Publications by authors named "Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh"

45 Publications

The hepatoprotective effects of fennel seeds extract and -Anethole in streptozotocin-induced liver injury in rats.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 30;9(2):1121-1131. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Physiology Faculty of Medicine Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Mashhad Iran.

Hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of fennel have been recorded in numerous investigations. The study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of fennel or its active component -Anethole (TA) on streptozotocin-induced liver injury in rats. Rats were injected with a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) and treated with fennel (200 and 400 mg/kg), TA (80 mg/kg), or metformin (300 mg/kg) for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and liver enzyme activity (aminotransferases), oxidative stress markers, and the degree of fibrosis in the liver tissue were assessed. Both fennel and TA decreased blood glucose levels, reduced liver enzyme activity, food, and water intake, and intensity of weight loss, reduced serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Additionally, fennel and TA significantly reduced MDA concentration while increased CAT activity and thiol content and reduced the degree of injury and fibrosis in the liver of diabetic rats. Our results suggest that fennel seed extract and its active compound TA are able to protect the liver against diabetes-induced hepatic injury in rats, probably via hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866591PMC
February 2021

Effect of Watermelon Extract on Nerve Conduction Velocity, Memory, and T4 Level in Rats.

Adv Biomed Res 2020 30;9:53. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Watermelon is a fruit with the thirst-quenching effect and especially is consumed in summer. In this study, the effect of consumption of watermelon extract (in drinking water) on thyroid hormone level (TT4), animals' weight, water and food consumption, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and memory in Wistar rats were investigated.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, CT 1500 mg/kg, and CT 3000 mg/kg ( = 8, in each group). Watermelon extract was administered for 42 days. The results measured in this study were analyzed with repeated measures or one-way analysis of variance and compared by the least significant difference . < 0.05 was considered as significant difference.

Results: The results showed that animals' weight in both the treatment groups decreased compared to the control group ( < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). Water and food consumption and the level of TT4 increased when compared to the control group in both the treated groups (both < 0.001). NCV in both the treated groups decreased in comparison with the control group (both < 0.001). Spatial memory did not change significantly, but passive avoidance memory in both the treated groups significantly decreased in comparison to the control group (respectively, with < 0.05 and < 0.01).

Conclusion: Based on these finding, in spite of increase in food and water consumption in the treated groups, animal weight did not increase significantly. Impairment in memory and decrease in NCV were also occurred, but TT4 level was increased in animals treated with watermelon extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_264_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792879PMC
September 2020

The protective effects of prolactin on brain injury.

Life Sci 2020 Dec 8;263:118547. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Aims: Brain injuries based on their causes are divided into two categories, TBI and NTBI. TBI is caused by damages such as head injury, but non-physical injury causes NTBI. Prolactin is one of the blood factors that increase during brain injury. It has been assumed to play a regenerative role in post-injury recovery.

Materials And Methods: In this review, various valid papers from electronic sources (including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, and ISI databases) used, which in them the protective effect of prolactin on brain injury investigated.

Key Findings: Inflammation following brain injury with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the affected area can even lead to excitotoxicity and cell death in the damaged area. Medical brain damage treatments are long-term, and can have several side effects. Therefore, it is better to consider medication treatments that have fewer side effects and greater efficacy. Research suggests that prolactin has numerous regenerative effects on brain injury, and prevents cell death. Prolactin is one of the hormones produced in the body; therefore it has fewer side effects and may be more effective because it increases during brain injury.

Significance: Prolactin can be used peripherally and centrally, and exerts its neuro regenerative effects against further damage post-TBI and NTBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118547DOI Listing
December 2020

The role of extract on renal oxidative and biochemical markers in STZ-induced diabetes in rat.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2020 Sep-Oct;10(5):504-512

Department of Biology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran.

Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of (AT) against diabetes- induced renal oxidative stress in rats.

Materials And Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, STZ-induced diabetic rats, diabetic rats+ metformin, diabetic rats + AT extract, diabetic rats+ metformin+ AT extract. In the present study, diabetes was induced by a single-dose (55 mg/kg, ip) injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were daily treated with metformin (300 mg/kg), AT extract (70 mg/kg) and metformin+ AT extract for 4 consecutive weeks. Tissue activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol content were measured in kidney tissue. Serum concentrations of glucose, creatinine, and urea, as well as, lipid profile were also measured.

Results: STZ significantly increased the levels of glucose, triglyceride, urea and MDA compared to the control group. Total thiol content, as well as, catalase and SOD activities showed significant decreases in diabetic group when compared with the control animals. Serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and renal MDA showed a significant decrease and renal total thiol and the activities of antioxidant enzymes showed significant increases in AT+STZ group compared with the diabetic group. In diabetic rats received AT+ metformin, serum LDL and HDL, renal MDA and SOD and catalase activities significantly improved compared with the diabetic rats.

Conclusion: These findings suggested that AT extract has therapeutic effects on renal oxidative damage and lipid profile in diabetes, that possibly may be due to its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508323PMC
September 2020

The effects of lettuce extract on the level of T4, memory and nerve conduction velocity in male rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2020 Sep-Oct;10(5):472-480

Department of Persian Medicine, School of Persian and Complementary Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: According to the traditional medicine, lettuce can affect nerve conduction velocity and memory. So, to investigate the effect of lettuce seeds extract on body activities, lettuce seeds were used.

Materials And Methods: In the present study, the effects of lettuce () seeds extract consumption (in drinking water) on T4 level, animals' weight, water and food consumption, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and memory in Wistar rats, were investigated. In this study, 24 Wistar rats were used, and divided into three groups: control, L 200 mg/kg, and L 400 mg/kg.

Results: The results showed that, the T4 level, food and water intake, time spent and distance travelled in Q1, delay time to enter and the number of entrance into the dark room in both treated groups were not significantly different from the control group. Animal weight and NCV, in 400 mg/kg group were not significantly different from the control group, but in 200 mg/kg group, they were significantly decreased (p<0.05). The duration spent in the dark room (48 hr after shock) in L 400 mg/kg increased compared to the control group (p<0.05), but in L 200 mg/kg group at all time points, and in L 400 mg/kg treated group 3 and 24 hr after shock, it was not significantly different from the control group.

Conclusion: Based on these findings, the T4 level, memory, food and water intake were not changed by lettuce extract, while NCV and animal weight were decreased following treatment with lettuce extract.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508325PMC
September 2020

The effects of the combination of Cyperus rotundus, Crocus sativus, Piper nigrum, and Boswellia serrata on learning and memory deficit and oxidative damage in brain tissue of hypothyroid rats.

J Food Biochem 2020 09 21;44(9):e13391. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

In the present study, the impact of a combination of four memory-enhancer herbs on cognitive impairment and brain tissue oxidative damage due to hypothyroidism was evaluated. Propylthiouracil (PTU; 0.05%) was administrated in drinking water. Rats were treated with a combination of four herbal products (Cyperus rotundus, Crocus sativus, Piper nigrum, and Boswellia serrata) mixed with honey at two doses (640 and 1,280 mg/kg) or donepezil (0.5 mg/kg), for 6 weeks. Memory performance on the Morris water maze (MWM) and avoidance behavior in passive avoidance was impaired by hypothyroidism, and brain tissue oxidative damage occurred. Herbal combination and donepezil significantly improved memory impairment, reduced malondialdehyde concentration, and nitric oxide metabolites while increased the thiol contents and catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes activity in the brain. Our findings suggest that the mixture of herbal products improves learning and memory deficits caused by hypothyroidism, probably by reducing the brain tissue oxidative damage. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Learning and memory impairment is a common feature of thyroid hormones deficiency. Several studies are showing that hypothyroidism in juvenile and mature rats induces significant cognitive impairment. Likewise, in humans, a close relationship between thyroid hormone deficiency and cognitive impairment has been reported. We used a mixture of herbal products, including Cyperus rotundus, Crocus sativus, Piper nigrum, and Boswellia serrata, to treat hypothyroidism-induced memory impairment. All these herbs are widely used as a food additive across the world. In Iranian traditional medicine, this herbal combination traditionally used to treat cognitive impairments. Numerous studies have indicated that these herbs show neuroprotective and memory-enhancing properties. Our finding indicated that a traditionally used herbal combination could potentially use as a treatment of cognitive impairment induced by thyroid hormone deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13391DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of levothyroxine on lung inflammation, oxidative stress and pathology in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2020 06 5;277:103437. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: In this study, the effect of levothyroxine (L-T4) on tracheal responsiveness, lung inflammation, oxidative stress and pathological features in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), was evaluated.

Methods: An animal model of AD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (3 mg/kg) in rats. The rats were then treated for 3 weeks with L-T4 (10 and 100 μg/kg).

Results: In AD animals, tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and ovalbumin (p < 0.05), white blood cell (WBC) count (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (p < 0.05) and inflammation score (p < 0.01) were increased, but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total thiol content (for both cases p < 0.05) were decreased compared to the controls. Tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and MDA concentration (p < 0.05) were decreased in AD animals treated with T4 compared to the AD group. Bronchial inflammation in terms of total and some differential WBC in the BALF and inflammatory score, was significantly worsened in AD animals treated with high dose of T4 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) compared to the controls.

Conclusion: Alzheimer's disease may cause lung inflammation and treatment with low dose of T4 improved MDA level and lung inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2020.103437DOI Listing
June 2020

Rosuvastatin Affects Tracheal Responsiveness, Bronchoalveolar Lavage Inflammatory Cells, and Oxidative Stress Markers in Hyperlipidemic and Asthmatic Rats.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2019 Oct 12;18(6):624-638. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran AND Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Statins provide greater protection than predicted from just cholesterol-lowering effects, which is possibly mediated by other pleiotropic actions. This study aimed to examine the possible interaction effect of asthma on lipid profiles and evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin treatment on asthma. The animals were assigned into (1) control, (2) asthmatic, (3) hyperlipidemic, (4) asthmatic-hyperlipidemic, (5) rosuvastatin (40 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally, for 3 weeks)-treated asthmatic, (6) rosuvastatin-treated hyperlipidemic and (7) rosuvastatin-treated asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups. Tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and ovalbumin, total and differential WBC (white blood cell) counts, and oxidative stress markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated. In the asthmatic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups, tracheal responsiveness to ovalbumin, total WBC count, numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes were higher than the control group (p<0.001). A left-ward shift in the concentration-response curves to methacholine, an increase in nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations, and a decrease in total thiol content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were also observed in the asthmatic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups compared to control group (p<0.01 to p<0.001). Beyond lipid-lowering effect in the treated hyperlipidemic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups, rosuvastatin treatment decreased tracheal responsiveness to methacholine, reduced total WBC count, the numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes, as well as decreased malondialdehyde concentration, and increased total thiol content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in treated asthmatic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The improving effect of rosuvastatin on asthmatic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic animals was shown due to pleiotropic mechanisms including the effect on airway hyperresponsiveness, lung inflammation, and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v18i6.2175DOI Listing
October 2019

The Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog and a Combination of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog and Recombinant Human Growth Hormone on Adult Height in Girls with Early Puberty.

Adv Biomed Res 2019 23;8:57. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Clinical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Early puberty (EP) is due to the activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator in lower ages; EP may be a potential cause for impairment of adult height, leading to short stature. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GnRH analog (GnRHa) and GnRHa plus recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment on final height in healthy girls with EP.

Materials And Methods: Fifty EP girls (sexual maturity rating: 2-3) with chronological age (CA) 9.22 ± 0.56 and bone age (BA) 9.74 ± 0.59 years were treated with GnRHa (Triptorelin) at a dose of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW) as intramuscular every 28 days for 2.82 ± 0.57 years; 45 EP girls with CA 9.84 ± 0.57 and BA 10.14 ± 1.02 years were also treated with the same GnRHa plus rhGH (Norditropin) at a dose of 0.1 unit/kg BW daily for 6 days in a week for 2.55 ± 0.6 years. In the control group, 33 EP girls followed for the same period without treatment. Height, weight, and body mass index of girls and parents were assessed. Predicted adult height (PAH) at the start and the end of the study and target height were assessed.

Results: PAH at the end of the study in the GnRHa group was not different with untreated girls. PAH at the end of the treatment in GnRHa plus rhGH group was significantly higher than both untreated and GnRHa group. PAH at the end of therapy in GnRHa plus rhGH group was significantly more than their target height.

Conclusion: GnRHa therapy has a benefit effect in achievement of target height. Combination therapy with GnRHa plus rhGH increased their PAH more than both untreated and GnRHa groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_121_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777143PMC
September 2019

The anti-diabetic and antioxidant effects of a combination of , and in diabetic rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2019 Sep-Oct;9(5):454-464

Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: Effects of and ethanolic extracts and hydro-ethanolic extract combination were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly assigned into: control; diabetic; diabetic+metformin (300 mg/kg); diabetic+dose 1 of herbal combination (438 mg/kg of +214 mg/kg of +857 mg/kg of ); diabetic+dose 2 (642 mg/kg of +214 mg/kg of +642 mg/kg of ); and diabetic+dose 3 (857 mg/kg of +438 mg/kg of +1714 mg/kg t of ). All treatments were given orally by gavage. Diabetes was induced by STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.). At the end of study (day 28), blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile; as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiol content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined.

Results: In diabetic rats, plasma glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and LDL-C, as well as hepatic MDA levels were elevated but plasma HDL-C and insulin, and hepatic thiol content and SOD and CAT activities were reduced compared to control (p<0.01-p<0.001). In diabetic+dose 3, plasma TC, TG, and LDL-C and hepatic MDA level decreased (p<0.001), while plasma HDL-C and insulin, and hepatic thiol content, and SOD and CAT activities increased compared to diabetic (p<0.01-p<0.001). Treatment with dose 1 and 2 improved such abnormalities in diabetic rats except for insulin level (p<0.05-p<0.001). The herbal combination effects were comparable to those of metformin. Metformin did not significantly change serum insulin and HDL-C levels, and hepatic SOD activity; however, serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C, as well as hepatic MDA levels, thiol content and CAT activity were improved compared to diabetic (p<0.05-p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results indicate that this herbal combination acts as an anti-diabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent and it may be suggested as a beneficial remedy for diabetic patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6727431PMC
September 2019

Comparing the effects of seed hydro-alcoholic extract, valsartan, and vitamin E on hemodynamic changes, oxidative stress parameters and cardiac hypertrophy in thyrotoxic rats.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2019 Aug 15:1-8. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

d Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad , Iran.

The present study compared the effects of ( seed hydro-alcoholic extract, valsartan, and vitamin E on hemodynamic changes, oxidative stress markers and cardiac hypertrophy in a model of thyrotoxicosis. The hyperthyroid state was induced by intraperitoneal injection of levothyroxine (100 µg/kg) for 4 weeks in male adult rats. After 2 weeks, vitamin E (20 mg/kg), valsartan (8 mg/kg), and seed extract (400 mg/kg) were administered in three groups of thyrotoxic rats. The control group was given a daily injection of normal saline. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured on three occasions with tail cuff. At the end of the fourth week, the animals were scarified and serum samples and heart tissue were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The levothyroxine increased heart rate and systolic blood pressure. A lower heart rate and reduced systolic blood pressure were observed in groups receiving valsartan and extract. The heart weight/body weight ratio increased in groups treated with levothyroxine, but in a microscopic study, cardiomyocyte width was not different between the groups. Levothyroxine increased the level of malondyaldehide and NO metabolite but reduced the thiol concentration, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. However, treatment with vitamin E and extract increased the thiol concentration, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities while decreasing malondyaldehide level. In addition, treatment with extract and valsartan decreased NO metabolite level. Treatment with extract improved levothyroxine induced oxidative stress and hemodynamic changes. These effects may be for antioxidant components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2019.1651330DOI Listing
August 2019

Liver Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Protective Role of Turanica.

J Pharmacopuncture 2019 Jun 30;22(2):109-114. Epub 2019 Jun 30.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Oxidative stress plays a central role in diabetes-induced complications. In the present study, the protevtive effect of was evaluated against diabetes-induced liver oxidative stress and dysfunction.

Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, diabetic, diabetic + metformin, diabetic + extract, and diabetic + extract + metformin. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single-dose (55 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (ip)) injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Metformin (300 mg/kg) and extract (70 mg/kg) were orally administrated three days after STZ injection for four weeks. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total thiol content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were measured in the liver tissue. Serum glucose concentration, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were also determined.

Results: In the diabetic group, serum glucose concentration, serum AST and ALT activities and liver MDA level were significantly higher while tissue total thiol content as well as catalase and SOD activities were lower, compared to the control group. Serum glucose in diabetic rats treated with metformin + extract showed a significant decrease compared with the diabetic group. In all the extract and metformin treated groups, serum ALT, tissue MDA level, total thiol content and SOD activity significantly improved compared with the diabetic rats. However, treatment of the diabetic rats only with metformin could not significantly change the activities of catalase and AST compared with the diabetic group.

Conclusion: These findings suggested that extract had a therapeutic effect on liver dysfuncyion and oxidative stress induced by diabetes, that may be probably due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2019.22.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6645339PMC
June 2019

The effects of thyroid hormones on memory impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Thyroid hormones (THs) have a wide and important range of effects within the central nervous system beginning from fetal life and continuing throughout the adult life. Thyroid disorders are one of the major causes of cognitive impairment including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies in recent years have indicated an association between hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and AD. Despite available evidence for this association, it remains unclear whether thyroid dysfunction results from or contributes to the progression of AD. This review discusses the role of THs in learning and memory and summarizes the studies that have linked thyroid function and AD. Eventually, we elaborate how THs may be effective in treating AD by putting forward potential mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28198DOI Listing
January 2019

protects against cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and tissue damage in rats.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 Sep-Oct;29(5):1057-1064

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine; Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Plantago major (P. major) on cisplatin-induced kidney injury in the rat. Cisplatin was injected on the 6 day of the experiment. Animals were treated with P. major extract (300, 600, and 1200 mg/kg) and Vitamin E for five days before and two weeks after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin caused a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine osmolarity, and urinary excretion rate of potassium, but significant increase in the kidney index and histological damage compared with the control group. Administration of Vitamin E and P. major (300 and 600 mg/kg) significantly increased GFR compared to cisplatin group. Furthermore, urine osmolarity in Vitamin E and P. major (600 mg/kg) groups were significantly elevated compared to the cisplatin group. P. major (600 mg/kg) significantly increased the urinary excretion rate of potassium compared with cisplatin group. Furthermore, all doses of P. major and Vitamin E significantly attenuated the percentage of kidney tissue damage compared to the cisplatin group. However, only P. major (600 mg/kg) and Vitamin E treated rats showed a significant reduction in the kidney index. This study revealed that P. major extract in a dose-dependent manner provides protection against renal damage induced by cisplatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.243960DOI Listing
November 2019

The Flavone Luteolin Improves Central Nervous System Disorders by Different Mechanisms: A Review.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Aug 6;65(4):491-506. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Nervous System Stem Cells Research Center, Semnan University of Medicaid Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Development and design of agents derived from natural sources with neuroprotective properties have received considerable attention. In the literature, it has been stated that these polyphenolic molecules have low adverse impacts and high efficacy when used in pathological conditions. Dietary flavonoids as a subgroup of polyphenols are bioactive products, extracted from several types of vegetables and fruits. Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, LUT) is a widespread flavone known to have antioxidant and cytoprotective properties related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-(Nrf2) pathway. Extensive in vitro and in vivo investigations have indicated that LUT exhibits beneficial neuroprotective properties via different mechanisms. However, its psychopharmacological mechanisms are presently investigated in fewer studies. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective impacts of LUT against central nervous system (CNS) disorders by reviewing available literature. Herein, we also reviewed the studies to understand the underlying mechanisms of LUT for curing CNS disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-018-1094-2DOI Listing
August 2018

Protective Effects of Curcumin Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Nervous System.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 9;56(2):1391-1404. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R injury) is a common feature of ischemic stroke which occurs when blood supply is restored after a period of ischemia. Although stroke is an important cause of death in the world, effective therapeutic strategies aiming at improving neurological outcomes in this disease are lacking. Various studies have suggested the involvement of different mechanisms in the pathogenesis of I/R injury in the nervous system. These mechanisms include oxidative stress, platelet adhesion and aggregation, leukocyte infiltration, complement activation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and mitochondria-mediated mechanisms. Curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric, can affect all these pathways and exert neuroprotective activity culminating in the amelioration of I/R injury in the nervous system. In this review, we discuss the protective effects of curcumin against I/R injury in the nervous system and highlight the studies that have linked biological functions of curcumin and I/R injury improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1169-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of levothyroxine on learning and memory deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease: the role of BDNF and oxidative stress.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Jan 21;43(1):57-63. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The effect of levothyroxine (L-T4) on the learning and memory impairment induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and brain tissue oxidative damage in rats was evaluated. An animal model of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) was established by intracerebroventricular injection of STZ (3 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats (250 ± 50 g). After that, the rats were treated for 3 weeks with L-T4 (10, 100 μg/kg) or normal saline. Passive avoidance (PA) learning and spatial memory were evaluated using shuttle box and Morris water maze (MWM), respectively. Finally, the rats were euthanized, their blood samples were collected for further thyroxine assessment and their brains were removed after decapitation in order to measure the oxidative stress parameters and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In the MWM, latency (s) increased in the AD rats compared with the normal control group while it decreased in the 10 μg/kg L-T4 injected AD rats compared with the AD group. In the PA, the latency for entering the dark compartment was lower in the AD group than in the normal control group and it decreased in the 10 μg/kg L-T4 injected AD rats. The low dose of L-T4 (10 μg/kg) reduced malondialdehyde concentration but increased thiols concentration, superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and BDNF level in hippocampal tissues of the AD rats. Injection of L-T4 (10 μg/kg) alleviated memory deficits and also improved factors of oxidative stress and BDNF level in the STZ-induced AD rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.1481085DOI Listing
January 2020

A comparison between the effects of seeds extract and valsartan on echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters in rats with levothyroxine-induced thyrotoxicosis.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2018 May-Jun;8(3):276-285

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of (Po) seeds extract and those of valsartan on cardiac function in levothyroxine (T)-treated rats.

Materials And Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=10): control, levothyroxine (T), T plus valsartan (T-Val) and T plus hydro-alcoholic extract of the seeds (T-Po). Control group received normal saline. Levothyroxine (100µg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered to three other groups for 4 weeks. Valsartan (8 mg/kg/day, orally) and Po seeds extract (400 mg/kg/day, orally) were administered during the last two weeks of treatment period. At the end of the experiment, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters were measured and serum free T, T, and T were measured.

Results: Administration of T for 4 weeks significantly increased serum free T levels in T group but elevations of free T levels in T-Val group were not significant. Free T level decreased in T-Po (p<0.01) compared to T group. Heart rate (HR), heart weight (HW), and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) were significantly increased in T group compared to control group while these parameters in the other groups were not significantly different from those of control group. The reduction in HR, HW, and LVSP were more prominent in T-Po group. Ejection fraction (EF) and fraction shortening (FS) were insignificantly decreased in T group compared to control group.

Conclusion: These results showed that treatment of hyperthyroid rats with seeds extract was more effective than valsartan in reducing cardiac changes induced by levothyroxine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5987442PMC
June 2018

A comparison of the effects of seeds hydro-alcoholic extract and Vitamin C on biochemical, hemodynamic and functional parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2018 Mar-Apr;8(2):161-169

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Centre, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of () seeds and Vitamin C on biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

Materials And Methods: Forty eight male rats were divided into six groups of 8 and treated for 4 weeks. T4 group received daily injection of levothyroxine sodium (20 μg/kg) and control group was given daily injection of saline. T4-Po groups were given T4 plus 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of seeds extract in drinking water daily. T4-Vit C group received T4 plus daily injection of Vitamin C (100 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, body weight, serum free T4 level, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol levels were measured.

Results: Free T4 levels were increased in all groups that were treated with T4. Weight gain was decreased in T4 and T4-Po100 groups compared to control group (p<0.001 and p<0.05). However, body weight was increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. LVDP was increased in T4 group compared to control group but, LVDP was decreased in T4-Po and T4-Vit C groups. Malondialdehyde was decreased in T4-Po groups and T4-Vit C group compared to T4 group. Total thiol groups were increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group.

Conclusion: The results showed that extract has a protective effect on cardiac dysfunction due to subclinical hyperthyroidism induced by levothyroxine sodium in rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5885330PMC
April 2018

Renoprotective effect of against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rat.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 Jan-Feb;29(1):19-29

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences; Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Cisplatin is one of the important antineoplastic drugs. Its clinical use has been restricted due to severe kidney toxicity. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is an herbaceous plant with many pharmacologic effects. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of aqueous-ethanolic extract of N. sativa and Vitamin E on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Eighty male rats were divided into eight groups: control, cisplatin (6 mg/kg; ip), preventive Vitamin E (100 mg/kg), preventive N. sativa (100,200 mg/kg), preventive + treatment Vitamin E, and preventive + treatment N. sativa (100, 200 mg/kg). Duration of this study was 11 days and cisplatin was injected on the 6 day of the experiment. Tissue damage in all groups that received N. sativa extract and Vitamin E showed a significant improvement compared with the cisplatin group. In addition, serum and tissue total thiol content in preventive and preventive + treatment N. sativa groups showed significant increase compared with cisplatin group. There was no significant difference in serum malondialdehyde concentration of the control rats compared with the preventive and preventive + treatment N. sativa groups. N. sativa extract and viamin E improved the pathology and oxidative stress in the rat kidney. However, more studies are needed to determine the mechanism of action of N. sativa on cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.225208DOI Listing
October 2019

The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Seeds on Serum Estradiol and Prolactin Levels and obstetric Criteria due to Hypothyroidism in Rat.

Adv Biomed Res 2017 28;6:166. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was investigation of the effects of (NS) seeds on hypothyroid pregnant rats and their progenies.

Materials And Methods: Hypothyroidism was induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) 0.03% in drinking water. Female rats were divided into seven groups: control, PTU, PTU-NS (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), and NS (100 and 400 mg/kg). All treatments were done 20 days before mating and during pregnancy. The weight of rat dams and progenies, number of progenies and serum T4, estradiol and prolactin (PRL) levels in rat dams were measured for all groups.

Results: Serum T4 in all PTU-NS groups before mating was significantly increased versus PTU group. Body weight of rat dams before mating in all groups of PTU-NS was increased versus PTU group by < 0.001, < 0.05, and < 0.001, respectively and in NS 100 and NS 400 was increased versus control group ( < 0.001). The number of offspring was significantly decreased in PTU and PTU-NS versus control group. The weight of progenies in NS 400 was higher than control group ( < 0.001) and was increased in PTU-NS 200 and PTU-NS 400 versus PTU group by < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively. Serum PRL level in rat dams in control, PTU, and PTU-NS groups were not statistically different between groups but significantly increased in NS 400 group when compared to control group. Estradiol levels were not significantly different in rat dams at 5 days after delivery.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that feeding of rat dams with NS extract before mating has positive protective effects on progenies. These effects may be due to antioxidant properties of NS in reducing oxidative stress and thyroid damages induced by PTU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.221860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767798PMC
December 2017

Beneficial Effects of Selective Orexin-A Receptor Antagonist in 4-aminopyridine-induced Seizures in Male Rats.

Adv Biomed Res 2017 26;6:162. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

Department of Physiology, Neurocognitive Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Orexins are excitatory neuropeptides which stimulate the central regulatory pathways. Orexins increase the penicillin-induced epileptic activity in rats. Orexin-A increases in different types of seizures and its elevated level is the characteristic feature in the epileptic children during polysomnography. Recently, the orexin receptor blockage has been reported to increase seizure threshold in mice; however, effect of the selective orexin-A receptor antagonist (SB-334867) on 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced seizures has not been investigated.

Materials And Methods: We used the intraperitoneal injection of 4-AP to induce seizure in male rats. Under urethane anesthesia, SB-334867 (50 and 100 nmol) was injected stereotaxically into the ventral hippocampal commissure. Using video recording, the effects of SB-334867 on electroencephalogram and tonic-clonic convulsions were compared to those that received diazepam or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

Results: SB-334867 significantly decreased the duration of spike trains compared to DMSO-treated rats ( < 0.001) and reduced the duration of convulsive seizures ( < 0.05). Seizure onset was increased significantly by SB-334867, 50 nmol, compared to DMSO ( < 0.05) and diazepam ( < 0.01) treated rats.

Conclusion: Antagonism of orexin-A receptor by a low-dose SB-334867 showed protective effects in 4-AP-induced seizure-like activities in anesthetized rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_262_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767796PMC
December 2017

Kidney stone formation and antioxidant effects of decoction in male Wistar rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2017 Mar-Apr;7(2):180-190

Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. () is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper.

Materials And Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10). One group was left without treatment and four groups received ethylene glycol (1% v/v) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Three doses of aqueous decoction (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg BW) were added to the drinking water of groups 3-5. Finally, water intake, 24-hour urine volume, MDA, total thiol concentration and FRAP value were measured in the serum and kidney tissues. The CaOx depositions were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining.

Results: Compared to the ethylene glycol-treated group, 200 mg/kg , lowered stone incidents, decreased urine volume, increased FRAP/g Cr (43%) and thiol content (p<0.05) with no significant alteration of water intake, MDA decreased significantly compared to 12.5 (p<0.01). Kidney weight increased and body weight decreased in ethylene glycol-treated group compared to the control group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: A minimum dose of 200 mg/kg reduced stone formation and simultaneously increased total antioxidant power of serum and preserved MDA content and water.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5355823PMC
March 2017

rhizomes possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in experimental diabetes.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2017 Jan-Feb;7(1):1-9

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: () rhizomes have been used in Iranain traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of rhizome extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats received the decoction extract of rhizomes at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg daily by gavage for 3 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were measured in all groups before diabetes induction and at the end of week 3. Oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver by measurement of malondialdehyde levels and total thiol concentration at the end of the experiment.

Results: A significant increase in serum glucose and triglyceride levels was observed in diabetic rats, which was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and decreased total thiol concentration in the liver after 3 weeks. Treatment of diabetic rats with rhizome extract at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg over a 3-week period did not change serum glucose, hepatic malondialdehyde and total thiol levels in diabetic rats. However, treatment with extract significantly decreased serum triglyceride levels in a dose-dependent manner at the end of the experiment.

Conclusion: rhizome extract possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. Therefore, rhizome should be consumed with more caution by diabetic patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5329171PMC
March 2017

Renoprotective Effect of Plantago Major Against Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Cisplatin.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2016 Jul;10(4):182-8

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center and Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible renoprotective effect of Plantago major extract against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Materials And Methods: Rats were divided into 6 groups. The first group was the control, group 2 was treated with cisplatin (7 mg/kg, single dose), and groups 3 to 6 received cisplatin with vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and Plantago major  extract at doses of 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg, and 1200 mg/kg, for 20 days.

Results: On day12, serum concentration of urea, creatinine, and potassium significantly increased and sodium concentration significantly decreased in the cisplatin group compared with the control rats. However, serum creatinine, urea, and potassium concentrations were significantly lower in all of the Plantago major groups compared to the cisplatin group. Also, there was a significant elevation in serum sodium concentration in the Plantago major 600 mg/kg group compared to the cisplatin group on day12. Injection of cisplatin caused a significant elevation in malondialdehyde concentration but a significant decrease in catalase activity and total thiol content compared to the control group. Plantago major extract at 1200 mg/kg significantly improved malondialdehyde concentration and total thiol content compared to the cisplatin group. Catalase activity with Plantago major significantly increased at all doses compared to the cisplatin group.

Conclusions: The current study suggests that Plantago major extract and vitamin E are able to improve kidney function as well as oxidative stress in cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in the rat.
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July 2016

The protective effect of Nigella sativa against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2016 Jan-Feb;6(1):44-54

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: The clinical use of cisplatin is highly restricted, because of its nephrotoxicity. In this study the protective effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats.

Materials And Methods: In the current study, the effects of the administration of aqueous-ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 and 200 mg/kg, BW) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, BW) against blood and urine biochemical alterations and kidney function in rats treated with cisplatin were investigated. Cisplatin was injected at a dose of 6 mg/kg, BW, on the sixth day of the experiment.

Results: The results indicated significant changes in serum urea and creatinine concentration, urine glucose concentration, and urine output in cisplatin group compared with control group. Serum urea and creatinine concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW) groups and also serum creatinine concentration in preventive+treatment N. sativa (100 mg/kg, BW) group significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group. Urine glucose concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa groups and urine output in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW) groups significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group.Osmolarity excretion rate in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive N. sativa groups was significantly higher than control group.

Conclusions: The current study suggests that N. sativa extract and vitamin E in a dose- and time-dependent manner improved the serum and urine biochemical parameters and kidney function in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. However, it needs more investigations to determine the mechanism of N. sativa action on cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884217PMC
June 2016

Renal injury, nephrolithiasis and Nigella sativa: A mini review.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2016 Jan-Feb;6(1):1-8

Neurocognitive research center & department of physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: The incidence and prevalence of kidney stone is increasing worldwide. After the first recurrence the risk of subsequent relapses is higher and the time period between relapses is shortened. Urinary stones can be severely painful and make a huge economic burden. The stone disease may increase the vulnerability of patients to other diseases such as renal failure. Medicinal herbs are rich sources of antioxidants which are increasingly consumed globally for their safety, efficacy and low price. Nigella sativa is a spice plant that is widely used for prevention and treatment of many ailments in Muslim countries and worldwide. This review aims at investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa on renal injury and stone formation.

Materials And Methods: The scientific resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched using key words such as: nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, kidney/renal stone, renal injury, renal failure, urinary retention and black seed, black cumin, Nigella sativa and thymoquinone.

Results: N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone showed positive effects in prevention or curing kidney stones and renal failure through various mechanism such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-eicosanoid and immunomodulatory effects. The putative candidate in many cases has been claimed to be thymoquinone but it seems that at least in part, particularly in kidney stones, the herbal melanin plays a role which requires further investigation to prove.

Conclusion: N. sativa and its components are beneficial in prevention and curing of renal diseases including nephrolithiasis and renal damages.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884213PMC
June 2016

Beneficial Effect of Leptin on Spatial Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

Balkan Med J 2016 Jan 1;33(1):102-7. Epub 2016 Jan 1.

Department of Physiology, Neurocognitive Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which may be accompanied by cognitive impairments. The expression of the obesity gene (ob) is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetic animals and increased after the administration of insulin or leptin. Plasma leptin levels are reduced in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the deleterious effects of diabetes on memory may be due to the reduction of leptin.

Aims: Investigate the effect of subcutaneous injection of leptin on spatial learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: Animal experimentation.

Methods: The rats were divided into three groups: 1-control, 2- diabetic, and 3- diabetic-leptin. Diabetes was induced in groups 2 and 3 by STZ injection (55 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p). The animals received leptin (0.1 mg/kg) or saline subcutaneously (s.c) for 10 days before behavioral studies. Then, they were examined in the Morris water maze over 3 blocks after 3 days of the last injection of leptin.

Results: The travelled path length and time spent to reach the platform significantly increased in the diabetic group (p<0.001) and decreased with leptin treatment (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively); also, a significant increase in path length and time was observed between the diabetic-leptin group and the diabetic group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively) in the probe test.

Conclusion: Leptin can exert positive effects on memory impairments in diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/balkanmedj.2015.15084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767299PMC
January 2016

Effect of exogenous leptin on serum levels of lipids, glucose, renal and hepatic variables in both genders of obese and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2015 Nov;18(11):1072-8

Neurocognitive Research Center, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Leptin exerts various effects on appetite and body weight. Disruption of the obesity gene is precedent to fatness. Insulin or glucose elevates leptin, but streptozotocin reduces it. However, controversial data exist for the effects of leptin on diabetes and leptin level in each gender. Leptin can damage the kidney function but little evidence exists for its hepatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable sex-dependent differences in blood sugar levels, lipid profile, and renal and hepatic biochemical factors in the obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after leptin administration.

Materials And Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, namely obese and diabetic rats. Each group was further divided into male and female subgroups. Extra fat and carbohydrate was added to the diet to induce obesity. Furthermore, streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, IP) was injected to induce diabetes. The treatment groups received leptin (0.1 mg/kg SC) for 10 days, and then, blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus for laboratory evaluations.

Results: Leptin resulted in a significant weight loss in both sexes (P<0.001), food intake reduction in male rats (P<0.05), LDL reduction in female rats (obese (P<0.05) and diabetic (P<0.001)), and glucose level decline in the female diabetic rats (P<0.001). However, total protein concentration, LFT (liver function tests), urea and creatinin concentrations among different groups did not show any significant changes.

Conclusion: Leptin caused some discrepant results, especially regarding the LDL and glucose levels in diabetic female rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4764107PMC
November 2015

Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Watercress (Nasturtium Officinale) Leaves on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats.

Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2015 Apr-Jun;59(2):223-30

Objective: Hyperlipidemia is a known complication of diabetes mellitus and predisposes to coronary heart disease. The lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol should reduce the incidence of coronary disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic and diabetic rats treated with the extract of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Diabetic rats received the watercress extract daily in drinking water for 4 weeks since the day after diabetes confirmation. The levels of serum glucose and lipids were spectrophotometrically measured in all groups at weeks 0 (before diabetes induction), 2 and 4.

Results: There was a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, accompanied by a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. The treatment of diabetic rats with hydroalcoholic extract of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves over a 4-week period significantly reduced serum glucose, total cholesterol and LDL- cholesterol in comparison with diabetic untreated rats.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that a 4-week treatment with watercress extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. This implies that the consumption of watercress leaves can be helpful in reducing the complications of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia associated with diabetes.
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January 2016
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