment of Choroidal Vascularity and Choriocapillaris Blood Perfusion After Accommodation in Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia Groups Among Children.

Front Physiol 2022 17;13:854240. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Purpose: To investigate choroidal vascularity (CV) and choriocapillaris blood perfusion before and after accommodation in myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia groups among children.

Methods: This study included 39 myopic eyes from 22 subjects, 17 emmetropic eyes from 11 subjects, and 18 hyperopic eyes from 10 subjects. All subjects were children. Choroidal thickness (CT) and CV, including total choroidal area (TCA), luminal area (LA), and stromal area (SA) were measured using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Choriocapillaris luminal area (CLA) was measured using SS-OCT-angiography before and after accommodation (near reading with an additional -3 diopter lens).

Results: For baseline results, except horizontal CV (showing no significant differences between myopia and emmetropia groups), both horizontal and vertical CT and CV were significantly smaller in the myopia group than in the emmetropia or hyperopia groups. In terms of CLA, no significant differences were observed among the myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia groups. In addition, only myopic eyes showed significant decreases in CT and CV, whereas most CT and CV of emmetropic and hyperopic eyes showed non-significant decreases after accommodation. Furthermore, accommodation induced no significant changes in CLA in the myopia, emmetropia, or hyperopia groups.

Conclusion: Myopia had thinner baseline choroid and lower baseline choroidal blood perfusion. Furthermore, myopic eyes were more prone to choroidal thinning and blood perfusion decreases after accommodation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.854240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8968861PMC
March 2022

Is minimally invasive surgery for large gastric GIST actually safe? A comparative analysis of short- and long-term outcomes.

Surg Endosc 2022 Mar 21. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Surgery, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, 11 Nevins St., Suite 201, Brighton, MA, 02135, USA.

Introduction: While minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is frequently utilized to remove small gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), MIS surgery for tumors ≥ 5 cm is currently not endorsed by national guidelines as standard of care due to concerns of safety and inferior oncologic outcomes. Hence this study investigates the perioperative and long-term outcomes of MIS for T3 gastric GIST measuring 5-10 cm.

Methods: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) 2017 was queried for gastric GIST measuring 5-10 cm or T3 category. Inclusion criteria were known: stage, size, comorbidities, grade, lymphovascular invasion, type of surgery, approach, conversion info, margin status, mitotic rate, neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment, hospital stay, readmission, 30- and 90-day mortality, complete follow-up, type of institution, and hospital gastric surgery case volume. Binary logistic regression, linear regression models, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used.

Results: In 3765 patients, mean tumor size was 67.3 mm; 26.3% MIS; and 73.8% open. Median hospital stay was shorter for MIS (4.77 vs 7.04 days, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in incidence of R1 margins [2.9% MIS vs. 3.1% open (p = 0.143)], unplanned readmission [2.9% MIS and 4.1% open (OR 0.474 p = 0.025)], 30-day mortality [0.5% MIS vs 1.2% open (OR 0.325, p = 0.031)], and 90-day mortality [0.9% MIS vs 2.1% open (OR 0.478 p = 0.036)]. Cox regression models for OS showed no difference in survival (p = 0.137, HR 0.808).

Conclusion: This analysis provides substantial evidence that MIS for gastric GIST ≥ 5-10 cm may not only offer improved postoperative morbidity but also oncologic safety. Moreover, as both approaches lead to similar long-term survival, national guidelines may need to incorporate this new information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-022-09066-4DOI Listing
March 2022

Matrine exerts antitumor activity in cervical cancer by protective autophagy via the Akt/mTOR pathway and .

Oncol Lett 2022 Apr 7;23(4):110. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, P.R. China.

Matrine is a quinazoline alkaloid extracted from . The aim of the present study was to determine whether matrine can induce autophagy in the human HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines and . Cell viability assay was used to assess the suppressive effect of matrine and cisplatin on the proliferation of HeLa and SiHa cells. A total of 28 4-week-old female BALB/c nude mice were used for the study. Autophagy and protein expression were observed via transmission electron microscopy, monodansylcadaverine and immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. The inhibitory effect of matrine on the proliferation of cervical cancer cells was time- and dose-dependent. The combination of matrine and cisplatin synergistically inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cells and . Transmission electron microscopy showed that after the addition of matrine, numerous autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes were observable in HeLa and SiHa cells, as demonstrated by monodansylcadaverine staining. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining showed that as the concentration of matrine increased, the expression of the autophagy marker LC3A/B-II also increased significantly and . These findings suggested that matrine inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cells and induced autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, matrine may represented a potential candidate in combination therapy for cervical cancer as an inducer of autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2022.13230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8848215PMC
April 2022

Examining the relationship between bedtime procrastination and personality traits in Chinese college students: the mediating role of self-regulation skills.

J Am Coll Health 2022 Feb 14:1-7. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, China.

Personality traits are commonly used to explain individual differences in procrastinatory behavior. This study aims to examine the relationship between bedtime procrastination (BP) and personality traits, and to understand the role of self-regulation skills in this relationship. We recruited 294 college students. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires to evaluate BP, personality traits, and self-control (a main indicator of self-regulation skills). Correlation analysis showed that BP was positively correlated with the psychoticism and neuroticism dimensions of Eysenck's personality. Hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling analyses further revealed that psychoticism and neuroticism predicted BP directly and indirectly via self-control. BP has a significant relationship with Eysenck's personality traits, particularly, with some dimensions that directly and indirectly predict BP through self-regulation skills. Therefore, individualized intervention strategies based on personality traits and self-regulation skills should be integrated in measures used to reduce BP behaviors among college students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2022.2038179DOI Listing
February 2022

Pervasive misannotation of microexons that are evolutionarily conserved and crucial for gene function in plants.

Nat Commun 2022 02 10;13(1):820. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, 68588, USA.

It is challenging to identify the smallest microexons (≤15-nt) due to their small size. Consequently, these microexons are often misannotated or missed entirely during genome annotation. Here, we develop a pipeline to accurately identify 2,398 small microexons in 10 diverse plant species using 990 RNA-seq datasets, and most of them have not been annotated in the reference genomes. Analysis reveals that microexons tend to have increased detained flanking introns that require post-transcriptional splicing after polyadenylation. Examination of 45 conserved microexon clusters demonstrates that microexons and associated gene structures can be traced back to the origin of land plants. Based on these clusters, we develop an algorithm to genome-wide model coding microexons in 132 plants and find that microexons provide a strong phylogenetic signal for plant organismal relationships. Microexon modeling reveals diverse evolutionary trajectories, involving microexon gain and loss and alternative splicing. Our work provides a comprehensive view of microexons in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28449-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8831610PMC
February 2022

The impact of awareness and attitudes towards long-action reversible contraceptives on the intention to use: a survey among youth with unintended pregnancies.

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2022 Apr 8;27(2):121-126. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Shanghai Center for Women and Children's Health, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To understand the associations between awareness, attitudes, and intentions to use long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) among youth seeking induced abortion services in Shanghai, China.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1,215 nulliparous youth with unintented pregnancies in 41 hospitals of Shanghai, China, through a stratified sampling process between January and May 2019. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the associations between awareness, attitudes and intentions to use LARCs.

Results: Around 70% of youth had heard of at least one method of LARCs. About 38% of youth perceived that the copper-bearing intrauterine contraceptive device (Cu-IUD) was safe; the rate was 8% and 7%, respectively, for levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and subdermal implants. Less than 40% of youth thought Cu-IUD was effective in contraception, and it was around 6% for LNG-IUS and subdermal implants. Overall, less than 8% of youth expressed intentions to use LARCs. Positive attitudes towards LARCs were highly associated with the intentions to use LARCs [adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 3.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-5.42,  < 0.001].

Conclusions: Low awareness and negative attitudes towards LARCs were found in this study, and the negative attitudes towards LARCs could contribute to low intentions to use LARCs among youth who had already experienced unintended pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13625187.2022.2029396DOI Listing
April 2022

Systematic Metabolic Engineering for the Production of Azaphilones in HJ11.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Feb 27;70(5):1589-1600. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei Province, China.

Fungal azaphilones have attracted considerable interest as they exhibit great potential in food and pharmacological industries. However, there is a severe bottleneck in the low production in wild strains and the ability to genetically engineer azaphilone-producing fungi. Using azaphilones (MAs) as an example, we demonstrate a systematic metabolic engineering strategy for improving the production of MAs. In this study, HJ11 was systematically engineered through a combination of promoter engineering, gene knockout, rate-limiting enzyme overexpression, repression of the competing pathway, enzyme engineering, and metabolic rebalance. The maximum yield and titer of MAs successfully increased to 906 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) and 14.6 g/L, respectively, 2.6 and 3.7 times higher than those reported in the literature. Our successful model not only offers a practical and efficient way to improve the azaphilone production but also sheds light on the potential of systematic metabolic engineering in nonmodel fungi as a chassis for the production of high-value chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c07588DOI Listing
February 2022

Arsenite phytotoxicity and metabolite redistribution in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 21;820:153271. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Key Laboratory for Environmental Factors Control of Agro-product Quality Safety (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs), Tianjin Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Safe-product, Institute of Agro-environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Tianjin 300191, China. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As) contamination has become a global problem, especially in developing countries, where a significant percentage of the population depends on groundwater for drinking. Arsenic toxicity depends on its chemical form. Herein, we evaluated the phytotoxicity of arsenite [As(III)], including As accumulation and adverse physiological responses (e.g., growth inhibition, oxidative stress, and metabolic disturbances). Furthermore, this result was compared with the mechanism of the phytotoxicity of arsenate [As(V)] that we previously explored. As accumulated mainly in the roots (29.33-88.73 mg/kg) of lettuce, only a small amount was transferred to the leaves (0.08-0.22 mg/kg); arsenic mainly existed in the form of As(III) in plants. As(III) was positively correlated with Mn in the leaves and roots and negatively correlated with Ca in roots and Mg in leaves, consistent with the increase in SOD activity and the destruction of the chloroplast membrane. Plants responded differently to As(III) and As(V) in terms of the antioxidant response and metabolic response. CAT activity in leaves was reduced following As(III) exposure and increased upon As(V) exposure. Furthermore, As(III) decreased the levels of some products of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and induced abnormal metabolism of secondary metabolites, such as phenol and niacin. The present study explored arsenic accumulation induced by As(III), the related physiological and biochemical responses and subsequent metabolite redistribution, and provided insights into the effects of different As species on plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153271DOI Listing
May 2022

The anterior scleral thickness in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022 May 24;260(5):1601-1610. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Purpose: To investigate the anterior scleral thickness (AST) and its associations with Schlemm's canal (SC) area, trabecular meshwork (TM) thickness and length, and scleral spur (SS) length in healthy and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) groups.

Methods: Thirty-five eyes of 35 healthy subjects and 23 eyes of 23 patients with POAG were included. The AST, SC area, TM thickness and length, and SS length were measured using swept-source optical coherence tomography. AST was measured at 0 mm (AST0), 1 mm (AST1), 2 mm (AST2), and 3 mm (AST3) from SS. Associations between AST and SC area, TM thickness and length, and SS length were also estimated.

Results: AST0 (728.84 ± 99.33 vs. 657.39 ± 67.02 μm, p < 0.001), AST1 (537.79 ± 79.55 vs. 506.83 ± 57.37 μm, p = 0.038), AST3 (571.09 ± 79.15 vs. 532.13 ± 59.84 μm, p = 0.009), SC area (6304.26 ± 1238.72 vs. 4755.64 ± 1122.71 μm, p < 0.001), TM thickness (107.21 ± 31.26 vs. 94.51 ± 24.18 μm, p = 0.035), TM length (736.20 ± 141.85 vs. 656.43 ± 127.03 μm, p = 0.004), and SS length (219.89 ± 50.29 vs. 174.54 ± 35.58 μm, p < 0.001) were significantly greater in healthy group than in POAG group. In addition, SC area, TM thickness, and SS length were significantly and positively associated with AST0 in the healthy group, whereas no similar associations were observed in the POAG group.

Conclusions: Compared with the healthy group, AST was significantly thinner in the POAG group, which also had smaller SC and TM dimensions. Moreover, the SC area, TM thickness, and SS length were significantly and positively associated with AST in the healthy group. Thus, AST might play an important role in maintaining TM and SC morphology and further in the pathogenesis of POAG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05523-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9007782PMC
May 2022
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