Publications by authors named "Motohiko Miyachi"

185 Publications

Association between Lifestyle Changes and at-Home Hours during and after the State of Emergency Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 4;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan.

Lifestyle changes during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown have been previously examined, but there is limited understanding about changes after such restrictions were lifted. This study examines changes in lifestyle habits and body weight among the Japanese population with regard to the length of at-home hours both during (April to May) and after (September) the nationwide stay-at-home request compared to those before the COVID-19 pandemic (January 2020). An online survey was conducted in September 2020 involving 10,000 Japanese survey monitors, selected according to population distribution. During the stay-at-home request, 34% participants extended their at-home hours. More respondents in the group with extended at-home hours experienced an increase or decrease in total physical activity, snacking, food intake, alcohol drinking, and body weight than those in the group with nonextended at-home hours. Some of these changes had a trend according to age. The prevalence of most of these changes decreased when at-home hours returned to normal after the stay-at-home request period; however, increased alcohol consumption and increased or decreased body weight persisted. Our findings suggest that close monitoring for further health outcomes and age-appropriate measures to encourage favorable health behaviors is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13082698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398728PMC
August 2021

Mother-to-infant transmission of the carcinogenic colibactin-producing bacteria.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Aug 24;21(1):235. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 422-8526, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: The Escherichia coli strain that is known to produce the genotoxic secondary metabolite colibactin is linked to colorectal oncogenesis. Therefore, understanding the properties of such colibactin-positive E. coli and the molecular mechanism of oncogenesis by colibactin may provide us with opportunities for early diagnosis or prevention of colorectal oncogenesis. While there have been major advances in the characterization of colibactin-positive E. coli and the toxin it produces, the infection route of the clb + strain remains poorly characterized.

Results: We examined infants and their treatments during and post-birth periods to examine potential transmission of colibactin-positive E. coli to infants. Here, analysis of fecal samples of infants over the first month of birth for the presence of a colibactin biosynthetic gene revealed that the bacterium may be transmitted from mother to infant through intimate contacts, such as natural childbirth and breastfeeding, but not through food intake.

Conclusions: Our finding suggests that transmission of colibactin-positive E. coli appears to be occurring at the very early stage of life of the newborn and hints at the possibility of developing early preventive measures against colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02292-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386082PMC
August 2021

Association between socioeconomic status and physical inactivity in a general Japanese population: NIPPON DATA2010.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(7):e0254706. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa-cho, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.

Background: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be related to inactivity lifestyle; however, the association between SES and physical inactivity has not been sufficiently investigated in Japan.

Methods: The study population is the participants of NIPPON DATA2010, which is a prospective cohort study of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010 in Japan. They were residents in 300 randomly selected areas across Japan. This study included 2,609 adults. Physical activity was assessed by physical activity index (PAI) calculated from activity intensity and time. The lowest tertile of PAI for each 10-year age class and sex was defined as physical inactivity. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of SES (employment status, educational attainment, living status, and equivalent household expenditure (EHE)) with physical inactivity.

Results: In the distribution of PAI by age classes and sex, the highest median PAI was aged 30-39 years among men (median 38.6), aged 40-49 years among women (38.0), and median PAI was decreased with increasing age. Multivariable-adjusted model shows that not working was significantly associated with physical inactivity after adjustment for age in all age groups and sexes. Not living with spouse for adult women and elderly men was significantly associated with physical inactivity compared to those who living with spouse. However, neither educational attainment nor EHE had any significant associations with physical inactivity.

Conclusions: The result indicated that physical inactivity was associated with SES in a general Japanese population. SES of individuals need to be considered in order to prevent inactivity lifestyle.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254706PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282078PMC
July 2021

A community-wide intervention to promote physical activity: A five-year quasi-experimental study.

Prev Med 2021 09 29;150:106708. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Sports Medicine Research Center, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521, Japan; Graduate School of Health Management, Keio University, 4411 Endo, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0883, Japan. Electronic address:

Evidence on the effects of a community-wide intervention (CWI) on population-level physical activity (PA), especially in the long term, is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the five-year effect of CWI on promoting PA through information dissemination, education, and community support primarily targeting older adults, by incorporating Japanese guidelines, in Fujisawa City, from 2013. To assess the effect of the whole-city intervention, we distributed questionnaires in 2013, 2015, and 2018 to three independent random samples of 3,000 community-dwelling adults (aged ≥ 20 years) using a quasi-experimental study design. Three separate samples responded to the survey (41% at baseline, 46% at the two-year mark, and 48% at the five-year follow-up). The primary outcome was change in PA participation. At the five-year follow-up, PA (median: 120 minutes/day) was significantly higher than at baseline (86 minutes/day) and the two-year follow-up (90 minutes/day). The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that PA among older adults-the primary target population of the CWI-increased significantly at the five-year follow-up, compared to those aged 20-64 (mean difference of change between groups: 14.7 minutes/day, P= 0.029). Among older adults, PA was significantly lower in those with poorer perceived economic status than in their more well-off counterparts at the two-year follow-up (P= 0.003); however, there was no significant difference at the five-year follow-up (P= 1.000). There was a positive interaction between group and period (mean difference of change between groups: 40.9 minutes/day, P= 0.001). In conclusion, the five-year CWI targeting older adults, incorporating national guidelines, improved population-level PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106708DOI Listing
September 2021

Stool pattern is associated with not only the prevalence of tumorigenic bacteria isolated from fecal matter but also plasma and fecal fatty acids in healthy Japanese adults.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Jun 28;21(1):196. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Tokyo, 162-8636, Japan.

Background: Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli containing polyketide synthase (pks E. coli) has been shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) development through gut microbiota analysis in animal models. Stool status has been associated with potentially adverse gut microbiome profiles from fecal analysis in adults. We examined the association between stool patterns and the prevalence of pks E. coli isolated from microbiota in fecal samples of 224 healthy Japanese individuals.

Results: Stool patterns were determined through factorial analysis using a previously validated questionnaire that included stool frequency, volume, color, shape, and odor. Factor scores were classified into tertiles. The prevalence of pks E. coli was determined by using specific primers for pks E. coli in fecal samples. Plasma and fecal fatty acids were measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The prevalence of pks E. coli was 26.8%. Three stool patterns identified by factorial analysis accounted for 70.1% of all patterns seen (factor 1: lower frequency, darker color, and harder shape; factor 2: higher volume and softer shape; and factor 3: darker color and stronger odor). Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the prevalence of pks E. coli for the highest versus the lowest third of the factor 1 score was 3.16 (1.38 to 7.24; P for trend = 0.006). This stool pattern exhibited a significant positive correlation with fecal isobutyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and hexanoate but showed a significant negative correlation with plasma eicosenoic acid and α-linoleic acid, as well as fecal propionate and succinate. No other stool patterns were significant.

Conclusions: These results suggest that stool patterns may be useful in the evaluation of the presence of tumorigenic bacteria and fecal fatty acids through self-monitoring of stool status without the requirement for specialist technology or skill. Furthermore, it may provide valuable insight about effective strategies for the early discovery of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02255-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240356PMC
June 2021

Validating muscle mass cutoffs of four international sarcopenia-working groups in Japanese people using DXA and BIA.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Aug 7;12(4):1000-1010. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan.

Background: The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) 2019 recommended the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess appendicular lean mass (ALM). AWGS, European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2), Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project (FNIH), and International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS) reported different cutoff values for sarcopenia. We aimed to validate these cutoff values in a Japanese population using DXA and two different devices of segmental multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA).

Methods: We examined the data of Japanese individuals aged 18-86 years using the DXA (n = 756) and two 8-electrode MF-BIA devices (InBody and TANITA MC) (n = 1884). To validate these cutoff values, we used a population aged 18-40 years, and calculated the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of [mean-2SD].

Results: In DXA, the 95%CIs of [mean-2SD] for ALM/Ht were 5.2-5.8 and 6.6-7.3 kg/m in women and men, respectively. The AWGS (<5.4 in women and <7.0 in men), and IWGS (≤5.67 in women and ≤7.23 in men) cutoffs were acceptable. Regarding TANITA MC, the 95%CIs of [mean-2SD] for ALM/Ht were 5.6-6.0 and 6.9-7.4 kg/m in women and men, respectively. The AWGS (<5.7 in women and <7.0 in men), EWGSOP2 (<6.0 in women and <7.0 in men), and IWGS cutoffs were acceptable. Regarding InBody, the 95%CIs of [mean-2SD] for ALM/Ht were 4.8-5.2 and 6.4-6.8 kg/m in young women and men, respectively. All cutoff values were too high compared to those measured by InBody. InBody and TANITA MC were highly correlated (P < 0.001), but the values by InBody were significantly lower than those by TANITA MC or DXA. Using Yamada's equation for InBody raw data, the AWGS, EWGSOP2, or IWGS cutoffs were acceptable. The BMI-adjusted muscle mass cutoff values were <0.60 and <0.82 m in women and men, respectively. We also obtained the 20th percentile in older adult population (ALM/Ht , <6.2 in women and <7.5 in men for TANITA MC; <5.4 in women and <7.0 in men for InBody).

Conclusions: The AWGS and IWGS cutoffs were valid for DXA, and the AWGS, IWGS, and EWGSOP2 cutoffs were valid for TANITA MC in Japanese population. Because the prevalence of sarcopenia is too low particularly in women when using those criteria, the 20th percentile might be a good alternative criteria. If the ALM original InBody values are used, the cutoffs should be <5.0 kg/m in women and <6.6 kg/m in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350199PMC
August 2021

Comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota of a healthy population and covariates affecting microbial variation in two large Japanese cohorts.

BMC Microbiol 2021 05 20;21(1):151. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, 162-8636, Japan.

Background: Inter-individual variations in gut microbiota composition are observed even among healthy populations. The gut microbiota may exhibit a unique composition depending on the country of origin and race of individuals. To comprehensively understand the link between healthy gut microbiota and host state, it is beneficial to conduct large-scale cohort studies. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the integrated and non-redundant factors associated with gut microbiota composition within the Japanese population by 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples and questionnaire-based covariate analysis.

Results: A total of 1596 healthy Japanese individuals participated in this study via two independent cohorts, NIBIOHN cohort (n = 954) and MORINAGA cohort (n = 642). Gut microbiota composition was described and the interaction of these microorganisms with metadata parameters such as anthropometric measurements, bowel habits, medical history, and lifestyle were obtained. Thirteen genera, including Alistipes, Anaerostipes, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Eubacterium halli group, Faecalibacterium, Fusicatenibacter, Lachnoclostridium, Parabacteroides, Prevotella_9, Roseburia, and Subdoligranulum were predominant among the two cohorts. On the basis of univariate analysis for overall microbiome variation, 18 matching variables exhibited significant association in both cohorts. A stepwise redundancy analysis revealed that there were four common covariates, Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) scores, gender, age, and defecation frequency, displaying non-redundant association with gut microbial variance.

Conclusions: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota in healthy Japanese individuals, based on two independent cohorts, and obtained reliable evidence that questionnaire-based covariates such as frequency of bowel movement and specific dietary habit affects the microbial composition of the gut. To our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate integrated and non-redundant factors associated with gut microbiota among Japanese populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02215-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139087PMC
May 2021

[Prevalence of frailty and its related factors in community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly adults in Settsu and Hannan cities in Osaka prefecture].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2021 Aug 14;68(8):525-537. Epub 2021 May 14.

National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition.

Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of frailty and its associated factors in community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly adults in Settsu and Hannan cities, which are located in the north and south of Osaka prefecture, respectively.Methods We conducted a mailed, self-administered, questionnaire survey of individuals aged 40 years and older in Settsu city in 2019 and Hannan city in 2020. There are 10 primary school districts in Settsu city and 8 districts in Hannan city, from each of which 1,000 people were selected according to the age and sex structures of the districts. We included 5,134 individuals from Settsu city and 3,939 individuals from Hannan city. We defined frailty using self-reported questionnaires, the Kihon Checklist (KCL), and Simple Frailty Index (SFI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for each city to examine the association of frailty with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), family structure, subjective health, economic status, subjective physical fitness, sleeping status, smoking history, alcohol use, meal frequency and awareness of the word "frailty."Results The average age (standard deviation) of participants was 62.7 (12.5) years in Settsu city and 63.4 (12.2) years in Hannan city. The prevalence of frailty by KCL was 18.7% and 17.9% for participants in their 40s, 18.2% and 14.6% for those in their 50s, 17.0% and 15.7% for those in their 60s, 25.4% and 20.8% for those in their 70s, 39.7% and 36.1% for those 80 years and older from Settsu and Hannan cities, respectively. Using SFI, the prevalence of frailty was 16.2% and 13.5% for participants in their 40s, 15.0% and 11.9% for those in their 50s, 12.5% and 10.0% for those in their 60s, 14.6% and 12.3% for those in their 70s, and 24.7% and 22.3% for those aged 80 years and older in Settsu and Hannan cities, respectively. Significant common independent variables associated with frailty as defined using the KCL and SFI in Settsu and Hannan cities were age, subjective health, economic status, subjective physical fitness, sleeping status, and awareness of the word "frailty."Conclusion This study found some participants to be frail as early as their 40s or 50s. Thus, efforts must be made to prevent frailty in working-age populations, including those aged 40 years and older. Six factors were associated with frailty. Longitudinal or interventional studies are required to examine their causal relationships and public health significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11236/jph.20-111DOI Listing
August 2021

Association between socioeconomic status and prolonged television viewing time in a general Japanese population: NIPPON DATA2010.

Environ Health Prev Med 2021 May 7;26(1):57. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa-cho, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192, Japan.

Background: It has been pointed out that prolonged television (TV) viewing is one of the sedentary behaviors that is harmful to health; however, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and prolonged TV viewing time has not been sufficiently investigated in Japan.

Methods: The study population are the participants of NIPPON DATA2010, which is a prospective cohort study of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010 in Japan. They were residents in 300 randomly selected areas across Japan. This study included 2752 adults. SES was classified according to the employment status, educational attainment, living status, and equivalent household expenditure (EHE). Prolonged TV viewing time was defined as more than or equal to 4 h of TV viewing per day. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of SES with prolonged TV viewing time.

Results: The mean TV viewing time was 2.92 h in all participants. Of 2752 participants, 809 (29.4%) prolonged TV viewing, and the mean TV viewing time of them was 5.61 h. The mean TV viewing time in participants without prolonged TV viewing time was 1.81 h. The mean TV viewing time was prolonged as age classes increased and significantly longer in aged ≥60 years. Prolonged TV viewing time was associated with not working for all age classes and sexes. Only among women, education attainment and living status were also associated with prolonged TV viewing time. For education attainment, the lower the received years of education, the higher odds ratios (OR) of prolonged TV viewing time. For living status, in women aged <60 years, living with others had a significantly higher OR compared to living with spouse. On the other hand, in women aged ≥60 years, living alone had a significantly higher OR. EHE did not have any significant associations with prolonged TV viewing time.

Conclusions: In a general Japanese population, it should be noted that the association between SES and prolonged TV viewing time differed by age and sex. Particularly, it must draw attention to the prolonged TV viewing in elderly. The intervention in order to shorten TV viewing time needs to consider these attributes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-021-00978-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105981PMC
May 2021

Factors associated with sarcopenia screened by finger-circle test among middle-aged and older adults: a population-based multisite cross-sectional survey in Japan.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 26;21(1):798. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8636, Japan.

Background: Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the prevalence and relationship of various factors associated with sarcopenia in older adults; however, few have examined the status of sarcopenia in middle-aged adults. In this study, we aimed to, 1) evaluate the validity of the finger-circle test, which is potentially a useful screening tool for sarcopenia, and 2) determine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in middle-aged and older adults.

Methods: We conducted face-to-face surveys of 525 adults, who were aged 40-91 years and resided in Settsu City, Osaka Prefecture, Japan to evaluate the validity of finger-circle test. The finger-circle test evaluated calf circumference by referring to an illustration printed on the survey form. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) was plotted to evaluate the validity of the finger-circle test for screening sarcopenia and compared to that evaluated by skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) measured using bioimpedance. We also conducted multisite population-based cross-sectional anonymous mail surveys of 9337 adults, who were aged 40-97 years and resided in Settsu and Hannan Cities, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Participants were selected through stratified random sampling by sex and age in the elementary school zones of their respective cities. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to explore associations between characteristics and prevalence of sarcopenia.

Results: Sarcopenia, defined by SMI, was moderately predicted by a finger-circle test response showing that the subject's calf was smaller than their finger-circle (AUROC: 0.729, < 65 years; 0.653, ≥65 years); such subjects were considered to have sarcopenia. In mail surveys, prevalence of sarcopenia screened by finger-circle test was higher in older subjects (approximately 16%) than in middle-aged subjects (approximately 8-9%). In a multiple regression model, the factors associated with sarcopenia were age, body mass index, smoking status, self-reported health, and number of meals in all the participants.

Conclusions: Sarcopenia, screened by the finger-circle test, was present not only among older adults but also among middle-aged adults. These results may provide useful indications for developing public health programs, not only for the prevention, but especially for the management of sarcopenia.

Trial Registration: UMIN000036880, registered prospectively May 29, 2019,  https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000042027.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10844-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074487PMC
April 2021

Greater arterial wall viscosity in endurance-trained men.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Aug 23;121(8):2219-2228. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-1192, Japan.

Purpose: The age-associated increase in arterial wall viscosity (AWV) is attenuated by high cardiorespiratory fitness level. However, AWV in endurance-trained athletes have not been determined. We designed a cross sectional study to compare central AWV and compliance between endurance-trained young athletes and age-matched control men.

Methods: Twenty-one endurance-trained men (age 20.7 ± 0.3 years) and 20 age-matched healthy control men (age 21.6 ± 0.4 years) were studied. The common carotid artery was measured noninvasively by tonometry and automatic tracking of B-mode images to obtain instantaneous pressure and diameter hysteresis loops, and we calculated the dynamic carotid arterial compliance, static (effective and isobaric) compliance, and viscosity index.

Results: The AWV index in the endurance-trained men was larger than the control peers (2285 ± 181 vs. 1429 ± 124 mmHg·s/mm: P < 0.001). In addition, dynamic and static compliance were not statistically different between both groups.

Conclusion: The present study indicated that the central AWV in endurance-trained athletes was greater than age-matched healthy control men. We believe that the AWV, as well as arterial compliance, is an important element for assessing vascular adaptation to endurance training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04686-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of bioelectrical phase angle with aerobic capacity, complex gait ability and total fitness score in older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2021 07 16;150:111350. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the association between whole-body or segmental phase angle (PhA) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and aerobic capacity (endurance), complex gait ability, and total fitness age score (FAS).

Methods: A total of 426 community-dwelling older adults (332 women and 94 men) aged 60 to 93 years participated in this study. PhA and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) were obtained by an eight-electrode standing BIA. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the shuttle stamina walk test (SSTw); complex gait ability, using the timed-up-and-go test (TUG). FAS was obtained using the previously validated multi-dimensional equations based on 7-year longitudinal data. SSTw, TUG, and FAS were compared between the low PhA (<4.4° for women and <5.2° for men) and normal PhA groups. Pearson's correlation between PhA and SSTw, TUG, and FAS was determined. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using SSTw, TUG, and FAS as dependent variables. Age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), ASMI, and PhA were entered into the linear model.

Results: SSTw and TUG results and FAS were significantly lower in the low PhA group (P < 0.05). PhA was significantly correlated with SSTw, TUG, and FAS (P < 0.001), and leg PhA showed a stronger correlation than whole-body or arm PhA. PhA at 50 kHz had higher correlation coefficients with SSTw, TUG, or FAS compared with PhA at 5 or 250 kHz. Multiple regression analyses indicated that leg PhA at 50 kHz was a significant predictor of SSTw, TUG, and FAS, independent of age, sex, height, BMI, and ASMI.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that leg PhA is associated with multi-dimensional physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults. PhA is a highly informative biomarker of skeletal muscle and exercise physiology in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2021.111350DOI Listing
July 2021

Compliance with a physical activity guideline among junior high school students.

Pediatr Int 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological, Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, 50 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1QE, UK.

Background: There was no nation-wide moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) data among Japanese adolescents. This study assessed the compliance with the MVPA guideline in adolescents using a random sampling survey in Japan. The factors associated with meeting the guideline were also examined.

Methods: Participants were 1st to 3rd grade Japanese junior high school students (307 boys and 255 girls). We analyzed data of the National Sports-Life Survey of Teens 2019 which used the Japanese version of PA questions in the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey and potential correlates of MVPA.

Results: The compliance with meeting PA guideline by the WHO for Japanese students was 19.0% (95% CI, 15.8 - 22.3). The compliance for boys was significantly higher than that of girls (23.1%; 95% CI, 18.4 - 27.8; vs, 14.1%; 95% CI, 9.8 -18.4). Meeting PA guideline was significantly associated with boys in the second grade than boys in the first grade (OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02 - 3.09), liking PA (for all: OR 2.97; 95% CI, 1.32 - 6.69; for girls: OR 2.99; 95% CI, 1.01 - 8.81), and sports participation (for all: OR 4.77; 95% CI, 2.32 - 9.80; for boys: OR 6.00; 95% CI, 1.81 - 19.89; for girls: OR 4.08; 95% CI, 1.63 - 10.21).

Conclusion: The results suggest that more than 80% junior high school students were insufficiently physically active in Japan. Preference for PA and sports participation may be important correlates of sufficient PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14716DOI Listing
March 2021

[Investigation of the reproducibility and validity of a questionnaire on usual bowel movement patterns and stool characteristics compared to an evacuation diary].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2021 Feb 26;68(2):92-104. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN).

Objective Stool reflect our dietary and nutritional status as well as the characteristics of gut microbiota; thus, stool can be a convenient, noninvasive index for the evaluation of physical health and nutritional intake. However, there are few studies on appropriate tools for comprehensive and easy-to-perform objective assessments of stool. Therefore, there is a need for an effective questionnaire to accurately ascertain daily bowel movement patterns ("usual evacuation") and stool characteristics. Herein, we have created an assessment tool to determine stool characteristics (volume, color, form, etc.). To investigate the validity of this tool, we compared the results with evacuation diary data wherein the participants were asked to record the number of evacuations and stool characteristics.Methods This study included 35 adult men and women, aged 22-78 years (45.2±17.1years). A questionnaire was administered to the subjects on usual stool characteristics for the most recent month, including the average number of evacuations, stool volume per evacuation, stool color and form, stool float, and abdominal bloating. To confirm the reproducibility of each item of this questionnaire, the survey was performed twice. Thereafter, an evacuation diary was used, wherein the subjects recorded the daily number of evacuations and stool characteristics for one week. Using the evacuation diary as the valid criterion for the number of evacuations and stool characteristics, we compared responses between the diary and the usual stool questionnaire. Additionally, the questionnaire had two types of responses for the number of evacuations, namely, multiple choice for categories indicating the number of evacuations and open answers using numerical values.Results Assessment of the reproducibility of the questionnaire on usual stool by Spearman rank correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation (ρ=0.431-0.911) for all items. The weighted κ coefficient also showed high coincidence (weighted κ=0.348-0.841). Validity was assessed by comparing the number of evacuations per one-week period between the evacuation diary and the usual stool questionnaire. A higher correlation (ρ=0.855) was observed in the open responses for the number of evacuations per one-week period. Assessment of the correlations between median values for responses to stool characteristics in the one-week evacuation diary and the usual stool questionnaire showed significant correlation (ρ=0.429-0.800) for all items except for "stool float".Conclusion We confirmed the high reproducibility and validity of the questionnaire created in this study for the assessment of usual bowel movement patterns and stool characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11236/jph.20-037DOI Listing
February 2021

Simulating the Impact of Long-Term Care Prevention Among Older Japanese People on Healthcare Costs From 2020 to 2040 Using System Dynamics Modeling.

Front Public Health 2020 14;8:592471. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.

This study examined how healthcare costs might change by reducing long-term care needs among older Japanese people. A simulation model was constructed comprising two aging chains for independent and dependent people aged ≥65 years by sex. Changes in the base run from 2020 to 2040 were compared with those in two hypothetical scenarios: a 2% annual reduction in death rates (S1), and S1 plus a 2% annual reduction in the proportion of dependent people aged 65 years and in transition rates from the independent to dependent state for people aged ≥65 years (S2). In the base run, the population increased by 13.0% for men and 11.3% for women, and the proportion of dependent people increased by 4.6% for men but decreased by 13.4% for women. The sum of medical and long-term care expenditure increased in the base run, S1, and S2 by 8.2, 27.4, and 16.4%, respectively, for men and women combined. Healthcare costs will increase as death rates fall, but the increase will be attenuated if the proportion of dependent people decreases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.592471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767848PMC
May 2021

The associations of eating behavior and dietary intake with metabolic syndrome in Japanese: Saku cohort baseline study.

J Physiol Anthropol 2020 Dec 14;39(1):40. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Life Science Promoting Association, Tokyo, 160-0015, Japan.

Background: The prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health concern in Japan. The effects of the relationship between eating behavior and nutritional intake on MetS remained unclear. To evaluate nutrition's role in preventing or exacerbating MetS, we examined the associations among eating behavior, nutritional intake, and MetS for the baseline study in the cohort subjects undergone health checkups.

Methods: Four thousand and four hundred forty-seven Japanese men and women were enrolled at the Saku Central Hospital. They received an anthropometric and clinical examination and were assessed for present illness, lifestyle factors such as physical activity, smoking, drinking, and dietary habits at the enrollment. Eating behavior was analyzed by the Sakata's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Dietary assessment was made using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Two thousand and six hundred two men and 1844 women aged more than 20 were analyzed.

Results: The mean age in men and women were 59.2 and 58.4 years old and the mean body mass index (BMI) were 23.7 and 22.3 kg/m, respectively. The percentages of MetS were 20.6 in men and 6.1 in women. In some nutrients, significantly higher energy-adjusted intakes in subjects without MetS than with Mets appeared both in men and women after age adjustment. After adjusting by age, energy-adjusted intake beverages in men and cereals in women were significantly higher in subjects with MetS than those without MetS. The scores of all the categories in eating behavior were significantly worse in subjects with MetS than those without MetS.

Conclusions: The differences in dietary intake between subjects with Mets and without Mets were relatively small. The scores of all the categories in eating behavior were worse in subjects with MetS than without MetS. It was suggested that the problem lay in the quality of diet, not in the quantity, caused by bad eating habits. The potential influence of eating behavior and nutritional intake on MetS was presented in men and women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40101-020-00250-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734750PMC
December 2020

Dose-response relationship between protein intake and muscle mass increase: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Nutr Rev 2020 Nov 4. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.

Context: Lean body mass is essential for health, yet consensus regarding the effectiveness of protein interventions in increasing lean body mass is lacking.

Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the dose-response relationship of the effects of protein intake on lean body mass.

Data Sources: The PubMed and Ichushi-Web databases were searched electronically, and reference lists of the literature included here and in other meta-analyses were searched manually.

Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of protein intake on lean body mass were included.

Data Extraction: Two authors independently screened the abstracts; 5 reviewed the full texts.

Results: A total of 5402 study participants from 105 articles were included. In the multivariate spline model, the mean increase in lean body mass associated with an increase in protein intake of 0.1 g/kg of body weight per day was 0.39 kg (95%CI, 0.36-0.41) and 0.12 kg (95%CI, 0.11-0.14) below and above the total protein intake of 1.3 g/kg/d, respectively.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that slightly increasing current protein intake for several months by 0.1 g/kg/d in a dose-dependent manner over a range of doses from 0.5 to 3.5 g/kg/d may increase or maintain lean body mass.

Systematic Review Registration: UMIN registration number UMIN000039285.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727026PMC
November 2020

MANTA, an integrative database and analysis platform that relates microbiome and phenotypic data.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(12):e0243609. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Artificial Intelligence Center for Health and Biomedical Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Ibaraki, Osaka, Japan.

With an ever-increasing interest in understanding the relationships between the microbiota and the host, more tools to map, analyze and interpret these relationships have been developed. Most of these tools, however, focus on taxonomic profiling and comparative analysis among groups, with very few analytical tools designed to correlate microbiota and the host phenotypic data. We have developed a software program for creating a web-based integrative database and analysis platform called MANTA (Microbiota And pheNoType correlation Analysis platform). In addition to storing the data, MANTA is equipped with an intuitive user interface that can be used to correlate the microbial composition with phenotypic parameters. Using a case study, we demonstrated that MANTA was able to quickly identify the significant correlations between microbial abundances and phenotypes that are supported by previous studies. Moreover, MANTA enabled the users to quick access locally stored data that can help interpret microbiota-phenotype relations. MANTA is available at https://mizuguchilab.org/manta/ for download and the source code can be found at https://github.com/chenyian-nibio/manta.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243609PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717536PMC
January 2021

Summary of the 9th Life Science Symposium: integration of nutrition and exercise sciences.

Authors:
Motohiko Miyachi

Nutr Rev 2020 12;78(12 Suppl 2):40-45

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.

The Life Science Symposium held by the Nutrition Research Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Japan in 2018, "Fusion of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences Leading to Extension of Healthy Life Expectancy," covered current topics in the science of nutrition and exercise to address extending healthy life expectancy. Presentation topics included (1) lifestyle and gut microbiota; (2) how to use lipids in sports nutrition; (3) the effect and molecular mechanism of improvement of arteriosclerosis by exercise and nutrition; (4) physical activity and nutrition that support brain function; (5) skeletal muscles and food ingredients that support healthy longevity; (6) measures against sarcopenia by exercise and nutrient intake; (7) physical activity/exercise for disease prevention; (8) nutritional epidemiology research for the Japanese population; (9) new developments in health science in viewed from nutrition and intestinal flora; (10) why do Asians develop nonobese metabolic disease?; and (11) social implementation of the health promotion program by ILSI Japan. The speakers emphasized the promotion of research on exercise and nutrition interactions and encouraged social implementation of the research results in public and private sectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa083DOI Listing
December 2020

Body flexibility and incident hypertension: The Niigata wellness study.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Mar 18;31(3):702-709. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Hematology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata, Japan.

A high level of physical fitness, especially cardiorespiratory fitness, is associated with lower incidence of hypertension. However, the relationship between flexibility, which is a component of physical fitness, and the incidence of hypertension is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between flexibility and the incidence of hypertension in a cohort study. A total of 22,972 (14,805 men and 8167 women; median age 49 years) normotensive participants were included in this study. Between April 2001 and March 2002, flexibility (standing forward bending) was measured using a standing trunk flexion meter. The participants were divided into quartiles of flexibility by sex and age group. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg, or a self-reported history of previously diagnosed hypertension or current medication for hypertension at a health examination between April 2002 and March 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the incidence of hypertension were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, exercise habits, smoking status, and drinking status. During 102,948 person years of follow-up (median 5.6 years), 4235 participants developed hypertension. Compared with the lowest flexibility (quartile 1), hazard ratios and 95% CI were 0.96 (0.88 - 1.04) for quartile 2, 0.94 (0.86 - 1.03) for quartile 3, and 0.83 (0.76 - 0.91) for quartile 4. A high level of flexibility was associated with lower incidence of hypertension, independent of other confounding factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13867DOI Listing
March 2021

A Prospective Cohort Study of Muscular and Performance Fitness and Incident Glaucoma: The Niigata Wellness Study.

J Phys Act Health 2020 Oct 13;17(11):1171-1178. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Background: To examine the association between muscular and performance fitness (MPF) and the incidence of glaucoma.

Methods: A total of 27,051 glaucoma-free participants aged 20-87 years underwent physical fitness tests between April 2001 and March 2002. The MPF index was calculated using an age- and sex-specific summed z-score from grip strength, vertical jump, single-leg balance, forward bending, and whole-body reaction time. The participants were divided into quartiles according to the MPF index and each physical fitness test. Participants were followed up for the development of glaucoma, which was defined based on physician-diagnosed glaucoma at an annual health examination between April 2002 and March 2008. Hazard ratios for the incidence of glaucoma were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: During follow-up, 303 participants developed glaucoma. Compared with the lowest MPF index group, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing glaucoma was 0.64 (0.46-0.89) for the highest MPF index group (P for trend = .001). Vertical jump and whole-body reaction time were associated with incident glaucoma (P for trend = .01 and <.001, respectively). There were no associations between the other physical fitness tests and the incidence of glaucoma.

Conclusion: Higher MPF is associated with lower incidence of glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0660DOI Listing
October 2020

Association between dietary intake and the prevalence of tumourigenic bacteria in the gut microbiota of middle-aged Japanese adults.

Sci Rep 2020 09 16;10(1):15221. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8636, Japan.

The relative contribution of diet to colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is higher than that for other cancers. Animal models have revealed that Escherichia coli containing polyketide synthase (pks E. coli) in the gut participates in CRC development. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between dietary intake and the prevalence of pks E. coli isolated from the microbiota in faecal samples of 223 healthy Japanese individuals. Dietary intake was assessed using a previously validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The prevalence of pks E. coli was evaluated using faecal samples collected from participants and specific primers that detected pks E. coli. The prevalence of pks E. coli was 26.9%. After adjusting for baseline confounders, the prevalence of pks E. coli was negatively associated with the intake of green tea (odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.88] per 100 g/1,000 kcal increment) and manganese (OR, 0.43 [95% CI 0.22-0.85] per 1 mg/1,000 kcal increment) and was positively associated with male sex (OR, 2.27 [95% CI 1.05-4.91]). While futher studies are needed to validate these findings, these results provide insight into potential dietary interventions for the prevention of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72245-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495490PMC
September 2020

Cut-offs for calf circumference as a screening tool for low muscle mass: WASEDA'S Health Study.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 Oct 4;20(10):943-950. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Aim: To re-evaluate the suitability of calf circumference as a surrogate marker of low muscle mass measured by both bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We also examined the effects of obesity and age on low muscle mass screening using calf circumference.

Methods: In total, 1239 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. We measured the maximum calf circumference in a standing position and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) using BIA and DXA. We defined low muscle mass based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 consensus.

Results: Calf circumference was positively correlated with BIA-measured ASM/height (men: r = 0.81, women: r = 0.73) and DXA-measured ASM/height (men: r = 0.78, women: r = 0.76). In the subgroup analyses by obesity and age, calf circumference was also positively correlated with ASM/height . The optimal calf circumference cut-offs for low muscle mass screening measured by BIA and DXA were 35 cm (sensitivity 91%, specificity 84%) and 36 cm (sensitivity 82%, specificity 80%) for men, and 33 cm (sensitivity 82%, specificity 84%) and 34 cm (sensitivity 85%, specificity 72%) for women, respectively.

Conclusions: Calf circumference is positively correlated with BIA- and DXA-measured muscle mass regardless of obesity and age and is a simple and accurate surrogate marker of muscle mass for diagnosing sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 943-950.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.14025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590124PMC
October 2020

Energy Expenditure in Free-Living Japanese People with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes, Measured Using the Doubly-Labeled Water Method.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2020 ;66(4):319-324

Life Science Promoting Association.

We determined the total energy expenditure (TEE) of healthy overweight or obese people, and those with impaired glucose tolerance and/or impaired fasting glycemia (IGT/IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using the doubly-labeled water method. As a second purpose, we compared the measured TEE with the target energy intake recommended in the treatment guidelines for diabetes. The participants were normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and IGT/IFG (n=11) and T2DM (n=9) patients, who were 50-59 y and had a body mass index >25 kg/m. The median TEE/body mass (BM) values were 32.6, 33.3, and 34.4 kcal/kg BM and the TEE/target BM values (target BM: BM at a BMI of 22 kg/m) were 43.7, 50.2, and 46.5 kcal/kg target BM for each group, respectively, and did not differ significantly among them. Obese Japanese participants with T2DM in this study had lower TEE/BM than previously studied in non-obese participants with T2DM. In IGT/IFG or T2DM patients, if 30 kcal/kg target BM was used as the energy coefficient, on the basis of the treatment guidelines, the difference between TEE and the target energy intake would be -1,174±552 kcal (-38±11%). When 35 kcal/kg target BM was used as the energy coefficient, the difference between TEE and the target energy intake would be -877±542 kcal (-27±13%). Thus, the energy coefficients used to estimate target energy intake during lifestyle modification in obese/overweight patients with T2DM are considered to be quite low during the first step of diet therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.66.319DOI Listing
May 2021

A Prospective Cohort Study of Muscular and Performance Fitness and Risk of Hearing Loss: The Niigata Wellness Study.

Am J Med 2021 02 17;134(2):235-242.e4. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Hematology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Several cross-sectional studies have linked higher physical fitness with better hearing sensitivity but have not established a causal relation; none have used a prospective design that is less susceptible to bias. We used a prospective cohort study to investigate the association between muscular and performance fitness and the incidence of hearing loss.

Methods: A total of 21,907 participants without hearing loss received physical fitness assessments between April 2001 and March 2002. Muscular and performance fitness index, an age- and sex-specific summed z-score based on grip strength, vertical jump height, single-leg balance, forward bending, and whole-body reaction time was calculated. Participants were classified into quartiles according to the muscular and performance fitness index and each physical fitness test. They were followed up for the development of hearing loss, assessed by pure-tone audiometry at annual health examinations between April 2002 and March 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for hearing loss incidence were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: During follow-up, 2765 participants developed hearing loss. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing hearing loss across the muscular and performance fitness index quartiles (lowest to highest) were 1.00 (reference), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.83 (0.75-0.93), and 0.79 (0.71-0.88) (P <.001). Among the various physical fitness components, a clear dose-response association with hearing loss incidence was observed for vertical jump height and single-leg balance (P <.001 for both).

Conclusion: Higher muscular and performance fitness is associated with a lower incidence of hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.06.021DOI Listing
February 2021

Gut microbial composition in patients with atrial fibrillation: effects of diet and drugs.

Heart Vessels 2021 Jan 18;36(1):105-114. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 6500017, Japan.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) reduces the quality of life by triggering stroke and heart failure. The association between AF onset and gut metabolites suggests a causal relationship between AF and gut microbiota dysbiosis; however, the relationship remains poorly understood. We prospectively enrolled 34 hospitalized patients with AF and 66 age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched control subjects without a history of AF. Gut microbial compositions were evaluated by amplicon sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. We assessed differences in dietary habits by using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Gut microbial richness was lower in AF patients, although the diversity of gut microbiota did not differ between the two groups. At the genus level, Enterobacter was depleted, while Parabacteroides, Lachnoclostridium, Streptococcus, and Alistipes were enriched in AF patients compared to control subjects. The BDHQ revealed that the intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosadienoic acid was higher in AF patients. Our results suggested that AF patients had altered gut microbial composition in connection with dietary habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-020-01669-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788021PMC
January 2021

Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals a Novel Association Between MYBPC3 Gene Polymorphism, Endurance Athlete Status, Aerobic Capacity and Steroid Metabolism.

Front Genet 2020 16;11:595. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Biomedical Research Institute (BRC), Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Background: The genetic predisposition to elite athletic performance has been a controversial subject due to the underpowered studies and the small effect size of identified genetic variants. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with endurance athlete status in a large cohort of elite European athletes using GWAS approach, followed by replication studies in Russian and Japanese elite athletes and functional validation using metabolomics analysis.

Results: The association of 476,728 SNPs of Illumina DrugCore Gene chip and endurance athlete status was investigated in 796 European international-level athletes (645 males, 151 females) by comparing allelic frequencies between athletes specialized in sports with high ( = 662) and low/moderate ( = 134) aerobic component. Replication of results was performed by comparing the frequencies of the most significant SNPs between 242 and 168 elite Russian high and low/moderate aerobic athletes, respectively, and between 60 elite Japanese endurance athletes and 406 controls. A meta-analysis has identified rs1052373 (GG homozygotes) in Myosin Binding Protein (; implicated in cardiac hypertrophic myopathy) gene to be associated with endurance athlete status ( = 1.43 × 10, odd ratio 2.2). Homozygotes carriers of rs1052373 G allele in Russian athletes had significantly greater VO than carriers of the AA + AG ( = 0.005). Subsequent metabolomics analysis revealed several amino acids and lipids associated with rs1052373 G allele (1.82 × 10) including the testosterone precursor androstenediol (3beta,17beta) disulfate.

Conclusions: This is the first report of genome-wide significant SNP and related metabolites associated with elite athlete status. Further investigations of the functional relevance of the identified SNPs and metabolites in relation to enhanced athletic performance are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308547PMC
June 2020

Physical Fitness and Dyslipidemia Among Japanese: A Cohort Study From the Niigata Wellness Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 16;31(4):287-296. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Hematology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine.

Background: Grip strength reflects systemic muscle strength and mass and is reportedly associated with various metabolic variables. However, its prognostic association with dyslipidemia is unknown. We examined the association of grip strength and other physical fitness markers with the incidence of dyslipidemia among Japanese adults.

Methods: A total of 16,149 Japanese (6,208 women) individuals aged 20-92 years who underwent a physical fitness test between April 2001 and March 2002 were included in this cohort study. Grip strength, vertical jump, single-leg balance with eyes closed, forward bending, and whole-body reaction time were evaluated at baseline. Dyslipidemia was annually determined based on fasting serum lipid profiles and self-reported dyslipidemia from April 2001 to March 2008.

Results: During the follow-up period, 4,458 (44.9%) men and 2,461 (39.6%) women developed dyslipidemia. A higher relative grip strength (grip strength/body mass index) was associated with a lower incidence of dyslipidemia among both men and women (P for trend <0.001). Compared with those for the first septile, the hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the seventh septile were 0.56 (95% CI, 0.50-0.63) for men and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.58-0.81) for women. Moreover, relative vertical jump (vertical jump strength/body mass index) was also inversely associated with the incidence of dyslipidemia among both men and women (P for trend <0.001). There was no association between other physical fitness and dyslipidemia among both men and women.

Conclusion: Relative grip strength and vertical jump may be useful risk markers of the incidence of dyslipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940973PMC
April 2021

The association of HFE gene H63D polymorphism with endurance athlete status and aerobic capacity: novel findings and a meta-analysis.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2020 Mar 22;120(3):665-673. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia.

Purpose: Iron is an important component of the oxygen-binding proteins and may be critical to optimal athletic performance. Previous studies have suggested that the G allele of C/G rare variant (rs1799945), which causes H63D amino acid replacement, in the HFE is associated with elevated iron indexes and may give some advantage in endurance-oriented sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the HFE H63D polymorphism and elite endurance athlete status in Japanese and Russian populations, aerobic capacity and to perform a meta-analysis using current findings and three previous studies.

Methods: The study involved 315 international-level endurance athletes (255 Russian and 60 Japanese) and 809 healthy controls (405 Russian and 404 Japanese). Genotyping was performed using micro-array analysis or by PCR. VO in 46 male Russian endurance athletes was determined using gas analysis system.

Results: The frequency of the iron-increasing CG/GG genotypes was significantly higher in Russian (38.0 vs 24.9%; OR 1.85, P = 0.0003) and Japanese (13.3 vs 5.0%; OR 2.95, P = 0.011) endurance athletes compared to ethnically matched controls. The meta-analysis using five cohorts (two French, Japanese, Spanish, and Russian; 586 athletes and 1416 controls) showed significant prevalence of the CG/GG genotypes in endurance athletes compared to controls (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.58-2.45; P = 1.7 × 10). Furthermore, the HFE G allele was associated with high V̇O in male athletes [CC: 61.8 (6.1), CG/GG: 66.3 (7.8) ml/min/kg; P = 0.036].

Conclusions: We have shown that the HFE H63D polymorphism is strongly associated with elite endurance athlete status, regardless ethnicities and aerobic capacity in Russian athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04306-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042188PMC
March 2020

Accuracy of 12 Wearable Devices for Estimating Physical Activity Energy Expenditure Using a Metabolic Chamber and the Doubly Labeled Water Method: Validation Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 08 2;7(8):e13938. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Self-monitoring using certain types of pedometers and accelerometers has been reported to be effective for promoting and maintaining physical activity (PA). However, the validity of estimating the level of PA or PA energy expenditure (PAEE) for general consumers using wearable devices has not been sufficiently established.

Objective: We examined the validity of 12 wearable devices for determining PAEE during 1 standardized day in a metabolic chamber and 15 free-living days using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method.

Methods: A total of 19 healthy adults aged 21 to 50 years (9 men and 10 women) participated in this study. They followed a standardized PA protocol in a metabolic chamber for an entire day while simultaneously wearing 12 wearable devices: 5 devices on the waist, 5 on the wrist, and 2 placed in the pocket. In addition, they spent their daily lives wearing 12 wearable devices under free-living conditions while being subjected to the DLW method for 15 days. The PAEE criterion was calculated by subtracting the basal metabolic rate measured by the metabolic chamber and 0.1×total energy expenditure (TEE) from TEE. The TEE was obtained by the metabolic chamber and DLW methods. The PAEE values of wearable devices were also extracted or calculated from each mobile phone app or website. The Dunnett test and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine the variables estimated by wearable devices.

Results: On the standardized day, the PAEE estimated using the metabolic chamber (PAEEcha) was 528.8±149.4 kcal/day. The PAEEs of all devices except the TANITA AM-160 (513.8±135.0 kcal/day; P>.05), SUZUKEN Lifecorder EX (519.3±89.3 kcal/day; P>.05), and Panasonic Actimarker (545.9±141.7 kcal/day; P>.05) were significantly different from the PAEEcha. None of the devices was correlated with PAEEcha according to both Pearson (r=-.13 to .37) and Spearman (ρ=-.25 to .46) correlation tests. During the 15 free-living days, the PAEE estimated by DLW (PAEEdlw) was 728.0±162.7 kcal/day. PAEE values of all devices except the Omron Active style Pro (716.2±159.0 kcal/day; P>.05) and Omron CaloriScan (707.5±172.7 kcal/day; P>.05) were significantly underestimated. Only 2 devices, the Omron Active style Pro (r=.46; P=.045) and Panasonic Actimarker (r=.48; P=.04), had significant positive correlations with PAEEdlw according to Pearson tests. In addition, 3 devices, the TANITA AM-160 (ρ=.50; P=.03), Omron CaloriScan (ρ=.48; P=.04), and Omron Active style Pro (ρ=.48; P=.04), could be ranked in PAEEdlw.

Conclusions: Most wearable devices do not provide comparable PAEE estimates when using gold standard methods during 1 standardized day or 15 free-living days. Continuous development and evaluations of these wearable devices are needed for better estimations of PAEE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/13938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696858PMC
August 2019
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