Publications by authors named "Mrigendra B Karmacharya"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hydralazine augmented ultrasound hyperthermia for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15553. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

This study investigates the use of hydralazine to enhance ultrasound hyperthermia for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by minimizing flow-mediated heat loss from the tumor. Murine HCC tumors were treated with a continuous mode ultrasound with or without an intravenous administration of hydralazine (5 mg/kg). Tumor blood flow and blood vessels were evaluated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and histology, respectively. Hydralazine markedly enhanced ultrasound hyperthermia through the disruption of tumor blood flow in HCC. Ultrasound treatment with hydralazine significantly reduced peak enhancement (PE), perfusion index (PI), and area under the curve (AUC) of the CEUS time-intensity curves by 91.9 ± 0.9%, 95.7 ± 0.7%, and 96.6 ± 0.5%, compared to 71.4 ± 1.9%, 84.7 ± 1.1%, and 85.6 ± 0.7% respectively without hydralazine. Tumor temperature measurements showed that the cumulative thermal dose delivered by ultrasound treatment with hydralazine (170.8 ± 11.8 min) was significantly higher than that without hydralazine (137.7 ± 10.7 min). Histological assessment of the ultrasound-treated tumors showed that hydralazine injection formed larger hemorrhagic pools and increased tumor vessel dilation consistent with CEUS observations illustrating the augmentation of hyperthermic effects by hydralazine. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ultrasound hyperthermia can be enhanced significantly by hydralazine in murine HCC tumors by modulating tumor blood flow. Future studies demonstrating the safety of the combined use of ultrasound and hydralazine would enable the clinical translation of the proposed technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94323-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324788PMC
July 2021

Dose-dependent effects of ultrasound therapy on hepatocellular carcinoma.

IEEE Int Ultrason Symp 2020 Sep 17;2020. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsyvlania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Non-invasive ischemic cancer therapy requires reduced blood flow whereas drug delivery and radiation therapy require increased tumor perfusion for a better response. In this study we investigate the hypothesis that different dose models of antivascular ultrasound therapy (AVUS) can have opposite effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor blood flow. HCC was induced in 22 Wistar rats by ingestion of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 12 weeks. Rats received AVUS treatment at low and high doses. Low dose group received 1 watt/cm ultrasound for 1 min with 0.2 mL microbubbles injected IV. High dose group received 2 watts/cm for 2 min with 0.7 mL microbubbles IV. A sham group did not receive any treatment. Tumor perfusion was measured before and after AVUS with contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Quantitative perfusion measures: perfusion index (PI) and peak enhancement (PE) were obtained from each AVUS dose. After high-dose AVUS, PE and PI decreased by an average of 58.1 ± 4.9% and 49.1 ± 6.5 % respectively. Conversely, following low dose AVUS, PE and PI increased from baseline by an average of 47.8 ± 4.5% % and 20.3 ± 2.4 %, respectively. The high-dose AVUS therapy decreased tumoral perfusion, an effect that could be used for noninvasive ischemic therapy. Conversely, low-dose therapy increased tumor perfusion, which may improve drug delivery or radiation therapy. These opposite therapy effects can support multiple roles for AVUS in cancer therapy by tunable modulation of blood flow in tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ius46767.2020.9251660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237379PMC
September 2020

Photoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation changes induced by therapeutic ultrasound in murine hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 18;11(1):4100. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly vascular solid tumor. We have previously shown that ultrasound (US) therapy significantly reduces tumor vascularity. This study monitors US-induced changes in tumor oxygenation on murine HCC by photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin were assessed by PAI before and after US treatments performed at different intensities of continuous wave (CW) bursts and pulsed wave (PW) bursts US. PAI revealed significant reduction both in HCC oxygen saturation and in total hemoglobin, proportional to the US intensity. Both CW bursts US (1.6 W/cm) and the PW bursts US (0.8 W/cm) significantly reduced HCC oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin which continued to diminish with time following the US treatment. The effects of US therapy were confirmed by power Doppler and histological examination of the hemorrhage in tumors. By each measure, the changes observed in US-treated HCC were more prevalent than those in sham-treated tumors and were statistically significant. In conclusion, the results show that US is an effective vascular-targeting therapy for HCC. The changes in oxygenation induced by the US treatment can be noninvasively monitored longitudinally by PAI without the use of exogenous image-enhancing agents. The combined use of PAI and the therapeutic US has potential for image-guided vascular therapy for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83439-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893035PMC
February 2021

Subsequent Ultrasound Vascular Targeting Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Improves the Treatment Efficacy.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Jan 22;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

The response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to anti-vascular ultrasound therapy (AVUS) can be affected by the inherent differences in tumor vascular structure, and the functionality of tumor vessels at the time of treatment. In this study, we evaluate the hypothesis that repeated subsequent AVUS therapies are a possible approach to overcome these factors and improve the therapeutic efficacy of AVUS. HCC was induced in 30 Wistar rats by oral ingestion of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 12 weeks. A total of 24 rats received treatment with low intensity, 2.8 MHz ultrasound with an intravenous injection of microbubbles. Treated rats were divided into three groups: single therapy group (ST), 2-days subsequent therapy group (2DST), and 7-days subsequent therapy group (7DST). A sham control group did not receive ultrasound therapy. Tumor perfusion was measured by quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) nonlinear and power-Doppler imaging. Tumors were harvested for histologic evaluation of ultrasound-induced vascular changes. ANOVA was used to compare the percent change of perfusion parameters between the four treatment arms. HCC tumors treated with 2DST showed the largest reduction in tumor perfusion, with 75.3% reduction on average for all perfusion parameters. The ST group showed an average decrease in perfusion of 54.3%. The difference between the two groups was significant < 0.001. The 7DST group showed a reduction in tumor perfusion of 45.3%, which was significant compared to the 2DST group ( < 0.001) but not different from the ST group ( = 0.2). The use of subsequent targeted AVUS therapies applied shortly (two days) after the first treatment enhanced the anti-vascular effect of ultrasound. This gain, however, was lost for a longer interval (1 week) between the therapies, possibly due to tumor necrosis and loss of tumor viability. These findings suggest that complex interplay between neovascularization and tumor viability plays a critical role in treatment and, therefore, must be actively monitored following treatment by CEUS for optimizing sequential treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10020079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911459PMC
January 2021

Photoacoustic Imaging for Assessing Tissue Oxygenation Changes in Rat Hepatic Fibrosis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Sep 17;10(9). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Chronic liver inflammation progressively evokes fibrosis and cirrhosis resulting in compromised liver function, and often leading to cancer. Early diagnosis and staging of fibrosis is crucial because the five-year survival rate of early-stage liver cancer is high. This study investigates the progression of hepatic fibrosis induced in rats following ingestion of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Changes in oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration resulting from chronic inflammation were assayed longitudinally during DEN ingestion by photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Accompanying liver tissue changes were monitored simultaneously by B-mode sonographic imaging. Oxygen saturation and hemoglobin levels in the liver increased over 5 weeks and peaked at 10 weeks before decreasing at 13 weeks of DEN ingestion. The oxygenation changes were accompanied by an increase in hepatic echogenicity and coarseness in the ultrasound image. Histology at 13 weeks confirmed the development of severe fibrosis and cirrhosis. The observed increase in PA signal representing enhanced blood oxygenation is likely an inflammatory physiological response to the dietary DEN insult that increases blood flow by the development of neovasculature to supply oxygen to a fibrotic liver during the progression of hepatic fibrosis. Assessment of oxygenation by PAI may play an important role in the future assessment of hepatic fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10090705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555416PMC
September 2020

Microbubble-enhanced ultrasound for the antivascular treatment and monitoring of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Nanotheranostics 2019 1;3(4):331-341. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy, and its current management relies heavily on locoregional therapy for curative therapy, bridge to transplant, and palliative therapy. Locoregional therapies include ablation and hepatic artery therapies such as embolization and radioembolization. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of using novel antivascular ultrasound (AVUS) as a noninvasive locoregional therapy to reduce perfusion in HCC lesions in a rat model and, monitor the effect with contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. HCC was induced in 36 Wistar rats by the ingestion of 0.01% diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 12 weeks. Two therapy regimens of AVUS were evaluated. A primary regimen (n = 19) utilized 2-W/cm, 3-MHz ultrasound (US) for 6 minutes insonation with 0.7 ml of microbubbles administered as an intravenous bolus. An alternate dose at half the primary intensity, sonication time, and contrast concentration was evaluated in 11 rats to assess the efficacy of a reduced dose. A control group (n = 6) received a sham therapy. Tumor perfusion was measured before and after AVUS with nonlinear contrast ultrasound (NLC) and power Doppler (PD). The quantitative perfusion measures included perfusion index (PI), peak enhancement (PE), time to peak (TTP), and perfusion area from NLC and PD scans. Total tumor area perfused during the scan was measured by a postprocessing algorithm called delta projection. Tumor histology was evaluated for signs of tissue injury and for vascular changes using CD31 immunohistochemistry. DEN exposure induced autochthonous hepatocellular carcinoma lesions in all rats. Across all groups prior to therapy, there were no significant differences in the nonlinear contrast observations of peak enhancement and perfusion index. In the control group, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters after sham treatment. After the primary AVUS regimen, there were significant changes in all parameters (p ≤ 0.05) indicating substantial decreases in tumor perfusion. Peak enhancement in nonlinear contrast scans showed a 37.9% ± 10.1% decrease in tumor perfusion. Following reduced-dose AVUS, there were no significant changes in perfusion parameters, although there was a trend for the nonlinear contrast observations of peak enhancement and perfusion index to increase. This study translated low-intensity AVUS therapy into a realistic model of HCC and evaluated its effects on the tumor vasculature. The primary dose of AVUS tested resulted in significant vascular disruption and a corresponding reduction in tumor perfusion. A reduced dose of AVUS, on the other hand, was ineffective at disrupting perfusion but demonstrated the potential for enhancing tumor blood flow. Theranostic ultrasound, where acoustic energy and microbubbles are used to monitor the tumor neovasculature as well as disrupt the vasculature and treat lesions, could serve as a potent tool for delivering noninvasive, locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ntno.39514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6821993PMC
June 2020

Bioinformatic identification of novel protein phosphatases in the dog genome.

Mol Cell Biochem 2011 May 15;351(1-2):149-56. Epub 2011 Jan 15.

Biomedical Research Center for Signal Transduction Networks, Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Korea.

Protein kinases and protein phosphatases constitute about 2-4% of the genes in a typical eukaryotic genome. Protein phosphatases are important players in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, cell adhesion, and motility. In this study, we identified, classified, and analyzed protein phosphatase complement of the dog genome. In this article, we report the identification of at least 178 putative protein phosphatases in dog which include 51 PSTPs, 112 PTPs, and 15 Asp-based protein phosphatases. Interestingly, we found at least five novel protein phosphatases in dog, namely DUSP5L, DUSP18L, MTMR9L, MTMR12L, and PPP6CL which are not present in human, mouse, rat, and cow. In addition, we found PTP4A1-rt, a retro-transposed copy of the PTP4A1 gene, in chromosome 27. Furthermore, we modeled three-dimensional structures of the catalytic domains of these putative protein phosphatases and aligned them to see the structural similarities between them. We docked PPP2CA with okadaic acid and calculated the value of affinity energy as -8.8 kcal/mol. Our nucleotide substitution rate study revealed that apparently none of the phosphatase family is under significantly higher evolutionary pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-011-0722-8DOI Listing
May 2011

Mutation of the hydrophobic motif in a phosphorylation-deficient mutant renders protein kinase C delta more apoptotically active.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2010 Jan 13;493(2):242-8. Epub 2009 Nov 13.

Biomedical Research Center for Signal Transduction Networks, Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon, Korea.

Protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta) is one of the important isoforms of PKCs that regulate various cellular processes, including cell survival and apoptosis. Studies have shown that activation of PKCdelta is correlated with apoptosis in various cell types, depending upon various stimuli. Phosphorylation of Thr505, Ser643 and Ser662 is crucial in activation of PKCdelta. Furthermore, phosphorylation of tyrosine residues, in particular that of Tyr311, is associated with PKCdelta activation and induction of apoptosis. Here, we generated a hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant of PKCdelta (PKCdelta-S662A) by mutating Ser662 to Ala, and studied the effect of this mutation in inducing apoptosis in L929 murine fibroblasts. We report that this mutation renders PKCdelta apoptotically more active. Furthermore, we found that the mutant PKCdelta-S662A is tyrosine-phosphorylated and translocated to the membrane faster than its wild-type counterpart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2009.11.007DOI Listing
January 2010
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