Publications by authors named "Mostafa Hosseini"

227 Publications

Age, Period and Cohort Analysis of Smoking Prevalence in Iranian Population over a 25-Year Period.

Arch Iran Med 2021 01 1;24(1):7-14. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Current and daily smoking prevalence rates have been have investigated in several cross-sectional studies. However, analyses in terms of age-period-cohort (APC) have not been carried out. We assessed daily smoking dynamics over a 25-year period using the APC model.

Methods: In our analyses, we used data from 214,652 people aged 15 to 64 years, collected by national health surveys conducted in 1990-1991, 1999, 2005, 2007, 2011 and 2016. The Intrinsic Estimator model was used to analyze the impact of APC on daily smoking prevalence.

Results: Males were found to exhibit a higher prevalence of smoking compared to females (26.0% against 2.7%). Prevalence of smoking increased by age, peaking at the age groups of 40-44 in men and 45-49 in women, followed by a decreasing trend. The 1990 period had the highest prevalence in both genders, and the 2016 period had the lowest. The coefficients of birth cohort effects showed different patter19s of fluctuations in the two genders with the maximum and minimum coefficients for men calculated in the 1966-1970 and 1991-95 birth cohorts, and for females the 1931-1935 and 1971-1975 birth cohorts, respectively.

Conclusion: We showed the impact of APC on daily tobacco smoking prevalence, and these factors should be considered when dealing with smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.02DOI Listing
January 2021

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived Conditioned Medium in Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Arch Iran Med 2020 12 1;23(12):870-879. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: A definitive conclusion on the efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells-derived conditioned medium (MSCs-CM) in pulmonary fibrosis has not yet been reached. Therefore, the present meta-analysis intends to investigate the efficacy of MSCs-CM administration on improvement of pulmonary fibrosis.

Methods: An extensive search was performed on the Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases by the end of August 2019. Outcomes in the present study included pulmonary fibrosis score, lung collagen deposition, lung collagen expression, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression and interleukin-6 expression. Finally, the data were pooled and an overall standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was reported.

Results: Data from seven studies were included. Analyses showed that administration of MSCs-CM significantly improved pulmonary fibrosis (SMD = -2.36; 95% CI: -3.21, -1.51). MSCs-CM administration also attenuated lung collagen deposition (SMD = -1.70; 95% CI: -2.18, -1.23) and decreased expression of type I collagen (SMD = -6.27; 95% CI: -11.00, -1.55), type III collagen (SMD = -5.16; 95% CI: -9.86, -0.47), TGF- β1 (SMD = -3.36; 95% CI: - 5.62, -1.09) and interleukin-6 (SMD = -1.69; 95% CI: - 3.14, -0.24).

Conclusion: The present meta-analysis showed that administration of MSCs-CM improves pulmonary fibrosis. It seems that the effect of MSCs-CM was mediated by reducing collagen deposition as well as inhibiting the production of inflammatory chemokines such as TGF-β1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Since there is no evidence on the efficacy of MSCs-CM in large animals, further studies are needed to translate the finding to clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.116DOI Listing
December 2020

Inequality in dental expenditures among Iranian households: A cross-sectional survey using the National Health Accounts.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2020 Jul-Aug;17(4):306-313. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Recently, inequality in dental care has become increasingly popular in both developed and developing countries as a matter of health policy. Thus, the aims of this study were examining inequality in dental care expenditures and assessing the effects of insurance coverage and other variables on these services.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, we used secondary data of the National Health Accounts that has been conducted in 2008 in Iran. The sample size was 17,239 households in all over the country. All analyses were performed by Stata software using Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression. < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. To determine inequality in dental services, the concentration index (CI) was used.

Results: CI for total dental expenditures was 0.315 and for orthodontics was 0.6. Findings showed that out-of-pocket expenditure for dental care was progressive and there was a significant relationship between total dental expenditure with residence areas (odds ratio [OR] =1.3; > 0.001), complementary insurance coverage (OR = 1.3; > 0.001), family size (OR = 1.46; > 0.001), and income (OR = 1.3; > 0.001).

Conclusion: Dental expenditures were progressive in Iran, and the rich have paid more share for these services. It seems that implementing insurance programs, changes in the financing of dental care, development of insurance basic benefits package, supporting programs for the poor, adopting educational policies, and promoting oral health for vulnerable people can have an effective role in decreasing inequality in using dental services.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688036PMC
August 2020

Early General Hypothermia Improves Motor Function after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 6;8(1):e80. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: There is still controversy about the effect of early hypothermia on the outcome of spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this review article is to investigate the effect of local or general hypothermia on improving the locomotion after traumatic SCI.

Methods: Electronic databases (Medline and Embase) were searched from inception until May 7, 2018. Two independent reviewers screened and summarized the relevant experimental studies on hypothermia efficacy in traumatic SCI. The data were analyzed and the findings were presented as pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: 20 papers containing 30 separate experiments were included in meta-analysis. The onset of hypothermia varied between 0 and 240 minutes after SCI. Administration of hypothermia has a positive effect on locomotion following SCI (SMD=0.56 95% CI: 0.18-0.95, p=0.004). Subgroup analysis showed that general hypothermia improves locomotion recovery (SMD =0.89, 95% CI: 0.42 to 1.36; p <0.0001), while local hypothermia does not have a significant effect on motor recovery (SMD=0.20, 95 % CI: -0.36-0.76, p=0.478). In addition, general hypothermia was found to affect motor recovery only if its duration was between 2 and 8 hours (SMD=0.89; p<0.0001) and the target temperature for induction of hypothermia was between 32 and 35° C (SMD=0.83; p<0.0001).

Conclusion: We found that general hypothermia improves locomotion after SCI in rats. Duration of induction and the target temperature are two essential considerations for general therapeutic hypothermia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682943PMC
October 2020

Central Nervous System Complications in COVID-19 Patients; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis based on Current Evidence.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 7;8(1):e62. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Several studies have confirmed neurological involvements, such as acute cerebrovascular disease and impaired consciousness in COVID-19. In the present study, our aim is to investigate the current evidence regarding central nervous system (CNS) complications in patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Methods: An extensive search was conducted in electronic databases including Medline (using PubMed), Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, in addition to the manual search in Google and Google scholar search engines, for articles published from 2019 until April 21st, 2020. Inclusion criteria was articles that were reviewed and reported the incidence of neurological outcomes in patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease.

Results: The initial search yielded 638 records, from which 7 articles were included. Overall, the incidence of CNS complications was calculated to be 6.27% (95% CI: 3.32 to 9.98). The incidence of the most common CNS complications, encephalopathy and acute cerebrovascular disease, were 9.14% (95%CI: 2.20 to 19.81) and 2.59% (95% CI: 1.31 to 4.25), respectively.

Conclusion: CNS complications do exist in COVID-19 patients, encephalopathy being the most concerning one. The heterogeneity in the existing literature causes an uncertainty in reporting the definite prevalence rate for each complication. Thus, further studies are needed for scientists to reach a more accurate estimate of the prevalence of these complications in COVID-19 patients. However, healthcare providers should consider the possibility of CNS involvements in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587989PMC
June 2020

The Four-item Patient Health Questionnaire for Anxiety and Depression: A Validation Study in Infertile Patients.

Int J Fertil Steril 2020 Oct 12;14(3):234-239. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. Electronic

Background: The most common mental disorders in infertile patients are depression and anxiety. The four-item Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) is a widely used tool that consists of the PHQ-2 depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) scales. Given that PHQ-4 has not been validated in infertile patients, this study aimed to examine its reliability and validity in this population.

Materials And Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 539 infertile patients from a referral fertility centre in Tehran, Iran. The PHQ-4, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), World Health Organisation- Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and demographic/infertility questionnaires were administered to all participants. Factor structure and internal consistency of PHQ-4 were evaluated via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. The convergent validity of this scale was examined by its relationship with HADS, WHO-5 and PSWQ.

Results: CFA results provided support for a two-factor model of PHQ-4. Internal consistency of the PHQ-4 and its subscales both were elevated with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.767 (PHQ-4), 0.780 (PHQ-2) and 0.814 (GAD-2). Inter-item correlations were between 0.386 and 0.639, and corrected item-total correlations were between 0.576 and 0.687. PHQ-4, PHQ-2 and GAD-2 showed positive correlations with measures of HADS-anxiety, HADS-depression, and PSWQ and negative correlations with WHO-5, which confirmed convergent validity. Among demographic/fertility variables, we observed that gender, infertility duration, and failure in previous treatment were correlated with PHQ-4 and its subscales scores.

Conclusion: The PHQ-4 is a reliable and valid ultra-brief screening instrument for measuring both anxiety and depressive symptoms in infertile patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2020.44412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604697PMC
October 2020

Corticosteroids on the Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Aug;49(8):1411-1421

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to examine the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids on the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV).

Method: An extensive search was conducted in Medline, Embase, and Central databases until the end of March 2020, using keywords related to corticosteroids, COVID-19, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The main outcome was considered to be the mortality rate, length of stay, virus clearance time, symptom improvement, and lung function improvement. The findings are presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Fifteen paper compromising 5 studies on COVID-19, 8 studies on SARS-CoV and 2 studies on MERS-CoV were included. One study was clinical trial and the rest were cohort. The analyses showed that corticosteroids were not reduce the mortality rate of COVID-19 (OR=1.08; 95% CI: 0.34 to 3.50) and SARS-CoV (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.34 to 1.3) patients, while they were associated with higher mortality rate of patients with MERS-CoV (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.41 to 4.50). Moreover, it appears that corticosteroids administration would not be effective in shortening viral clearance time, length of hospitalization, and duration of relief symptoms following viral severe acute respiratory infections.

Conclusion: There is no evidences that corticosteroids are safe and effective on the treatment of severe acute respiratory infection when COVID-19 disease is suspected. Therefore, corticosteroids prescription in COVID-19 patients should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49i8.3863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554375PMC
August 2020

Value of chest computed tomography scan in diagnosis of COVID-19; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Transl Imaging 2020 Oct 12:1-13. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Physiology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Hemmat highway, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and chest computed tomography (CT) scan are main diagnostic modalities of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still no consensus on which of these methods is superior to the other. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was designed to answer to the question whether CT scan can be used in diagnosis of COVID-19 or not.

Methods: Searches were performed in Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until the end of April 2020. Two researchers gathered the data of diagnostic accuracy studies that had attempted to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of CT scan in diagnosis of COVID-19.

Results: Data of 9 studies were included. Area under the curve of ground glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, pleural effusion, other CT features, and simultaneous observation of GGO with other CT features was 0.64 (95% CI 0.60-0.69), 0.30 (95% CI 0.26-0.34), 0.60 (95% CI 0.56-0.64), 0.61 (95% CI 0.56-0.65), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.92), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of simultaneous observation of GGO with other CT scan features was higher than all of the other signs. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of this sign was calculated to be 0.90, 0.89, and 20, respectively.

Conclusion: Simultaneous observation of GGO and other features of viral pneumonia in CT scan had optimum performance in detection of COVID-19. However, it is suggested to make the final diagnosis based on both CT scan and RT-PCR, as none of the two diagnostic modalities are reliable alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40336-020-00387-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549426PMC
October 2020

Value of Canadian C-spine rule versus the NEXUS criteria in ruling out clinically important cervical spine injuries: derivation of modified Canadian C-spine rule.

Radiol Med 2020 Sep 23. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Ave, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Although, Canadian C-spine rule and the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria in ruling out clinically important cervical spine injuries have been validated using large prospective studies, no consensus exist as to which rule should be endorsed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of the Canadian C-spine and NEXUS criteria in ruling out clinically important cervical spine injuries in trauma patients. Finally, we introduced the modified Canadian C-spine rule.

Methods: A prospective diagnostic accuracy study was conducted on trauma patients referred to four emergency departments of Iran in 2018. Emergency physicians evaluated the patients based on the Canadian C-spine rule and NEXUS criteria in two groups of low risk and high risk for clinically important cervical spine injury. Afterward, all patients underwent cervical imaging. In addition, modified Canadian C-spine rule was derived by removing dangerous mechanism and simple rear-end motor vehicle collision from the model.

Results: Data from 673 patients were included. The area under the curve of the NEXUS criteria, Canadian C-spine, and modified Canadian C-spine rule were 0.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.81)], 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.83), and 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.83), respectively. The sensitivities of NEXUS criteria, Canadian C-spine, and modified Canadian C-spine rule were 93.4%, 100.0% and 100.0%, respectively.

Conclusions: The modified Canadian C-spine rule has fewer variables than the original Canadian C-spine rule and is entirely based on physical examination, which seems easier to use in emergency departments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-020-01288-7DOI Listing
September 2020

A controlled, randomized phase II clinical trial for efficacy and safety evaluation of mannuronic acid in secondary progressive form of multiple sclerosis.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Sep 7:1-10. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The β-D-Mannuronic acid (M2000) as a novel immunosuppressive drug, patented (PCT/EP2017/067920), has shown positive effects in experimental model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, our aim was to assess efficacy and safety outcomes in MS treated patients with mannuronic acid compared to the conventional drug.

Methods: In a 6-month, randomized controlled, phase II trial, we enrolled patients who had secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), were 21-54 years of age, with a score of 1-7 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and who had at least one relapse in the previous 6 months. Patients were administered orally 1000 mg/day (two 500 mg/capsule daily) of M2000. Endpoints included changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and the EDSS score, as compared to the conventional drug (interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b).

Results: A total of 25 (92.5%) of the M2000 treated patients and 25 conventionally treated patients completed the study. M2000 had better performance compared to the conventional drug regarding to MRI-related measurements, however, the differences between groups were not statistically significant. M2000 decreased the disability progression over the 6-month period. The EDSS score was decreased in the M2000 treated group in the sixth month versus the conventional drug ( < 0.009). Furthermore, we did not observe any short-term side effects.

Conclusions: As compared with the conventional drug, mannuronic acid (M2000) improved the rate of disability progression. This clinical trial demonstrated the efficacy and safety of mannuronic acid in patients with SPMS. (Registered Clinical Trials number, IRCT2016111313739N6).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1818741DOI Listing
September 2020

Spatial Survival Analysis of Initiation Age and Prevalence of Smoking in Iran; Results from a Population Based Study.

Arch Iran Med 2020 07 1;23(7):462-468. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The initiation age and prevalence of cigarette smoking are two important parameters in any smoking-related policymaking domain.

Methods: Dataset was extracted from STEPs survey, a population-based study conducted in Iran in 2016. A total of 27612 participants were included in the current study. We used a spatial parametric survival mixture rate cure model with doubly censoring to simultaneously assess the initiation age and prevalence of smoking.

Results: The entire study population, men and women had the estimated median initiation age of 23.3 (95% CI: 22.2-24.5), 21.9 (95% CI: 21.3-22.5), and 25.5 (95% CI: 22.8-28.7) years, and the prevalence of 10.11% (95% CI: 9.3%-11.0%), 22.3% (95% CI: 21.0%-23.6%), 0.78% (95% CI: 0.62%-0.97%), respectively. The hazard of smoking initiation in men was 66% which was higher than in women (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.15-2.48). The odds of smoking in men was 36.5 times greater than that of women (odds ratio [OR] = 36.5, 95% CI: 29.66-45.52). Odds of smoking decreased by 32% in the entire study population and 14% with one level increase in their education (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.65-0.72) and socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.82-0.94), respectively. The geographical distribution of smoking initiation age varied from 21.5 to 26.37 years for the entire study population, 20.2 to 24.8 years for men, and 23.53 to 28.91 years for women. The geographical distribution of smoking prevalence varied from 5.46% to 14.98% for the entire study population, 12.82% to 30.98% for men, and 0.4% to 1.2% for women.

Conclusion: The geographical distribution of smoking initiation age and prevalence showed that in different parts of the country, the initiation age and rate of smoking are different which should be considered in any preventative policy making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.43DOI Listing
July 2020

Association of physical activity, body mass index and reproductive history with breast cancer by menopausal status in Iranian women.

Cancer Epidemiol 2020 08 5;67:101738. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Breast Disease Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Cancer Biology Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The incidence rate of breast cancer (BC) is increasing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Iran. We investigated the association between BC risk and physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and reproductive history among Iranian women.

Methods: We conducted a large hospital-based case-control study and compared 958 BC cases with 967 controls at the Cancer Institute of Iran during 2011-2016. We used multiple logistic regression models and adjusted for potential confounders to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for the associations between BC and different risk factors, including low physical activity.

Results: Women with high levels of physical activity had a lower risk of BC compared to those who were inactive (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.75). In premenopausal women, the association was observed only in normal-weight women (OR = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13, 0.75), while it was limited to obese women in the postmenopausal group (OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.12, 0.66). We found a high risk of postmenopausal BC among overweight (OR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.01, 2.81) and obese women (OR = 1.9; 95%CI: 1.14, 3.14) compared to women with a normal BMI. We observed an inverse association among postmenopausal women who had between three and five children (OR = 0.31, 95%CI 0.14, 0.64) and more than six children (OR = 0.21, 95%CI 0.12, 0.42) compared to nulliparous women.

Conclusions: Low levels of physical activity, low parity, and being overweight or obese were major risk factors for BC. For the first time, we report a strong association between physical activity and BC risk in Iranian women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101738DOI Listing
August 2020

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in management of COVID-19; A systematic review on current evidence.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 Sep 14;74(9):e13557. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Since there is still no definitive conclusion regarding which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most effective and safe in viral respiratory infections, we decided to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various NSAIDs in viral respiratory infections so that we can reach a conclusion on which NSAID is best choice for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: A search was performed in Medline (via PubMed), Embase and CENTRAL databases until 23 March 2020. Clinical trials on application of NSAIDs in viral respiratory infections were included.

Results: Six clinical trials were included. No clinical trial has been performed on COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome infections. Studies show that ibuprofen and naproxen not only have positive effects in controlling cold symptoms, but also do not cause serious side effects in rhinovirus infections. In addition, it was found that clarithromycin, naproxen and oseltamivir combination leads to decrease in mortality rate and duration of hospitalisation in patients with pneumonia caused by influenza.

Conclusion: Although based on existing evidence, NSAIDs have been effective in treating respiratory infections caused by influenza and rhinovirus, since there is no clinical trial on COVID-19 and case-reports and clinical experiences are indicative of elongation of treatment duration and exacerbation of the clinical course of patients with COVID-19, it is recommended to use substitutes such as acetaminophen for controlling fever and inflammation and be cautious about using NSAIDs in management of COVID-19 patients until there are enough evidence. Naproxen may be a good choice for future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267090PMC
September 2020

Discriminatory Precision of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Detection of Urinary Tract Infection in Children: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 25;8(1):e56. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: There is a significant discrepancy between studies on diagnostic precision of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to assess the diagnostic value of NGAL in diagnosis of UTI in children and adolescents.

Methods: An extensive search was performed on Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases by the end of 2019. Two independent researchers screened and summarized the data. Discriminatory precision of urinary and serum NGAL was assessed by reporting area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Data from 12 studies were included. The area under the curve of urinary and serum NGAL for diagnosis of UTI in children and adolescents at the best cut-off point (between 30-39.9 ng/ml) was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93 to 0.97) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80 to 0.86), respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio on urinary NGAL at these cut-off points were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.97), 0.89 (95% CI: 0.71 to 0.97) and 67 (95% CI: 5 to 891), respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio of serum NGAL in UTI detection were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.90), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.88) and 9.53 (95% CI: 1.52 to 59.65), respectively.

Conclusion: The present meta-analysis showed that urinary NGAL had a high diagnostic value in detection of UTI in children and adolescents with an optimum cut-off point in the range of 30-39.9 ng/ml.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212073PMC
April 2020

Effect of fish oil on circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine and adiponectin in overweight or obese patients with atrial fibrillation.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Apr 11;8(4):2165-2172. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Cardiology Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran.

Obesity and adipose-derived peptides might be involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Adiponectin plays a major role in the modulation of several metabolic pathways, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been suggested to be predictive of AF and associated adverse events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on circulating adiponectin and ADMA in overweight or obese patients with persistent AF. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m) patients with persistent AF were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either 2 g/day fish oil or placebo, for 8 weeks. Serum levels of adiponectin and ADMA, and anthropometric indexes were measured. This study showed that serum adiponectin concentrations increased significantly following fish oil supplementation compared with the placebo group (13.15 ± 7.33 vs. 11.88 ± 6.94 µg/ml;  = .026). A significant reduction was also observed in serum ADMA levels in the fish oil compared with the placebo group following the intervention (0.6 ± 0.13 vs. 0.72 ± 0.15 µmol/L;  = .001). The changes in serum adiponectin and ADMA concentrations remained significant after adjustments for baseline values, age, sex, and changes of BMI and waist circumference ( = .011 and  = .001, respectively). In conclusion,  8 weeks supplementation with fish oil increased serum adiponectin and decreased ADMA concentrations in overweight or obese patients with persistent AF. As adiponectin and ADMA are suggested to be involved in many pathways associated with AF, the current findings might be promising in the clinical management of this disease, an issue that needs further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174212PMC
April 2020

Antiviral therapy in management of COVID-19: a systematic review on current evidence.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 6;8(1):e45. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The purpose of the current systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral therapies in treatment of COVID-19. In addition, clinical trials on the efficacy of antiviral therapies in the management of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-Cov) or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have also been reviewed, in order to identify potential treatment options for COVID-19.

Method: An extensive search was performed in Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and CENTRAL databases until the end of March 15, 2020. Two independent researchers performed the screening, and finally the related studies were included.

Results: Only one clinical trial on the efficacy of antiviral therapy in management of COVID-19 was found. The results depicted that adding Lopinavir-Ritonavir to the standard treatment regimen of patients with severe COVID-19 has no benefits. Moreover, 21 case-series and case-report studies reported the prescription of antiviral agents in COVID-19, none of which can be used to determine the efficacy of antiviral therapies in confronting COVID-19. In addition, no clinical trials were found to be performed on the efficacy of antiviral agents in the management of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

Conclusion: The current evidence impede researchers from proposing an appropriate antiviral therapy against COVID-19, making the current situation a serious concern for international organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO). In the time of the current pandemic and future epidemics, organizations such as WHO should pursue more proactive actions and plan well-designed clinical trials so that their results can be used in managing future epidemics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156260PMC
April 2020

Accuracy of Urine Kidney Injury Molecule-1 in Predicting Acute Kidney Injury in Children; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 5;8(1):e44. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: There is considerable controversy on the accuracy of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) in prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children. Therefore, the present study intends to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of the value of this biomarker in predicting AKI in children.

Methods: An extensive search was performed on the Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases by the end of 2019. Cohort and case-control studies on children were included. Urinary KIM-1 levels were compared between AKI and non-AKI groups. Findings were reported as an overall standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Also, the overall area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of KIM-1 in predicting AKI in children was calculated.

Results: Data from 13 articles were included. Urinary KIM-1 levels in children with stage 1 AKI were higher than the non-AKI group only when assessed within the first 12 hours after admission (SMD = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.07 to 1.84; p = 0.034). However, urinary KIM-1 levels in children with stage 2-3 AKI were significantly higher than non-AKI children (p <0.01) at all times. The AUC of urinary KIM-1 in predicting AKI in children was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62 to 0.77).

Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, KIM-1 seems to have moderate value in predicting AKI in children. Since previous meta-analyses have provided other urinary and serum biomarkers that have better discriminatory accuracy than KIM-1, so it had better not to use KIM-1 in predicting AKI in children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159147PMC
April 2020

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN Study.

Int J Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jan 19;18(1):e82866. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The assessment of the trend of changes in the prevalence of abdominal obesity can provide useful health information.

Objectives: This study aimed to conduct an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis to provide the trend of the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Iranian pediatric population through the three temporal dimensions of age, period, and cohort.

Methods: Data were gathered from a total number of 53,962 Iranian children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years through four surveys of a national surveillance program (the CASPIAN study) conducted in 2003, 2007, 2011, and 2015. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist-to-height ratio of ≥ 0.5. The APC analysis was performed using the "apc_ie"command in STATA software.

Results: A significant correlation existed between age, period, and cohort effects and the prevalence of abdominal obesity in children and adolescents. With increasing age, regardless of considerable fluctuations, the prevalence of abdominal obesity followed an overall increasing trend in both genders. The age effect coefficient increased from -2.1 in the age group of 5 - 9 years to 1.1 in the age group of 10 - 14 years and then decreased to 1.0 in the age group of 15 - 19 years among boys; figures followed an increasing trend in girls from -2.2 to 0.8 and 1.5, respectively. As for the period effect, in both boys and girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity followed an increasing trend when coming from the earlier periods to the recent ones (from -4.6 to 4.0 in boys and from -4.1 to 2.4 in girls). Likewise, this prevalence increased from earlier birth cohorts to the recent ones in both genders.

Conclusions: The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing among Iranian children and adolescents and this rising trend is affected by age, period, and birth cohort effects. The findings of this study emphasize the necessity of implementing comprehensive interventions for tackling the epidemic of childhood obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ijem.82866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138598PMC
January 2020

Estimation of basic reproduction number for COVID-19 and the reasons for its differences.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 08;74(8):e13518

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262308PMC
August 2020

Discriminatory Precision of Renal Angina Index in Predicting Acute Kidney Injury in Children; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 26;8(1):e39. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: There is still controversy over the value of renal angina index (RAI) in predicting acute renal failure (AKI) in children. Therefore, the present study aims to provide evidence by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis on the value of RAI in this regard.

Methods: An extensive search of Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases was conducted by the end of January 2020 using words related to RAI and AKI. Two independent reviewers screened and summarized the related studies. Data were analysed using STATA 14.0 statistical program and discriminatory precision of RAI was assessed.

Results: Data from 11 studies were included. These studies included data from 3701 children (60.41% boys). There were 752 children with AKI and 2949 non-AKI children. Pooled analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve of RAI in prediction of AKI was 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85 to 0.91]. Sensitivity and specificity of this tool in predicting AKI were 0.85% (95% CI: 0.74% to 0.92%) and 0.79% (95% CI: 0.69% to 0.89%), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio of RAI was 20.40 (95% CI: 9.62 to 43.25).

Conclusion: The findings of the present meta-analysis showed that RAI is a reliable tool in predicting AKI in children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7130445PMC
March 2020

Pediatric Thoracic Injury Rule out Criteria (pTIRC) in Diagnosis of Very Low Risk Children for Traumatic Intrathoracic Injuries; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 8;8(1):e7. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Science Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The value of thoracic injury rule out criteria (TIRC) as a tool for decreasing the number of unnecessary chest radiographs in children has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, the present study was designed as a multi-center study to assess the validity of TIRC model in detection of very low risk children for traumatic intrathoracic injuries.

Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, clinical data and chest radiographs of 974 children less than 18 years of age (72.0% boys) who had presented to 5 hospitals, in Iran in 2018 were assessed. Data gathering and interpretation of radiographs were done by two independent researchers in each hospital. In the end, discriminatory power and calibration of the model was assessed with a 95% confidence interval (95% Cl).

Results: In the present study, age was not a predicting factor of abnormal findings in radiographs of children and adolescents (p=0.75); therefore, it was omitted from TIRC model and pediatric TIRC (pTIRC) was designed. Area under the curve of pTIRC rule was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98) for prediction of abnormal chest X-Ray in children and adolescents. The sensitivity and specificity of pTIRC was 100% and 90.1%, respectively. The calibration of this decision rule had great concordance with the perfect line with a slope of 0.99 and intercept of 0.001. There was a 90.1% reduction in the number of unnecessary chest radiographs when using pTIRC decision rule.

Conclusion: pTIRC decision rule was introduced in the present study. pTIRC has excellent performance in identification of traumatic intrathoracic injuries and decreasing the number of unnecessary chest radiographs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993076PMC
January 2020

Ultrasonography in Detection of Renal Calculi in Children; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2019 24;7(1):e66. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University ofMedical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Although numerous studies have been done to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography in diagnosis of renal calculi in children, there is still no consensus. Therefore, in the present systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in identifying renal stones in children.

Methods: A comprehensive search of the electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science was conducted up to July 2019. Diagnostic accuracy studies in children were included. Data was summarized and pooled. Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic score and diagnostic odds ratio were reported with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Data from 7 articles were included. Pooled analysis showed that the area under the curve of ultrasonography in diagnosis of pediatric renal calculi was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.96). The sensitivity and specificity of this diagnostic modality were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.87) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.84 to 1.00), respectively. Diagnostic score and diagnostic odds ratio of ultrasonography in detection of renal calculi were 110.32 (95% CI: 2.88 to 19.76) and 82362.41 (95% CI: 17.80 to 3.8 × 10), respectively.

Conclusion: Overall, the low level of evidence indicates that sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in detecting renal calculi in children are 80% and 100%, respectively. However, due to the serious limitations of the included studies, well-designed prospective diagnostic accuracy studies are recommended for future studies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942918PMC
November 2019

The Persian version of the revised dyadic adjustment scale (RDAS): a validation study in infertile patients.

BMC Psychol 2020 Jan 29;8(1). Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Infertility can have a powerful impact on marital quality. The Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) is a widely used measure of marital quality. This scale has not been validated in infertile patients. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the RDAS in a sample of infertile patients.

Methods: The sample of this methodological study consisted of 254 infertile patients referring to a referral infertility clinic in Tehran, Iran. A battery of questionnaires was administered to the participants, including a demographic/fertility questionnaire, the RDAS, the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (KMSS), the Couples Satisfaction Index- 4 Item (CSI-4), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Perceived Stress Scale-4 Item (PSS-4). Internal consistency of the scale was assessed with Cronbach's alpha, construct validity was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and convergent validity was examined by correlating the RDAS with RAS, KMSS, CSI-4, HADS, and PSS-4 instruments.

Results: The mean total RDAS score was 49.26 ± 9.34, and 100 patients (39.4%) had marital distress based on the cut-off value of < 48. The second-order three-factor model of the RDAS exhibited an excellent fit to the data, as indicated by χ/df = 2.26; CFI = 0.96; GFI = 0.91; NFI = 0.93; IFI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.071 and SRMR = 0.050. The RDAS and its subscales revealed satisfactory internal consistency that ranged from 0.664 to 0.847. Convergent validity was confirmed by strong correlations between RDAS scores and scores on the RAS, KMSS, and CSI-4. These correlations also tended to be larger than correlations with measures of HADS-anxiety, HADS-depression, and PSS-4. Among demographic/fertility variables, only infertility duration was found to be correlated to the RDAS.

Conclusion: The RDAS is a reliable and valid inventory for measuring marital quality in infertile patients. Further validation studies are needed to generalize the underlying structure of the scale in various populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-0375-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988239PMC
January 2020

Age, period and cohort analysis of high cholesterol levels in Iranian adults over a 20-year period.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2019 Dec 25;18(2):289-299. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Ave, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important modifiable risk factors of non-communicable diseases and data on their values in different societies and their trend of changes should be updated every couple of years. Many studies have focused on assessing the prevalence of high cholesterol. We must emphasise that most of these studies were cross-sectional and did not directly investigate the temporal trends of change for age, period and birth cohort (APC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of age, period and birth cohort on the prevalence of borderline to high cholesterol levels in Iranian adult population.

Methods: The data were collected from 110,302 subjects between 25 and 69 years of age over the period of 1990-2011. Data from these subjects were collected by using five national cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1990-91, 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011. The APC effect on the prevalence of borderline and high cholesterol levels was assessed using the Intrinsic Estimator model.

Results: The overall prevalence of borderline cholesterol level among male subjects was found to be lower than that of females (39.8% vs. 46.3%). Similarly, the prevalence of high cholesterol level in men was reported to be 13.1%, which was lower than the 18.0% calculated in women. The prevalence of borderline and high cholesterol levels increased with age in men between the ages of 45-49. Then it stayed quite steady and eventually declined. Then it stayed quite steady and eventually declined. The prevalence in women also increased with age, with its maximum rise after the ages of menopause and a slight decline at the ages of 65-69. As for the birth cohorts, the prevalence of borderline and high cholesterol levels followed a declining trend by going from earlier birth cohorts to the later ones.

Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that age, period and birth cohort affect the prevalence of borderline and high cholesterol levels. Thus, these factors should be considered when developing and implementing care plans for people with hypercholesterolemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-019-00410-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6915163PMC
December 2019

Effect of vitamins C and E on recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury: systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies.

Nutr Rev 2020 06;78(6):465-473

Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, and with the Brain and Spinal Injuries Research Center (BASIR), Neuroscience Institute, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Context: Many animal studies have evaluated the role of vitamins in the recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury, but their results have been contradictory and no consensus has been reached.

Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury in animal models.

Data Sources: Two authors independently collected the records of relevant articles published in MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science through November 2018.

Study Selection: All studies conducted in animal models to evaluate the therapeutic effects of vitamin C or vitamin E or both on recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury were included. Studies that lacked a control group or a standard treatment, lacked an assessment of motor function, included genetically modified/engineered animals, included animals pretreated with vitamin C or vitamin E, or combined vitamin treatment with other methods, such as cell therapies, were excluded.

Data Extraction: Data from 10 articles met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines.

Results: Daily supplementation with vitamin C (P < 0.0001) and vitamin E (P < 0.0001) significantly improved the recovery of motor function in animals affected by spinal cord injury. Vitamin C supplementation is effective only when administered intraperitoneally (P < 0.0001). Concurrent supplementation with both vitamins does not show better efficacy than treatment with either one alone.

Conclusion: Administration of vitamin C and vitamin E in animal models of spinal cord injury significantly improves the recovery of motor function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuz076DOI Listing
June 2020

The Situation of Chemokine Ligands and Receptors Gene Expression, Following the Oral Administration of Drug Mannuronic Acid in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2020 ;14(1):69-77

Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Regarding the leukocytes infiltration into the synovium of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients is mostly mediated by chemokine ligands and receptors, and following the efficient and motivating results of international Phase III clinical trial of β-D-Mannuronic acid (M2000) patented EP067919 (2017), as a novel anti-inflammatory drug, in patients with RA, the present research was designed.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the oral administration effects of this new drug on gene expression of some chemokine receptors and ligands, including CXCR4, CXCR3, CCR2, CCR5 and CCL2/MCP-1 in PBMCs of patients with active form of RA.

Methods: Twelve patients suffering from RA, with inadequate response to conventional drugs were selected (Clinical trial identifier IRCT2017100213739N10) and 1000mg/day of M2000 was orally administrated to them for 12 weeks. The mRNA expression of target molecules was then evaluated in PBMCs of the patients before and after treatment with M2000 using real-time PCR and was compared to healthy controls. Patents related to this study were also reviewed.

Results: The results showed that M2000 was able to significantly down-regulate the mRNA expression of CXCR4, CCR2 and CCL2/MCP-1 in the PBMCs of the RA patients. It should be noted that the gene expression situation of the target molecules was in coordinate with the clinical and paraclinical assessments in the patients.

Conclusion: Taken together, the results of this investigation revealed the part of molecular and immunological mechanisms of drug Mannuronic acid (M2000) in the treatment of RA, based on chemokine ligands and receptors mediated processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1872213X13666191114111822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509734PMC
December 2020

A combination of mesenchymal stem cells and scaffolds promotes motor functional recovery in spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Nov;32(2):269-284

8Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; and.

Objective: There is controversy about the role of scaffolds as an adjunctive therapy to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). Thus, the authors aimed to design a meta-analysis on preclinical evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of combination therapy of scaffold + MSC transplantation in comparison with scaffolds alone and MSCs alone in improving motor dysfunction in SCI.

Methods: Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched from inception until the end of August 2018. Two independent reviewers screened related experimental studies. Animal studies that evaluated the effectiveness of scaffolds and/or MSCs on motor function recovery following experimental SCI were included. The findings were reported as standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: A total of 34 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Analyses show that combination therapy in comparison with the scaffold group alone (SMD 2.00, 95% CI 1.53-2.46, p < 0.0001), the MSCs alone (SMD 1.58, 95% CI 0.84-2.31, p < 0.0001), and the nontreated group (SMD 3.52, 95% CI 2.84-4.20, p < 0.0001) significantly improved motor function recovery. Co-administration of MSCs + scaffolds only in the acute phase of injury (during the first 3 days after injury) leads to a significant recovery compared to scaffold alone (SMD 2.18, p < 0.0001). In addition, the cotransplantation of scaffolds with bone marrow-derived MSCs (SMD 1.99, p < 0.0001) and umbilical cord-derived MSCs (SMD 1.50, p = 0.001) also improved motor function following SCI.

Conclusions: The findings showed that scaffolds + MSCs is more effective than scaffolds and MSCs alone in improving motor function following SCI in animal models, when used in the acute phase of injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.8.SPINE19201DOI Listing
November 2019

Influence of β-D-mannuronic Acid, as a New Member of Non-steroidal Anti- Inflammatory Drugs Family, on the Expression Pattern of Chemokines and their Receptors in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2021 ;18(1):65-74

Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Based on the encouraging results of phase III clinical trial of β-Dmannuronic acid (M2000) (as a new anti-inflammatory drug) in patients with RA, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of this drug on the expression of chemokines and their receptors in PBMCs of RA patients.

Methods: PBMCs of RA patients and healthy controls were separated and the patients' cells were treated with low, moderate and high doses (5, 25 and 50 μg/mL) of M2000 and optimum dose (1 μg/mL) of diclofenac, as a control in RPMI-1640 medium. Real-time PCR was used for evaluating the mRNA expression of CXCR3, CXCR4, CCR2, CCR5 and CCL2/MCP-1. Cell surface expression of CCR2 was investigated using flow cytometry.

Results: CCR5 mRNA expression reduced significantly, after treatment of the patients' cells with all three doses of M2000 and optimum dose of diclofenac. CXCR3 mRNA expression was downregulated significantly followed by the treatment of these cells with moderate and high doses of M2000 and optimum dose of diclofenac. CXCR4 mRNA expression declined significantly after the treatment of these cells with moderate and high doses of M2000. CCL2 mRNA expression significantly reduced only followed by the treatment of these cells with a high dose of M2000, whereas, mRNA and cell surface expressions of CCR2 diminished significantly followed by the treatment of these cells with a high dose of M2000 and optimum dose of diclofenac.

Conclusion: According to our results, M2000 through the down-regulation of chemokines and their receptors may restrict the infiltration of immune cells into the synovium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163816666191023103118DOI Listing
January 2021

Global prevalence of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Respir Res 2019 Oct 23;20(1):229. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is a term that encompasses patients with features of both asthma and COPD. To date, the global prevalence of ACO in the general population remains unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ACO in the general population using a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A systematic search of ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Scopus was performed up to May 2019 to identify studies reporting the prevalence of ACO. Reference lists from identified studies and relevant review articles were also searched. Eligibility criteria were studies reporting the prevalence of ACO, performed in general population, and published in English language. Pooled prevalence of ACO with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random effects Meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 27 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The Cochran Q test and I statistics revealed substantial heterogeneity among studies. Based on the random-effects model, the pooled prevalence of ACO was 2.0% (95% CI: 1.4-2.6%) in the general population, 26.5% (95% CI: 19.5-33.6%) among patients with asthma, and 29.6% (95% CI: 19.3-39.9%) among patients with COPD. In addition, for included studies, the global prevalence of asthma-only was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.0-7.4%) and COPD-only was 4.9% (95% CI: 4.3-5.5%).

Conclusion: We estimated the global prevalence of ACO based on population-based studies and found that 2.0% of the general population is affected. However, the prevalence of ACO depends on its diagnostic criteria. Therefore, there is a vital need to better define the ACO diagnostic criteria, management and treatment. It is worth noting that the limitations of the present study include lack of studies in some region of the world and small number of studies included in the subgroup analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-019-1198-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6813073PMC
October 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019