Publications by authors named "Motasem Alkhayyat"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Epidemiology of Depressive Disorders in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis: A Population-Based Study in the United States.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2022 Jan 13;24(1). Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic, debilitating mood disorder associated with poor medical outcomes. MDD has a multifactorial etiology with numerous biopsychosocial factors implicated as risk factors. Functional and psychiatric impairments have been evaluated in patients with liver cirrhosis; however, less is known about the prevalence and risk factors for the development of MDD in those patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of developing depression among adult patients with liver cirrhosis in the United States.

Data were collected using a commercial database, an aggregate of electronic health record data from 26 major integrated US health care systems consisting of 360 hospitals in the US from 1999 to 2019.

The study cohort was retrieved by searching the database for a Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms diagnosis of "cirrhosis of liver" during the designated period of the study.

The following factors were adjusted for in the analyses: age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol, substance abuse, underlying mental disorders, and comorbidities.

56,197,690 adults were identified between 1999 and 2019. Of those, 293,150 had a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. The prevalence of depression among those cirrhotic patients was 23.93% versus 7.61% in the noncirrhotic control group (95% CI, 16.1836%-16.4770%;  < .0001). By applying a multivariate analysis model, cirrhotic patients were found to be more likely to develop depression (odds ratio = 2.172; 95% CI, 2.159-2.185;  < .0001) compared to patients with no prior history of liver cirrhosis.

Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased risk of depression and is likely to be an independent risk factor in its development. Future efforts should focus on the identification and treatment of this debilitating condition in those with liver cirrhosis via an integrated care model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/PCC.20m02889DOI Listing
January 2022

Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years for 29 Cancer Groups From 2010 to 2019: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Dec 30. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq.

Importance: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) provided systematic estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality to inform local and international efforts toward reducing cancer burden.

Objective: To estimate cancer burden and trends globally for 204 countries and territories and by Sociodemographic Index (SDI) quintiles from 2010 to 2019.

Evidence Review: The GBD 2019 estimation methods were used to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2019 and over the past decade. Estimates are also provided by quintiles of the SDI, a composite measure of educational attainment, income per capita, and total fertility rate for those younger than 25 years. Estimates include 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Findings: In 2019, there were an estimated 23.6 million (95% UI, 22.2-24.9 million) new cancer cases (17.2 million when excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 10.0 million (95% UI, 9.36-10.6 million) cancer deaths globally, with an estimated 250 million (235-264 million) DALYs due to cancer. Since 2010, these represented a 26.3% (95% UI, 20.3%-32.3%) increase in new cases, a 20.9% (95% UI, 14.2%-27.6%) increase in deaths, and a 16.0% (95% UI, 9.3%-22.8%) increase in DALYs. Among 22 groups of diseases and injuries in the GBD 2019 study, cancer was second only to cardiovascular diseases for the number of deaths, years of life lost, and DALYs globally in 2019. Cancer burden differed across SDI quintiles. The proportion of years lived with disability that contributed to DALYs increased with SDI, ranging from 1.4% (1.1%-1.8%) in the low SDI quintile to 5.7% (4.2%-7.1%) in the high SDI quintile. While the high SDI quintile had the highest number of new cases in 2019, the middle SDI quintile had the highest number of cancer deaths and DALYs. From 2010 to 2019, the largest percentage increase in the numbers of cases and deaths occurred in the low and low-middle SDI quintiles.

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this systematic analysis suggest that the global burden of cancer is substantial and growing, with burden differing by SDI. These results provide comprehensive and comparable estimates that can potentially inform efforts toward equitable cancer control around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.6987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8719276PMC
December 2021

Higher risk of neoplastic progression of Barrett's esophagus in patients with systemic sclerosis.

Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2021 Dec 30;9(6):595-596. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Center of Excellence for Barrett's Esophagus, Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gastro/goaa096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8677510PMC
December 2021

infection in liver cirrhosis patients: A population-based study in United States.

World J Hepatol 2021 Aug;13(8):926-938

Department of Gastroenterology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY 10305, United States.

Background: (formerly ) infection (CDI) is an increasingly frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Multiple risk factors are documented in the literature that includes, but are not limited to, antibiotics use, advanced age, and gastric acid suppression. Several epidemiological studies have reported an increased incidence of CDI in advanced liver disease patients. Some have also demonstrated a higher prevalence of nosocomial infections in cirrhotic patients.

Aim: To use a large nationwide database, we sought to determine CDI's risk among liver cirrhosis patients in the United States.

Methods: We queried a commercial database (Explorys Inc, Cleveland, OH, United States), and obtained an aggregate of electronic health record data from 26 major integrated United States healthcare systems comprising 360 hospitals in the United States from 2018 to 2021. Diagnoses were organized into the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) hierarchy. Statistical analysis for the multivariable model was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 25, IBM Corp). For all analyses, a two-sided value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: There were a total of 19387760 patients in the database who were above 20 years of age between the years 2018-2021. Of those, 133400 were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis. The prevalence of CDI amongst the liver cirrhosis population was 134.93 per 100.000 19.06 per 100.000 in non-cirrhotic patients ( 0.0001). The multivariate analysis model uncovered that cirrhotic patients were more likely to develop CDI (OR: 1.857; 95%CI: 1.665-2.113, 0.0001) compared to those without any prior history of liver cirrhosis.

Conclusion: In this large database study, we uncovered that cirrhotic patients have a significantly higher CDI prevalence than those without cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis may be an independent risk factor for CDI. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify this possible risk association that may lead to the implementation of screening methods in this high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v13.i8.926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422922PMC
August 2021

Multiorgan Dysfunction Related to Kratom Ingestion.

ACG Case Rep J 2021 Aug 25;8(8):e00647. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Consumption of herbal supplements has been linked to multiorgan toxicities. Kratom is an herbal extract that has gained popularity for its analgesic and psychotropic properties. Several cases of kratom-induced liver injury have been reported, but data on multiorgan involvement remain scarce. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman who developed a mixed hepatocellular and cholestatic pattern of acute liver injury, acute kidney injury, and pancolitis after prolonged use of kratom-containing herbal supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/crj.0000000000000647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389947PMC
August 2021

Epidemiology of neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix in the USA: a population-based national study (2014-2019).

Ann Gastroenterol 2021 Sep-Oct;34(5):713-720. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (Emad Mansoor, Gregory Cooper), USA.

Background: The appendix is the third most common place for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) along the digestive tract and NETs are the most common neoplasms of the appendix. However, there are limited population-based data on the epidemiology of this disease. Using a large database, we sought to describe the epidemiology and risk association of NETs of the appendix.

Method: We queried a multi-institutional database (Explorys Inc., Cleveland, OH, USA), comprising 360 hospitals in the United States (US), for patients with a diagnosis of NETs of the appendix from 2014-2019.

Results: Of the 30,324,050 individuals in the database, 2020 patients had an appendiceal NET diagnosis (0.007%). The most common presenting symptoms included abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Patients with appendiceal NETs were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-1.49), Caucasian (OR 2.71, 95%CI 2.40-3.07), with a history of smoking (OR 1.82, 95%CI 1.65-2.01), family history of primary gastrointestinal malignancy (OR 7.26, 95%CI 6.31-8.33), diagnosis of multiple endocrine tumor type 1 (OR 52.31, 95%CI 23.15-118.23), or neurofibromatosis type 1 (OR 16.37, 95%CI 7.24-37.01).

Conclusions: In a population-based study in the US, using the Explorys database, we found the overall prevalence of NETs of the appendix to be 7 per 100,000 persons. The incidence in the year January 2019-January 2020 was 0.4 per 100,000 individuals. These rates are higher than previously reported and may be more accurate, given the more comprehensive nature of the Explorys database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20524/aog.2021.0643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375642PMC
June 2021

Chemoprevention in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2021 19;14:17562848211033730. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Director, Center of Excellence for Barrett's Esophagus, Department of Gastroenterology/A30, Digestive Disease & Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma over the past several decades with a continued rise expected in the future. Several strategies have been developed for screening and surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and endoscopic treatment of Barrett's associated dysplasia and early esophageal cancer; however, they have not made a substantial impact on the incidence of cancer. Herein, chemoprevention becomes an attractive idea for reducing the incidence of cancer in Barrett's patients. Several agents appear promising in preclinical and observational studies but very few have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. Strongest evidence to date is available for proton-pump inhibitors and Aspirin that have been evaluated in a large randomized controlled trial. Other agents such as statins, metformin, ursodeoxycholic acid, and dietary supplements have insufficient evidence for chemoprevention in Barrett's patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17562848211033730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381453PMC
August 2021

Immune checkpoint inhibitor induced colitis: A nationwide population-based study.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2022 Jan 29;46(1):101778. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: ICIs are used in the management of several malignancies. However, they can result in immune-related adverse events, such as colitis. The aim of this study is to obtain an epidemiological survey of patients who develop immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-induced colitis and identify underlying risk factors.

Methods: A cohort study was performed using Explorys, a US-based population database. Our cohort included all patients in a five-year interval on an ICI. We further identified those who developed colitis after initiating an ICI. Demographic data and possible risk factors were assessed. Odds ratios were calculated and multivariable statistical analysis was performed.

Results: 3.6% of patients developed ICI-induced colitis. Women [OR: 1.2; 95% CI 1.224-1.231, p <0.001], Caucasians [OR: 2.3; 2.284 - 2.299], individuals older than 65 years [OR: 1.3; 1.319 - 1.326], obese patients [OR: 3.3; 3.273 - 3.302], and those with a history of alcohol abuse [OR: 2.5; 2.485 - 2.523] were more likely to develop colitis. Patients who received Nivolumab [OR: 2.8; 2.563 - 3.022], Ipilimumab [OR: 4.9; 3.937 - 6.061], Pembrolizumab [OR 2.7; 2.463 - 2.868], and Atezolizumab [OR 2.9; 2.430 - 3.388] had an increased odds of developing colitis. The majority of cases were diagnosed in the first 6 months of therapy.

Conclusions: This is the largest study to describe the epidemiology of ICI-induced colitis and it is the first to identify underlying risk factors. Ipilimumab poses the greatest risk for ICI-induced colitis. The risk of colitis should be discussed with all patients prior to initiating an ICI, as it may be a factor in choosing among ICIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101778DOI Listing
January 2022

Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease on Treatment Have Lower Rates of Celiac Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: The association between celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been studied; however, the impact of IBD therapy on celiac disease is not known. Using a large database, we sought to describe the association of celiac disease and IBD and the impact of IBD treatment.

Methods: We queried a large multicenter database (Explorys Inc.), an electronic health record data aggregate from 26 American health care systems. We identified a cohort of patients with celiac disease and IBD between 1999 and 2020 and conducted a statistical analysis using a multivariate model.

Results: Of the 72,965,940 individuals in the database, 133,400 had celiac disease (0.18%), 191,570 (0.26%) had ulcerative colitis (UC), and 230,670 (0.32%) had Crohn disease (CD). Patients with IBD were more likely to have a diagnosis of celiac disease (odds ratio [OR], 13.680), with a greater association with CD. Treated patients with UC and with CD, respectively, had a lower risk association with celiac disease compared to those not undergoing IBD treatment, specifically corticosteroids (OR, 0.407 and 0.585), 5-aminosalicylates (OR, 0.124 and 0.127), immunomodulators (OR, 0.385 and 0.425), and anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs (OR, 0.215 and 0.242). There was no lower risk association in the vedolizumab group, but there was a higher risk association among the ustekinumab group.

Conclusions: In this large dataset, we showed a bidirectional association between celiac disease and IBD that was stronger with CD. Patients with IBD treated using corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates, immunomodulators, or anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs had a lower association with celiac disease. Additional studies are required to determine the underlying mechanisms for IBD therapy-related modification of celiac disease incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izab084DOI Listing
May 2021

The Epidemiology of Annular Pancreas in the United States: A Population-based Study.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Cleveland Clinic Foundation Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY.

Background And Aims: Annular pancreas is a rare congenital condition where the second part of the duodenum is encircled by pancreatic tissue. There is a scarcity of data on its natural history therefore, we aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of annular pancreas and identify underlying associations using a large database.

Methods: A multi-institutional database (Explorys) was surveyed. A cohort of patients with a Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms diagnosis of "MRI, CT, EUS and/or ERCP" between April 2015 and April 2020 was identified. Subsequently a cohort of patients with history of "annular pancreas" was identified.

Results: There were a total of 40,075,980 individuals in the database with 6,162,600 (15.38%) who had an magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and/or endoscopic ultrasound. There were 210 (3.4/100,000) had a diagnosis of annular pancreas. When compared with the control group, patients with annular pancreas were more likely to have a history of alcohol use, smoking, acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, gastritis, duodenitis, jaundice, and gastrointestinal outlet obstruction.

Conclusions: This is the largest study evaluating the epidemiology of annular pancreas. We found the estimated prevalence rate of annular pancreas to be 3.4/100,000 in those who had abdominal imaging. Annular pancreas was more likely to be diagnosed in patients with symptoms pertaining to acute or chronic pancreatitis, biliary, and gastric outlet obstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001531DOI Listing
March 2021

Epidemiology of gallbladder cancer in the Unites States: a population-based study.

Chin Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 16;10(3):25. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common neoplasm of the biliary tract with the lowest rates of survival. Most GBCs are adenocarcinomas that arise from the epithelial lining of the gallbladder. There are limited data in the literature regarding the epidemiology of GBC. Using a large database, we aim to describe the epidemiology using a US population database.

Methods: A multi-institutional database (Explorys Inc., Cleveland, OH, USA) was surveyed. A cohort of patients with a primary malignant neoplasm of gallbladder between 1999-2019 was identified. The prevalence rate was calculated and age-, race-, and sex-based distributions were described. Multivariate analysis was done to evaluate underlying associations.

Results: Of the 56,197,690 individuals in the database, 4,790 individuals with GBC were identified with a prevalence rate of 8.5 per 100,000. Asian race has the highest prevalence of GBC (13.6/100,000). Patients with GBC were also more likely to be smokers, have a history of alcohol abuse, obesity, diabetes, cholelithiasis, chronic cholecystitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and chronic viral hepatitis.

Conclusions: This is one of the largest US population studies to date evaluating the epidemiology of GBC. The 20-year period prevalence rate of GBC was 8.5 per 100,000. Patients with GBC were more likely to be elderly, females, obese, diabetic, and have chronic hepatobiliary disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cco-20-230DOI Listing
June 2021

Increasing Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression Disorders After Diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis: A 5-Year Population-Based Study.

Pancreas 2021 02;50(2):153-159

Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.

Objectives: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is often associated with poor quality of life. Only a few small associative studies have reported the prevalence of mood disorders in CP. Using a large database, we sought to describe the epidemiology and risk association of anxiety and depression in CP and evaluate their outcomes.

Methods: A multicenter database (Explorys), an aggregate of electronic health record data from 26 US healthcare systems, was surveyed. A cohort of patients with a diagnosis of CP between 2014 and 2019 was identified. Within this cohort, rates of anxiety and depression were calculated. Demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes were described.

Results: Of the 30,276,810 individuals in the database (2014-2019), 67,260 patients had a CP diagnosis (0.22%). When compared with patients with no history of CP, patients with CP were more likely to develop anxiety (odds ratio, 6.94; 95% confidence interval, 6.85-7.04) and depression (odds ratio, 5.09; 95% confidence interval, 5.01-5.17). Chronic pancreatitis patients with depression had an increased risk of suicidal ideation compared with controls.

Conclusions: Patients with CP are at a higher risk of developing anxiety and depression compared with those without CP, with overall worse outcomes. Clinicians should screen CP patients and make appropriate referral to psychiatry when indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001746DOI Listing
February 2021

Epidemiology and risk of psychiatric disorders among patients with celiac disease: A population-based national study.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Aug 24;36(8):2165-2170. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background And Aim: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic disorder resulting from an immune reaction to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Although several studies have linked CD to psychiatric diseases, there are limited data on this topic. Using a large database, we sought to describe the epidemiology of several psychiatric disorders in CD.

Methods: We queried a multicenter database (Explorys Inc), an aggregate of electronic health record data from 26 major integrated healthcare systems from 2016 to 2020 consisting of 360 hospitals in the USA. A cohort of patients with a Systematized Nomenclature Of Medicine - Clinical Terms diagnosis of CD was identified. Multivariate analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25.

Results: Of the 37 465 810 patients in the database between 2016 and 2020, there were 112 340 (0.30%) individuals with CD. When compared with patients with no history of CD, patients with CD were more likely to have a history of anxiety (odds ratio [OR]: 1.385; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.364-1.407), depression (OR: 1.918; 95% CI: 1.888-1.947), bipolar (OR: 1.321; 95% CI: 1.289-1.354), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (OR: 1.753; 95% CI: 1.714-1.792), eating disorder (OR: 15.84; 95% CI: 15.533-16.154), and childhood autistic disorder (OR: 4.858; 95% CI: 3.626-6.508). Patients with CD and psychiatric conditions were more likely to be smokers, with history of alcohol and substance abuse as well as a history of personality disorder.

Conclusions: In this large database, patients with CD are at increased risk of having multiple psychiatric diseases including anxiety, depression, bipolar, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorder, and childhood autism. Individual care and referral to psychiatry when appropriate are warranted while taking care of this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15437DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical Risk Prediction Model for Neoadjuvant Therapy in Resectable Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2021 Jan 5;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Center of Excellence for Barrett's Esophagus, Cleveland Clinic Departments of Internal Medicine Quantitative Health Sciences General Surgery Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Section of General Internal Medicine, Tulane Medical Center, New Orleans, LA.

Goals And Background: Clinical staging with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and positron emission tomography (PET) is used to identify esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) patients with locally advanced disease and therefore, benefit from neoadjuvant therapy. However, EUS is operator dependent and subject to interobserver variability. Therefore, we aimed to identify clinical predictors of locally advanced EAC and build a predictive model that can be used as an adjunct to current staging methods.

Study: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with EAC who underwent preoperative staging with EUS and PET scan followed by definitive therapy at our institution from January 2011 to December 2017. Demographic data, symptoms, endoscopic findings, EUS, and PET scan findings were obtained.

Results: Four hundred and twenty-six patients met the study criteria, of which 86 (20.2%) patients had limited stage EAC and 340 (79.8%) had locally advanced disease. The mean age was 65.4±10.3 years of which 356 (83.6%) were men and 393 (92.3%) were White. On multivariable analysis, age (above 75 or below 65 y), dysphagia [odds ratio (OR): 2.84], weight loss (OR: 2.06), protruding tumor (OR: 2.99), and tumor size >2 cm (OR: 3.3) were predictive of locally advanced disease, while gastrointestinal bleeding (OR: 0.36) and presence of visible Barrett's esophagus (OR: 0.4) were more likely to be associated with limited stage. A nomogram for predicting the risk of locally advanced EAC was constructed and internally validated.

Conclusions: We constructed a nomogram to facilitate an individualized prediction of the risk of locally advanced EAC. This model can aid in decision making for neoadjuvant therapy in EAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255331PMC
January 2021

Prevalence of Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis.

Pancreas 2021 01;50(1):99-103

Department of Cardiology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY.

Objective: We conducted this study to ascertain whether chronic inflammation secondary to chronic pancreatitis (CP) has any association with myocardial infarction(MI).

Methods: Data were collected from a commercial database (Explorys, Inc, IBM Watson, Ohio). Adults with the diagnosis of "chronic pancreatitis," based on Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms, were included in the CP group, and the rest of the patients were included in the non-CP group. The prevalence of MI was compared in both groups, and statistical multivariate model was performed.

Results: A total of 28,842,210 patients were included in the study. The overall prevalence of MI was 14.22% in the CP group as compared with 3.23% in the non-CP group (P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for MI in CP group was 1.453 (95% confidence interval, 1.418-1.488, P < 0.0001). Hypertension was a strong predictor for MI in the CP group with an OR of 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 3.0-3.5), followed by chronic kidney disease, older than 65 years, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, alcohol abuse, smoking, White race, and male sex.

Conclusions: This study showed that CP is associated with comorbidities, which can increase the prevalence and OR of MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001721DOI Listing
January 2021

Pancreatic manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis: a national population-based study.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 05;60(5):2366-2374

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.

Objectives: RA is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation. Extra-articular manifestations of RA can involve different organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Using a large database, we sought to describe the epidemiology of pancreas involvement in RA.

Methods: We queried a multicentre database (Explorys Inc, Cleveland, OH, USA), an aggregate of electronic health record data from 26 major integrated US healthcare systems in the US from 1999 to 2019. After excluding patients younger than 18, a cohort of individuals with Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) diagnosis of RA was identified. Within this cohort, patients who developed a SNOMED-CT diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP), chronic pancreatitis (CP) and primary pancreatic cancer (PaCa) after at least 30 days of RA diagnosis were identified. Statistical analysis for multivariate model was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 25, IBM Corp) to adjust for several factors.

Results: Of the 56 183 720 individuals in the database, 518 280 patients had a diagnosis of RA (0.92%). Using a multivariate regression model, patients with RA were more likely to develop AP [odds ratio (OR): 2.51; 95% CI: 2.41, 2.60], CP (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 2.70, 3.26) and PaC (OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.52, 2.10).

Conclusion: In this large database, we found a modest increased risk of AP and CP among patients with RA after adjusting for the common causes of pancreatitis. Further studies are required to better understand this association and the effect of medications used for RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa616DOI Listing
May 2021

Rates of Intestinal Resection and Colectomy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients After Initiation of Biologics: A Cohort Study.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Oct 14. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: 50% to 80% Crohn's disease (CD) and 10% to 30% ulcerative colitis (UC) patients require surgery over their lifetime. Biologic therapies may alter this natural history, but data on the effect of biologics on surgery rates in this patient population are mixed. We sought to investigate the influence of biologics on surgery prevalence in CD and UC.

Methods: We used a commercial database (Explorys Inc, Cleveland, OH), which includes electronic health record data from 26 major integrated US healthcare systems. We identified all patients who were diagnosed with CD or UC that were treated with any biologics between 2015 and 2020. The primary outcome was to examine the association between biologics therapy and the prevalence of bowel resection. Also, we identified the factors associated with surgery in IBD patients on biologics.

Results: Of 32,904,480 patients in the database, we identified 140,540 patients with CD and 115,260 patients with UC, of whom 25,840 (18%) and 9,050 (7.8%) patients received biologics, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal resection was significantly lower in biologics-treated CD patients (9.3%) compared to those who did not receive biologics (12.1%) (p < .001). Similarly, biologic-treated UC patients were significantly less likely to undergo colectomy (7.3%) compared to UC patients who did not receive biologic therapy (11.0%) (p < .001). Tobacco use, Clostridium difficile infection, and perianal disease were associated with intestinal resection in CD. Colon neoplasm and Clostridium difficile infection were associated with colectomy in UC.

Conclusions: In this study of a large healthcare administrative database, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients treated with biologics were significantly less likely to undergo bowel resection when compared to those who never received biologics. This data suggests that biologics may impact surgical rates in IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.10.008DOI Listing
October 2020

Lower Rates of Colorectal Cancer in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Anti-TNF Therapy.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 06;27(7):1052-1060

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Chronic inflammation is a key factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the increased use of biologic agents in patients with IBD, their impact on colorectal carcinogenesis remains unclear. With the use of a large database, we sought to describe the effect of biologics on CRC among patients with IBD.

Methods: We evaluated a multicenter database (Explorys) consisting of electronic medical records from several U.S. hospitals between 1999 and 2020. A cohort of patients with a diagnosis of IBD was identified. We performed a multivariate analysis to adjust for multiple factors including medical and surgical therapies.

Results: There were a total of 62,007,510 patients in the database between 1999 and 2020. Amongst those, 225,090 (0.36%) individuals had Crohn's disease and 188,420 (0.30%) had ulcerative colitis. After adjusting for confounding factors using multivariate analysis, patients with IBD were more likely to develop CRC. Among the IBD cohort, patients treated with anti-TNF agents were less likely to develop CRC; patients with Crohn's disease: odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.73; P < 0.0001 vs patients with ulcerative colitis: odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.83; P < 0.0001.

Conclusions: Patients with IBD who were treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents were less likely to develop CRC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs provide a chemoprotective effect in patients with IBD by inflammation control and mucosal healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izaa252DOI Listing
June 2021

The Epidemiology of Pancreatic Cancer and the Association With Acetylsalicylic Acid in the United States: A Population-Based Study.

Pancreas 2020 10;49(9):1207-1212

Gastroenterology, Cleveland Clinic.

Objectives: Pancreatic cancer (PaC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Multiple studies have investigated the epidemiology and the association between PaC and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) use, revealing mixed results. Using a large database, we sought to investigate the epidemiology of PaC.

Methods: Using a commercial database (Explorys Inc, Cleveland, Ohio), which includes electronic health record data from 26 major integrated US health care systems, all patients 18 years and older diagnosed with PaC for 5 years were identified based on Systematized Nomenclature Of Medicine-Clinical Terms. We determined the prevalence of PaC and the potential associated factors using univariable and multivariable analysis.

Results: Of the 32,970,850 individuals, we identified 30,250 individuals with PaC with an overall prevalence of 0.08%. Individuals with PaC were more likely to be males, seniors (age, >65 years), and White, compared with patients without PaC. In subgroup analysis of chronic pancreatitis, individuals on ASA, individuals >65 years, White, and White males were less likely to have PaC, and non-White females were more likely to have PaC.

Conclusions: This is the largest population-based study evaluating the epidemiology of PaC. We observed a protective association of ASA on a subgroup of patients with PaC and chronic pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001659DOI Listing
October 2020

The Risk of Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis in Celiac Disease.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 08 18;66(8):2691-2699. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Background And Aims: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy that is precipitated by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. A few studies reported a higher incidence of pancreatitis in the CD population. Using a large US database, we sought to describe the epidemiology, risk, and outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) in CD patients.

Methods: We queried a multiple health system data analytics and research platform (Explorys Inc, Cleveland, OH, USA). A cohort of patients with a diagnosis of CD was identified. Subsequently, individuals who developed a new diagnosis of AP and CP after at least 30 days of being diagnosed with CD were identified. A multivariate regression model was performed to adjust for multiple confounding factors.

Results: Of the 72,965,940 individuals in the database, 133,400 (0.18%), 362,050 (0.50%), and 95,190 (0.13%) had CD, AP, and CP, respectively. New diagnosis of AP and CP after at least 30 days of CD diagnosis was 1.06%, 0.52%, respectively, compared to non-CD patients with 0.49% for AP and 0.13% for CP, P < .0001. In multivariate regression analysis, patients with CD were at higher risk of developing AP [OR 2.66; 95% CI 2.55-2.77] and CP [OR 2.18; 95% CI 2.04-2.34]. Idiopathic AP was the most common etiology among CD patients [OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.34-1.77].

Conclusions: In this largest US population database and after adjusting for several confounders, patients with CD were at increased risk of developing AP and CP. Celiac disease patients had worse outcomes and higher medical burden compared to non-CD patients. Recurrent abdominal pain that suggests pancreatic etiology, idiopathic pancreatitis, or elevation of pancreatic enzymes should warrant investigation for CD as a potential cause of pancreatic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06546-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Pyloroplasty and the risk of Barrett's esophagus in patients with gastroparesis.

Dis Esophagus 2020 Nov;33(11)

Center of Excellence for Barrett's Esophagus, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Barrett's esophagus (BE), a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is a premalignant condition for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Impaired gastric emptying leads to increased gastric volume and therefore more severe reflux. We seek to investigate the association between gastroparesis and BE and the predictors of BE among patients with gastroparesis. This is a retrospective review of patients seen at Cleveland Clinic between 2011 and 2016 who had an upper endoscopy and a gastric emptying study. Demographics, symptoms, medications, endoscopic and histological findings, and therapeutic interventions were abstracted. Risk of BE among gastroparesis group and control group was assessed, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of BE among gastroparesis patients. Of the 4,154 patients, 864 (20.8%) had gastroparesis and 3, 290 (79.2%) had normal gastric emptying. The mean age was 51.4 ± 16.4 years, 72% were women and 80% were Caucasians. Among the gastroparesis group, 18 (2.1%) patients had BE compared to 71 (2.2%) cases of BE in the control group, P = 0.89. There were no differences in gender, race, reflux symptoms, or esophageal findings between the two groups. Among gastroparesis group, predictors of developing BE were a history of alcohol use (odds ratio [OR] 6.76; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.65-27.67, P = 0.008), history of pyloroplasty (OR: 8.228; CI: 2.114-32.016, P = 0.002), and hiatal hernia (OR: 8.014; CI: 2.053-31.277, P = 0.003). Though gastroparesis is a known contributing factor for GERD, there was no increased prevalence of BE in gastroparesis. Among patients with gastroparesis, predictors of BE are history of alcohol use, hiatal hernia, and pyloroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dote/doaa049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672201PMC
November 2020

The Risk of Vitamin D Deficiency, Osteoporosis, and Fractures in Acute Pancreatitis.

Pancreas 2020 May/Jun;49(5):629-633

From the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic.

Objectives: A few past studies have found increased utilization of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and prevalence of osteoporosis in acute pancreatitis (AP). Our aim was to obtain a survey of bone diseases after a sentinel episode of AP.

Methods: A database (Explorys), an aggregate of electronic health record from 26 integrated United States healthcare systems, was queried. A cohort of patients with a Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms diagnosis of AP between 2014 and 2019, after excluding patients with selected medical conditions and medications that are associated with poor bone health, was identified. The prevalence of new diagnoses of vitamin D deficiency (VDD), osteoporosis, and fractures in the study cohort was evaluated. Age-, race-, and sex-based distributions and risk factors were determined through univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Of the 36,087,380 individuals in the database, we identified 256,580 (0.71%) with AP. In multivariate analysis, patients with AP were more likely to develop VDD (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.26; P < 0.0001), osteoporosis (OR, 1.89; CI, 1.81-1.85; P < 0.0001), and fractures (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.57-1.59; P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis was associated with increased risk of VDD, osteoporosis, and fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001538DOI Listing
May 2021

Successful liver transplantation for acute sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis: A case report and review of the literature.

World J Hepatol 2020 Mar;12(3):108-115

Digestive Disease & Surgery Institute, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, United States.

Background: Sickle cell hepatopathy (SCH) is an inclusive term referring to any liver dysfunction among patients with sickle cell disease. Acute sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis is one of the rarest and most fatal presentations of SCH. We present the 23rd reported case of liver transplantation (LT) for SCH; a rare case of acute sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis managed with LT from a hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleic acid amplification test positive donor.

Case Summary: A 29-year-old male with a past medical history of sickle cell disease presented with vaso-occlusive pain crisis. On examination, he had jaundice and a soft, non-tender abdomen. Initially he was alert and fully oriented; within 24 h he developed new-onset confusion. Laboratory evaluation was notable for hyperbilirubinemia, leukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute kidney injury and elevated international normalized ratio (INR). Imaging by ultrasound and computed tomography scan suggested a cirrhotic liver morphology with no evidence of biliary ductal dilatation. The patient was diagnosed with acute sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis after excluding competing etiologies of acute liver injury. He underwent LT from an HCV nucleic acid amplification test positive donor 9 d after initial presentation. The liver explant was notable for widespread sinusoidal dilatation with innumerable clusters of sickled red blood cells and cholestasis. On postoperative day 3, HCV RNA was detectable in the patient's peripheral blood and anti-HCV therapy with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir was initiated on postoperative day 23. He subsequently achieved sustained virologic response after completing 3 mo of therapy and has been followed clinically for 12 mo post-transplant.

Conclusion: This case highlights the utility of LT as a viable treatment option for acute sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v12.i3.108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7097501PMC
March 2020

Consanguinity and the Risk of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

Thyroid 2017 03 8;27(3):390-395. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

1 Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Jordan University Hospital , Amman, Jordan .

Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common autoimmune thyroid disease that may lead to hypothyroidism due to progressive destruction of the thyroid. The etiology of HT is unclear. However, it is associated with multiple genetic predispositions. Consanguinity has been associated with an increased susceptibility to different inherited conditions. This study investigated the association between consanguinity and risk of HT for the first time.

Methods: Using a case-control study design, 298 HT patients were compared with two subject groups: (i) 299 participants with non-HT hypothyroidism, and (ii) 298 healthy control participants. The three groups were age and sex matched. Presence of consanguinity among the parents was compared in these groups, and odds ratios (OR) were calculated to establish a correlation.

Results: Consanguinity significantly increased the risk of HT (compared with healthy subjects; OR = 3.3; p < 0.0001). In addition, consanguinity was a significant risk factor for HT compared with non-HT hypothyroidism patients (OR = 2.8; p < 0.0001). However, the prevalence of consanguinity was not significantly different in non-HT hypothyroidism patients and healthy subjects.

Conclusions: The results suggest that the risk for HT is increased in consanguineous unions, but no significant increase in the risk of non-HT hypothyroidism was observed. However, for more precise risk estimates, larger studies that include different populations may be helpful. These findings highlight the health impact of consanguinity and have applications in empiric risk estimations in genetic counseling, particularly in countries with high rates of consanguineous marriages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2016.0495DOI Listing
March 2017

Prevalence of short stature, underweight, overweight, and obesity among school children in Jordan.

BMC Public Health 2016 10 3;16(1):1040. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, PO Box 13046, Amman, 11942, Jordan.

Background: The prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6-17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control's (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated.

Results: The Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones.

Conclusions: Variations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5048690PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3687-4DOI Listing
October 2016
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