Publications by authors named "Mst Samima Nasrin"

14 Publications

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Bioactive metabolites of attenuate anxiety and depression in rodents and computer-aided model.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 31;9(7):3836-3851. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Pharmacy International Islamic University Chittagong Chittagong Bangladesh.

is an edible plant with imperative medicinal values. However, the anxiolytic and antidepressant roles of have not been well-explained. Therefore, the current study aims to explore the impending bioactive metabolites and roles of methanol leaf extract (Me-BLL) in attenuating anxiety and depression through several experimental and computer-aided approaches. The chemical characterization of Me-BLL was performed through standard phytochemical and GC-MS analyses. To explore the neuropharmacological insights, Swiss albino mice were treated with Me-BLL at doses of 200-400 mg/kg, p.o. The anxiolytic effects were observed employing elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB), and hole-board (HBT) tests, while antidepressant effects were evaluated using forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine HCl (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as the reference standard. The phytochemical analyses revealed several bioactive metabolites, including higher contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. The EPM and LDB tests demonstrated an increased time spent in open arms and light box, and the HBT showed an increased number of head dipping, indicating the anxiolytic effects of Me-BLL. The TST and FST revealed a decrease in immobility time, meaning the persuasive antidepressant effects. The antioxidative effects of Me-BLL have also been observed prominently. Correspondingly, the computer-aided investigation confirmed several bioactive lead molecules. Specifically, thymol and cuminol revealed potential anxiolytic and antioxidant effects, while stigmast-5-en-3.beta.-ol and gamma-sitosterol possessed promising antidepressant effects. Taken these results as a base, the plant has imperative potentials in managing anxiety and depression-like disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269660PMC
July 2021

Antiproliferative and antioxidant potentials of bioactive edible vegetable fraction of Roxb. in cancer cell line.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 1;9(7):3777-3805. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmacy University of Rajshahi Rajshahi Bangladesh.

In the present study, the aerial parts of underwent investigation of their in vitro antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities in cell-free conditions, their phytoconstituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and their cytotoxic activity in HeLa cells. was extracted with 80% methanol and successively fractionated with solvents to yield petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and aqueous (AQF) fractions. GC-MS analysis revealed that CHF contained ten phytoconstituents, including different forms of octadecanoic acid methyl esters. The total antioxidant and ferric-reducing antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the standard catechin (CA) were as follows: CA >CHF >PEF >CME (crude methanolic extract) >EAF >AQF, and CA >CHF >EAF >PEF >AQF >CME, respectively. CHF showed the highest DPPH-free radical-scavenging activity, with a median inhibitory concentration of 10.5 ± 0.28 µg/ml, which was slightly higher than that of the standard butylated hydroxytoluene (12.0 ± 0.09 µg/ml). In the hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay, CHF showed identical scavenging activity (9.25 ± 0.73 µg/ml) when compared to CA (10.50 ± 1.06 µg/ml). Moreover, CHF showed strong cytotoxic activity (19.95 ± 1.18 µg/ml) in HeLa cells, which was alike to that of the standards vincristine sulfate and 5-fluorouracil (15.84 ± 1.64 µg/ml and 12.59 ± 1.75 µg/ml, respectively). The in silico study revealed that identified compounds were significantly linked to the targets of various cancer cells and oxidative enzymes. However, online prediction by SwissADME, admetSAR, and PASS showed that it has drug-like, nontoxic, and potential pharmacological actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269638PMC
July 2021

Tendencies and attitudes towards dietary supplements use among undergraduate female students in Bangladesh.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249897. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Background: Dietary supplements (DS) are products that improve the overall health and well-being of individuals and reduce the risk of disease. Evidence indicates a rising prevalence of the use of these products worldwide especially among the age group 18-23 years.

Aim: The study investigates the tendencies and attitudes of Bangladeshi undergraduate female students towards dietary supplements (DS).

Methods: A three-month (March 2018-May 2018) cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in undergraduate female students in Chittagong, Bangladesh using a pre-validated dietary supplement questionnaire. The study was carried among the four private and three public university students of different disciplines in Chittagong to record their prevalent opinions and attitudes toward using DS. The results were documented and analyzed by SPSS version 22.0.

Results: Ninety two percent (N = 925, 92.0%) of the respondents answered the survey questions. The prevalence of DS use was high in undergraduate female students. The respondents cited general health and well-being (n = 102, 11.0%) and physician recommendation (n = 101, 10.9%) as a reason for DS use. Majority of the students (n = 817, 88.3%) used DS cost monthly between USD 0.12 and USD 5.90. Most of the students (n = 749, 81.0%) agreed on the beneficial effect of DS and a significant portion (n = 493, 53.3%) recommended for a regular use of DS. Highly prevalent use of dietary supplements appeared in Chittagonian undergraduate female students. They were tremendously positive in using DS. The results demonstrate an increasing trend of using DS by the undergraduate females for both nutritional improvement and amelioration from diseases.

Conclusion: Dietary supplements prevalence was so much higher in students of private universities as compared to students of public universities. Likewise, maximal prevalence is indicated in pharmacy department compared to other departments. Students preferred brand products, had positive opinions and attitudes towards dietary supplements.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249897PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034729PMC
April 2021

Therapeutic Potentials of Fruit (Seed) Reflected into an Array of Pharmacological Assays and Prospective Receptors-Mediated Pathways.

Life (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy.

(SF), a valuable Bangladeshi fruit, is considered an alternative therapeutic agent. Mainly, seeds are used as nutritional phytotherapy to ease physical and mental status by preventing chronic diseases. Here, we scrutinized the seed's fundamental importance in traditional medicine by following an integrated approach combining in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies. The SF was fractionated with different solvents, and the ethyl acetate fraction of SF (EaF-SF) was further studied. Mice treated with EaF-SF (200 and 400 mg/kg) manifested anxiolysis evidenced by higher exploration in elevated plus maze and hole board tests. Similarly, a dose-dependent drop of immobility time in a forced swimming test ensured significant anti-depressant activity. Moreover, higher dose treatment exposed reduced exploratory behaviour resembling decreased movement and prolonged sleeping latency with a quick onset of sleep during the open field and thiopental-induced sleeping tests, respectively. In parallel, EaF-SF significantly ( < 0.001) and dose-dependently suppressed acetic acid and formalin-induced pain in mice. Also, a noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity and a substantial ( < 0.01) clot lysis activity (thrombolytic) was observed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis resulted in 49 bioactive compounds. Among them, 12 bioactive compounds with Lipinski's rule and safety confirmation showed strong binding affinity (molecular docking) against the receptors of each model used. To conclude, the seed is a prospective source of health-promoting effects that can be an excellent candidate for preventing degenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11020155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921944PMC
February 2021

mushrooms potentiate antiproliferative and antimigratory activity against triple-negative breast cancer cells by suppressing Akt signaling.

Integr Cancer Ther 2020 Jan-Dec;19:1534735420969809

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects of the mushroom on the human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1937 and attempted to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The antiproliferative effects of purified fraction-III (PEF-III) were investigated using colony formation and MTS assays. The antimigratory effects of PEF-III were determined by wound healing, transwell migration, and matrigel cell invasion assays. The protein expression levels were evaluated using Western blot analysis. The effect of PEF-III on tumor-sphere formation was examined in a 3D sphere-forming medium, and the mRNA expressions of proliferation- and migration-related genes in the cells from the tumor spheres were determined using RT-qPCR. PEF-III treatment caused a potent and concentration-dependent decrease in the numbers of colonies and viable cells. It also remarkably suppressed the migratory ability of the cells. Mechanistically, PEF-III treatment reduced the expression of pAkt, matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), and vimentin. Furthermore, PEF-III reduced the number and size of the tumor spheres in the 3D culture system. It also significantly reduced the mRNA expression of Ki-67, MMP-9, and vimentin in the PEF-III-treated tumor-sphere cells. PEF-III exerted promising antiproliferative and antimigratory effects in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines by suppressing Akt signaling. Therefore, mushrooms may be considered a potential source for the development of potent anticancer drug(s) for the treatment of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735420969809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673053PMC
August 2021

Biological Evaluation, DFT Calculations and Molecular Docking Studies on the Antidepressant and Cytotoxicity Activities of Buch.-Ham. Compounds.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 Sep 3;13(9). Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo-Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense, Spain.

Buch.-Ham. is commonly used in folk medicine against various disorders. The present study investigated the antidepressant and cytotoxicity activity of methanol extract of (MECP) along with quantitative phytochemical analysis by GC-MS method. Here, the GC-MS study of MECP presented 41 compounds, among which most were fatty acids, esters, terpenoids and oximes. The antidepressant activity was assessed by the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) models. In contrast, MECP (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant and dose-dependent manner reduction in immobility comparable with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and phenelzine (20 mg/kg). MECP showed a weak toxicity level in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay (ED: 358.65 µg/mL) comparable to the standard drug vincristine sulfate (ED: 2.39 µg/mL). Three compounds from the GC-MS study were subjected to density functional theory (DFT) calculations, where only cyclopentadecanone oxime showed positive and negative active binding sites. Cyclopentadecanone oxime also showed a good binding interaction in suppressing depression disorders by blocking monoamine oxidase and serotonin receptors with better pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Overall, the MECP exhibited a significant antidepressant activity with moderate toxicity, which required further advance studies to identify the mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13090232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557754PMC
September 2020

W.T.Aiton exhibits anti-nociceptive and anti-diarrheal effects in Albino mice and an in silico model.

Animal Model Exp Med 2020 Jun 8;3(2):169-181. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacy International Islamic University Chittagong Chittagong Bangladesh.

Background: () is an enthnomedicinally important herb reported to have significant medicinal values. The present study aimed to explore the in vivo and in silico anti-nociceptive and anti-diarrheal effects of a rhizome methanol extract (Me-RCR).

Methods: The analgesic effects of Me-RCR were assessed using acetic acid-induced writhing and the formalin-induced flicking test. The drugs were administered intraperitoneally (IP) at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw). Anti-diarrheal activity was evaluated by assessing intestinal motility, hypersecretion, and fecal score in mice at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg·bw. Computer facilitated analyses for anti-nociceptive and anti-diarrheal activities of three isolated compounds from were undertaken to identify the best-fit phytoconstituents.

Results: The Me-RCR showed significant ( < .05) peripheral anti-nociception at the highest dose. The extract inhibited both early and late phases of nociception in the formalin-induced writhing test. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoea model, the extract significantly ( < .05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, inhibited percentage of diarrhoea, and decreased both the volume and weight of intestinal contents. Rates of intestinal fluid accumulation inhibition were (33.61 ± 1.00)% and (46.44 ± 0.89)% at Me-RCR doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg·bw, respectively. Moreover, a significant ( < .05) reduction in gastrointestinal motility was observed. An absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and/or toxicity (ADME/T) test showed that the selected compounds yielded promising results, satisfying Lipinski's rule of five for predicting drug-like potential. Notably, of the three phytoconstituents curculigine and isocurculigine possessed the highest affinity for the COX-1 and COX-2. Isocurculigine was also identified as the most effective anti-diarrheal compound in the computer-facilitated model.

Conclusion: An extract of the plant showed potential analgesic and anti-diarrheal activity due to the presence of one or more active secondary metabolite(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323701PMC
June 2020

Chemical profiles, pharmacological properties, and studies provide new insights on .

Heliyon 2020 Jun 4;6(6):e04061. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong 4381, Bangladesh.

The current study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the phytochemical components of methanol extract (MECP), along with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, locomotor, anxiolytic, analgesic, and antidiarrheal activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging assay and the total phenol and total flavonoid contents, while the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by a protein denaturation assay. The locomotor effects were examined using the open field test and hole-cross test. The anxiolytic effect was examined using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, hole-board test (HBT), and light-dark test (LDT), while the analgesic activity was investigated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test. The antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by castor oil-induced diarrhea and gastrointestinal motility. Ten bioactive compounds were selected on the basis of their biological activities and further investigated using molecular docking simulation to correlate with the identified pharmacological properties. Additionally, the ADME properties of the compounds were evaluated according to their drug-likeness profile. MECP had a maximum total phenol content of 209.85 ± 3.40 gallic acid equivalents/g extract and a total flavonoid content of 105.17 ± 3.45 quercetin equivalents/g extract, with an IC value of 631.44 μg/mL. MECP (62.5-500 μg/mL) elicited 20.96-38.12% decreased protein denaturation compared to diclofenac sodium (65.40-83.50%), while a 35.72% (P < 0.001) clot lysis activity was observed for the 10 mg/mL concentration. MECP induced a dose-dependent reduction in locomotor activity, with a significant anxiolytic effect. In the analgesic test, MECP (200, 400 mg/kg) showed a 45.12% and 58.82% inhibition in analgesia, and the 400 mg/kg dose elicited a 27.5% inhibition in intestinal motility. These findings suggest that MECP might be effective in treating antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuropharmacological defects, but this requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283161PMC
June 2020

Intervention in Neuropsychiatric Disorders by Suppressing Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signal and Exploration of In Silico Studies for Potential Lead Compounds from (Dennst.) Oken leaves.

Biomolecules 2020 04 6;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

(Dennst.), a popular plant used in folk medicine in Bangladesh, is often used by the local folk practitioner to treat a variety of chronic diseases. The present research is an attempt to find out an innovative therapeutic prospect for the management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The methanol extract of leaves (MEHC) were utilized on various behavioral tests for assessing anxiolytic, anti-depressant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant potentials and quantitative phytochemicals were evaluated through spectrophotometric methods. Results revealed that treatment of MEHC (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced anxiety like behaviors in mice, particularly, 400 mg/kg efficiently improved % of entries and time spent ( < 0.05) in the open arms in elevated plus maze test, whereas, superior head dipping tendency ( < 0.05) was observed in hole-board test. In contrast, mice treated with 200 mg/kg revealed better anxiolytic effect in both open field and hole-cross tests. During antidepressant evaluation, mice administrated with MEHC exhibited active behaviors (swimming and struggling) in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In parallel, MEHC manifested a noteworthy ( < 0.001) suppression of inflammatory response induced by histamine. The MEHC also showed strong antioxidant activities in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) (IC: 57.64 μg/mL) scavenging, HO (IC: 51.60 μg/mL) scavenging, and ferric reducing power assay. The levels of total phenol, flavonoid, flavonol, condensed tannin, and antioxidant were estimated as higher in MEHC. Moreover, 11 compounds were documented as bioactive, displayed good binding affinities to potassium channel receptor, human serotonin receptor, cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and 2), and xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme targets in molecular docking experiments. Furthermore, ADME/T and Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS) analyses exposed their drug-likeness, nontoxic upon consumption, and likely pharmacological actions. Overall, the H. caustica is potentially bioactive as evident by in vivo, in vitro, and computational analysis. Our findings support the folkloric value of this plant, which may provide a potential source towards developing drug leads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10040561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226598PMC
April 2020

Antinociceptive and Anxiolytic and Sedative Effects of Methanol Extract of : An Experimental Assessment in Mice and Computer Aided Models.

Front Pharmacol 2018 12;9:246. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

(L.) kuntze is widely used in folk medicine against various disorders including allergy, sores, inflammation, and fever. This research investigated the antinociceptive, anxiolytic and sedative effects of methanol extract. The antinociceptive activity was assessed with the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced flicking test while sedative effects with open field and hole cross tests and anxiolytic effects with elevated plus maze (EPM) and thiopental-induced sleeping time tests were assayed. Computer aided (pass prediction, docking) analyses were undertaken to find out the best-fit phytoconstituent of total 14 isolated compounds of this plant for aforesaid effects. Acetic acid treated mice taking different concentrations of extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) displayed reduced the writhing number. In the formalin-induced test, extract minimized the paw licking time of mice during the first phase and the second phase significantly. The open field and hole-cross tests were noticed with a dose-dependent reduction of locomotor activity. The EPM test demonstrated an increase of time spent percentage in open arms. Methanol extract potentiated the effect of thiopental-induced hypnosis in lesser extent comparing with Diazepam. The results may account for the use of as an alternative treatment of antinociception and neuropharmacological abnormalities with further intensive studies. The compound, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was found to be most effective in computer aided models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5907530PMC
April 2018

In vitro antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of Elatostema papillosum leaves and correlation with their phytochemical profiles: a study relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Apr 5;18(1):123. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, 6205, Bangladesh.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the major causes of dementia, is an overwhelming neurodegenerative disease that particularly affects the brain, leading to memory loss and impairment of language and judgment capacity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of the leaves of Elatostema papillosum (EPL) and correlate with their phytochemical profiles, which are relevant to the treatment of AD.

Methods: The dried coarse powder of EPL was extracted with 80% methanol (EPL-M80) by cold extraction method. The resultant EPL-M80 was assessed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity by the Ellman method. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Quantitative phytochemical (phenolic and flavonoid contents) analysis of endogenous substances in EPL-M80 was performed by standard spectrophotometric methods.

Results: EPL-M80 significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited AChE and BChE activity with IC of 165.40 ± 4.01 and 213.81 ± 3.57 μg/mL, respectively in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, EPL-M80 exhibited strong radical scavenging activity against DPPH (IC = 32.35 ± 0.68 μg/mL) and hydroxyl radical (IC = 19.67 ± 1.42 μg/mL) when compared to that of standards. EPL-M80 was found to be rich in phenolic (23.74 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry extract) and flavonoid (31.18 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry extract) content. Furthermore, a positive correlation (p < 0.001) was observed between the total phenolics and antioxidant as well as the anticholinesterase potential.

Conclusions: The marked inhibition of AChE and BChE, and potent antioxidant activity of the leaves of Elatostema papillosum highlight its potential to provide an effective treatment for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2182-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5887180PMC
April 2018

Evaluation of morning glory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb) leaves for antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Jun;29(3):291-299

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Background: The present study was planned to investigate the phytochemical, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities of the Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb leaf methanol extract (MExJT) in the laboratory using both in vitro and in vivo methods.

Methods: Phytochemical values, namely, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and FeCl3 reducing power effects, were studied by established methods. In vivo antinociceptive activity was performed by acidic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced pain test on Swiss albino mice at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The clot lysis and brine shrimp lethality bioassay in vitro were used to evaluate the thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of the plant extract, respectively.

Results: Phytochemical screening illustrates the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, gums and carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids and reducing sugars in the extract. The results showed the total phenolic content (146.33 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total flavonoid content (133.33 g quercetin/100 g). Significant (p<0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (289.5 μg/mL) and FeCl3 reduction (245.2 μg/mL). The antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced pain models in Swiss albino mice with doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.05) inhibition (72.87±2.73%) of writhing response compared to diclofenac sodium was achieved by 500 mg/kg body weight. The extract also significantly inhibited the licking response in both the early phase (51.59±1.57%, p<0.05) and the late phase (64.82±1.87%, p<0.05) in the formalin-induced writhing test. MExJT also showed (38.10±1.79%) clot lytic activity in the thrombolytic test and cytotoxicity with an LC50 value of 31.70 μg/mL in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.

Conclusions: The plant is a potential source of antioxidants and might have one or more secondary metabolite(s) with central and peripheral analgesic activity. The results also demonstrate that MExJT has moderate thrombolytic and lower cytotoxic properties that may warrant further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2017-0042DOI Listing
June 2018

Evaluation of cytotoxic, analgesic, antidiarrheal and phytochemical properties of Hygrophila spinosa (T. Anders) whole plant.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2017 Mar;28(2):185-190

Background: Synthetic drugs are going to be replaced by plant-derived traditional drugs due to their cost effectiveness, relatively less harmfulness, and efficacy against multidrug resistance organisms. Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) has been used in a wide range of ailments including flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, and menorrhagia. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic, antinociceptive, and antidiarrheal effects of H. spinosa ethanol extract (EExHs).

Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was accomplished by established methods modified in experimental protocol. EExHs was undertaken for cytotoxic assay by Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, antinociceptive action by acetic acid induced writhing test, and antidiarrheal activity by castor oil induced antidiarrheal test. Data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6.0 software using Dunnett's test for multiple comparisons.

Results: Reducing sugar, steroid, glycoside, tannin, alkaloid, saponins, and flavonoids were found to be present in EExHs. Lethal concentration (LC50) of EExHs for brine shrimps was 50.59 µg/mL which was relatively lower than that of the standard drug vincristine sulfate. In acetic acid induced writhing test, oral administration of EExHs at three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) decreased writhing in dose-dependent manner while the highest dose (500 mg/kg) achieved the maximum percentages of pain inhibition (58.8%). Diclofenac sodium (25 mg/kg) was used as a reference antinociceptive drug. The antidiarrheal action of EExHs was not found to be very promising for further use; however, the pure compounds from EExHs could be analyzed to justify the effects.

Conclusions: This research demonstrates that the secondary metabolites guided cytotoxic and analgesic effects could be extensively studied in multiple models to confirm the effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0103DOI Listing
March 2017
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