Publications by authors named "Mostafa A Abdel-Maksoud"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

CuO loaded ZnS nanoflower entrapped on PVA-chitosan matrix for boosted visible light photocatalysis for tetracycline degradation and anti-bacterial application.

J Environ Manage 2022 Jan 11;306:114396. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Novel photocatalyst CuO loaded ZnS nanoflower supported on carbon frame work PVA/Chitosan was synthesized by co-precipitation and ultrasonic assisted method. The co-existence of ZnS and CuO and its crystallinity in nanohybrid was verified by XRD, SAED and HR-TEM analysis. The availability of defects in ZnS was identified by EPR. FTIR and TGA verified the presence of PVA and Chitosan. Defects mediated ZnS-CuO/PVA/chitosan heterojunction promote synergistic charge separation with type II interface. Zn-vacancy facilitates two-photon excitation that improves visible-light harvesting. The photocatalytic activity of ZnS-CuO/PVA/Chitosan was 94.7% which is higher when compared to ZnS (40%) and CuO (60%). The photocatalytic mechanism was elucidated using scavenger test and both ·O and ·OH were found to play key role in tetracycline degradation. In addition, ZnS-CuO/PVA/Chitosan demonstrated efficient anti-microbial effect against the both gram strains on comparing with individual ZnS and CuO. Thus, the multifunctional ZnS-CuO/PVA/Chitosan is promising for the photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline and as an antimicrobial agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.114396DOI Listing
January 2022

Synthesis and application of CdS nanoparticles-decorated core-shell [email protected] nanohybrids for visible-light spectrophotometric assay of sulfide in aqueous sample.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Dec 22;270:120793. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Novel [email protected] nanosphere decorated with CdS NPs ([email protected] NCs) was synthesized by one step chemical synthesis method. The fabricated NCs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transfer infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta sizer and particle size analyzer. TEM and XRD confirmed the Ag in core and Ni in shell for the effective formation of [email protected] core shell nanosphere. EDAX and XPS spectra of NCs confirms the formation of [email protected] NCs. Zeta potential and particle size of the NCs was found to be 29.5 ± 1.5 mV and 24 ± 1 nm respectively. The complete loss in the peak intensity of [email protected] NCs (localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)) at ∼410 nm in presence of S ions was observed which indicates its selective detection towards S ions. The sulfide ion sensing by [email protected] NCs was due to the successive oxidation of Ag results in the formulation of Ag ions in the system, which causes the diminishing of LSPR band of NCs. The limit of detection (LOD) of S ions by [email protected] NCs was calculated to be of 2.66 nM. The combination of CdS NPs with core-shell [email protected] nanosphere guides a promising strategy for S ions detection from environmental polluted samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120793DOI Listing
December 2021

Chitosan capped Ag/NiS nanocomposites: A novel colorimetric probe for detection of L-cysteine at nanomolar level and its anti-microbial activity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Dec 10;193(Pt B):2054-2061. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

L-Cysteine (L-cys) plays very crucial role in biological systems. The study reports the colorimetric detection of L-cys at nanomolar level using chitosan capped Ag decorated NiS nanocomposite (chit-Ag/NiS NCs).The chemical reduction and co-precipitation methods were adopted to prepare chit-Ag/NiS NCs. The fabricated NCs was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), FT-Raman, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The chit-Ag/NiS NCs particularly detect L-cys even in other amino acids presence. The chit-Ag/NiS NCs showed the surface charge of -26 ± 39.9 mV. The detection of L-cys was indicated by disappearance of yellowish-brown color of Chit-Ag/NiS NCs to colorless. A good linear correlation was found between absorbance vs logarithmic concentration of L-cys (1 μM to 1 nM) with R value of 0.99. The chit-Ag/NiS NCs impregnated cotton swabs was prepared for real time detection of L-cys and the prepared probe was found to be highly selective and specific. The effect of pH, temperature and salinity influencing the L-cys detection was studied. Also, the antimicrobial activity of Chit-Ag/NiS NCs was investigated against gram negative (E. coli) and gram positive (B. subtilis) bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.11.037DOI Listing
December 2021

Designing and Development of FRET-Based Nanosensor for Real Time Analysis of N-Acetyl-5-Neuraminic Acid in Living Cells.

Front Nutr 2021 31;8:621273. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Botany, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid (NeuAc) plays crucial role in improving the growth, brain development, brain health maintenance, and immunity enhancement of infants. Commercially, it is used in the production of antiviral drugs, infant milk formulas, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pharmaceutical products. Because of the rapidly increasing demand, metabolic engineering approach has attracted increasing attention for NeuAc biosynthesis. However, knowledge of metabolite flux in biosynthetic pathways is one of the major challenges in the practice of metabolic engineering. So, an understanding of the flux of NeuAc is needed to determine its cellular level at real time. The analysis of the flux can only be performed using a tool that has the capacity to measure metabolite level in cells without affecting other metabolic processes. A Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based genetically-encoded nanosensor has been generated in this study to monitor the level of NeuAc in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Sialic acid periplasmic binding protein (SiaP) from was exploited as a sensory element for the generation of nanosensor. The enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) and Venus were used as Fluroscence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) pair. The nanosensor, which was termed fluorescent indicator protein for sialic acid (FLIP-SA), was successfully transformed into, and expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells. The expressed protein of the nanosensor was isolated and purified. The purified nanosensor protein was characterized to assess the affinity, specificity, and stability in the pH range. The developed nanosensor exhibited FRET change after addition to NeuAc. The developed nanosensor was highly specific, exhibited pH stability, and detected NeuAc levels in the nanomolar to milimolar range. FLIP-SA was successfully introduced in bacterial and yeast cells and reported the real-time intracellular levels of NeuAc non-invasively. The FLIP-SA is an excellent tool for the metabolic flux analysis of the NeuAc biosynthetic pathway and, thus, may help unravel the regulatory mechanism of the metabolic pathway of NeuAc. Furthermore, FLIP-SA can be used for the high-throughput screening of mutant libraries for varied NeuAc production levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.621273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200523PMC
May 2021

FRET-Based Genetically Encoded Nanosensor for Real-Time Monitoring of the Flux of α-Tocopherol in Living Cells.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 23;6(13):9020-9027. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.

Vitamin E plays an exemplary role in living organisms. α-Tocopherol is the most superior and active form of naturally occurring vitamin E that meets the requirements of human beings as it possesses the α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP). α-Tocopherol deficiency can lead to severe anemia, certain cancers, several neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, and most importantly male infertility. As a result of the depletion of its natural sources, researchers have tried to employ metabolic engineering to enhance α-tocopherol production to meet the human consumption demand. However, the metabolic engineering approach relies on the metabolic flux of a metabolite in its biosynthetic pathway. Analysis of the metabolic flux of a metabolite needs a method that can monitor the α-tocopherol level in living cells. This study was undertaken to construct a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)-based nanosensor for monitoring the α-tocopherol flux in prokaryotic and eukaryotic living cells. The human α-TTP was sandwiched between a pair of FRET fluorophores to construct the nanosensor, which was denoted as FLIP-α (the fluorescence indicator for α-tocopherol). FLIP-α showed excellence in monitoring the α-tocopherol flux with high specificity. The sensor was examined for its pH stability for physiological applications, where it shows no pH hindrance to its activity. The calculated affinity of this nanosensor was 100 μM. It monitored the real-time flux of α-tocopherol in bacterial and yeast cells, proving its biocompatibility in monitoring the α-tocopherol dynamics in living cells. Being noninvasive, FLIP-α provides high temporal and spatial resolutions, which holds an indispensable significance in bioimaging metabolic pathways that are highly compartmentalized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028167PMC
April 2021

Botanical candidates from Saudi Arabian flora as potential therapeutics for infection.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Feb 27;28(2):1374-1379. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

Malaria is a lethal parasitic disease affecting over two hundred million people worldwide and kills almost half a million people per year. Until now, there is no curative treatment for this disease that has a substantial morbidity. The available chemotherapeutic agents are unable to completely control the infection with the continuous appearance of drug resistance. Consequently, the search for new therapeutic agents with high safety profiles and low side effects is of paramount importance. Several natural products have been investigated and proven to have antimalarial effects either or . A large number of plants have been studied globally for their antimalarial activities. However, studies that have been conducted in this field in Saudi Arabia are not enough. This article presents global and local research on the need for novel natural antimalarial agents with a particular emphasis on studies involving plants from Saudi Arabian flora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878689PMC
February 2021

Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Extracts of Different Parts of (Forssk.) Vierh.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 28;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Increased problems associated with side effects and bacterial resistance of chemical drugs has prompted the research focus on herbal medicines in the past few decades. In the present investigation, the antimicrobial activity of the various parts of (AM), a mangrove plant, has been evaluated. The plants were collected from the Jazan area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Primary extracts of roots, stem, leaves, fruits, and seeds were made in ethanol and fractioned in ethanol, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, chloroform, and water. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts were determined against , , , and . It has been observed that the chloroform extract of roots of the AM exhibited inhibitory effects against both (MIC = 1.5 ± 0.03 mg/mL) and (MIC = 1.7 ± 0.01 mg/mL). The ethanolic extract of the AM roots has shown antibacterial activity against (MIC = 10.8 ± 0.78 mg/mL) (MIC = 6.1 ± 0.27 mg/mL), (MIC = 2.3 ± 0.08 mg/mL), and (MIC = 6.3 ± 0.28 mg/mL). The leaf extract of the AM in ethyl acetate showed antibacterial activity against and . Antifungal activity of these extracts was also investigated against and Ethanolic extract of roots and seeds of the AM has shown antifungal activity against when applied individually. Ethanolic extract of the AM fruits has shown an inhibitory effect on the growth of and . It is suggested that the plant extracts of AM have tremendous antimicrobial activity against a group of microbes, and this effect depends on both the plant part and the solvent used for extraction. Therefore, this plant can be considered to treat various diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911470PMC
January 2021

Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic, and Neurobehavioral Effects of a Leaf Extract of on Autoimmune Diabetic Mice.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 21;2019:1263260. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that can affect the central nervous system and behavioral traits in animals. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease. The aim of the current study was to determine whether supplementation with the alcoholic extract of leaves could improve diabetes-associated pathological changes. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (A), an receiving nondiabetic group (B), a diabetic group (C), and a DM group orally supplemented with alcoholic leaf extract (D). The DM group of animals receiving the alcoholic extract of leaves had reduced blood glucose levels, improved blood picture, and organ functions. This group also showed improvement in locomotory behavior. The results of this study showed that supplementation with the alcoholic extract of leaves reduced oxidative stress and blood sugar levels, protected the liver, and improved the neurobehavioral changes associated with diabetes in mice. Introducing alcoholic leaf extract of to diabetic mice decreased inflammatory cells aggregation, vacuolation, and hemorrhage. Additionally, a positive effect of the alcoholic leaf extract on the histopathological changes was observed in the testicular tissue of treated mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1263260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556331PMC
May 2019

Altered renal immune complexes deposition in female BWF1 lupus mice following infection.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Dec 26;25(8):1609-1616. Epub 2016 May 26.

Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease that has a mysterious relationship with malaria infection. The current study was designated to compare between the effect of the live and the gamma irradiated infection on BWF1 lupus murine model. A total of 30 female BWF1 mice were randomly divided into three groups (10 mice/group) as follows: group (I) lupus group (lupus non infected); group (II) live malaria infected group (lupus + live malaria infection); and group (III) irradiated malaria-infected group (lupus + gamma irradiated malaria infection). Live infection was accompanied with a decrease in survival rate and food consumption in comparison to the control group of mice while gamma irradiated -infection was unable to do this effect. Additionally, live infection was accompanied with an increased level of proteinuria and increased rate of immune complexes deposition in kidney. Moreover, infection with live, but not gamma-irradiated was accompanied with an increase in nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (HO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in plasma of lupus mice. The levels of both total cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma of lupus mice after live infection were obviously decreased in comparison to the control group. On the other hand, gamma-irradiated infection resembled the control group. Our data revealed that infection of lupus mice with live but not gamma-irradiated has several histological and biochemical effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.05.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303185PMC
December 2018

Stone quarrying induces organ dysfunction and oxidative stress in Meriones libycus.

Toxicol Ind Health 2018 Oct 13;34(10):679-692. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

2 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt.

Exposure to heavy metal-containing dust arising from stone quarrying may cause severe health problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of stone quarrying in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) on the Libyan jird Meriones libycus. Soil samples and jirds were collected from four sites located at different distances from the quarrying area. Soil from the first (500 m away from the quarry) and second (1800 m away) sites showed a significant increase in cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and vanadium (V) when compared with the reference site (38,000 m away). Jirds at these sites exhibited significant increases in liver, kidney, lung, and fur levels of Cd, Pb, Ni, and V. Serum transaminases, creatinine, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in jirds, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. Liver, kidney, and lung tissues of jirds, collected from the first and second sites, showed significantly increased MDA and decreased GSH levels. Additionally, animals at both sites showed altered hematological parameters and several histopathological changes in their liver, kidney, and lung. Soil and animals at the third site (7300 m away) showed no significant changes. Thus, our study showed the impact and hazardous effects of quarrying on the liver, kidney, lung, and hemogram of M. libycus. These findings can provide scientific evaluation for studying the impact of quarrying on the workers and communities living close to the studied area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233718781290DOI Listing
October 2018

Deleterious effects of potassium bromate administration on renal and hepatic tissues of Swiss mice.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Feb 31;25(2):278-284. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

King Saud University, College of Science, Department of Zoology, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Potassium bromate (KBrO) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. The present study reports the side effects of KBrO administration in Swiss mice. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: control, low dose KBrO (100 mg/kg/day) and high dose KBrO (200 mg/kg/day) groups. Administration of KBrO led to decreased white blood corpuscles (WBCs), red blood corpuscles (RBCs) and platelets count in the animals of both the high and the low dose groups. Altered lipid profile represented as low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol levels were observed in plasma samples of both KBrO treated groups of mice. Also, an increased plasma level of LDH was detected in both KBrO treated groups. Histological investigations showed impaired renal and hepatic histology that was concomitant with increased plasma Creatinine level in both of KBrO-treated groups. Nevertheless, decreased glutathione (GSH) level in both renal and hepatic tissue of mice after KBrO intake was detected. These results show that KBrO has serious damaging effects and therefore, its use should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.01.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816001PMC
February 2018

Correlation between vitamin D levels and apoptosis in geriatric patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 4.

Clin Interv Aging 2016 4;11:523-33. Epub 2016 May 4.

Internal Endemic Medicine Department, College of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt.

Background: Vitamin D levels play a pivotal role in most biological processes and differ according to age. A deficiency of vitamin D in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients has been shown to be linked with the severity of liver fibrosis, but little is known about the mechanism of this association.

Objective: In this study, we evaluate the potential interrelation between vitamin D levels, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, based on liver fibrosis in geriatric patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 120 adult individuals aged 30-68 years were recruited in this study. Of these, 20 healthy subjects (15 men and five women) with a mean age of 48.3±6.1 years were selected as controls, and 100 patients with a mean age of 47.8±4.9 years with chronic HCV (CHC) who had undergone liver biopsy (80 men and 20 women) were included in this study. Based on liver radiographic (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and histological Metavir system analyses, the CHC patients were classified into three groups: asymptomatic CHC carriers (n=30), fibrosis (n=25), and cirrhosis (n=45). HCV RNA, HCV genotypes, inflammatory cytokines AFP and TNFα, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, apoptotic markers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and soluble Fas (sFas), and oxidative stress markers nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were estimated by using molecular, immunoassay, and colorimetric techniques.

Results: Approximately 30% of the study population (n=30) were diagnosed as asymptomatic CHC carriers, and 70% of the study population (n=70) had severe fibrosis; these were classified into fibrosis and cirrhosis. There was a significant reduction in 25(OH)D levels and TAC activity, along with an increase in levels of NO, AFP, TNFα, ssDNA, and sFas in fibrosis and cirrhosis subjects compared with those of asymptomatic CHC carriers and health controls. The deficiency in 25(OH)D levels correlated positively with sFas, ssDNA, AFP, TNFα, NO, and TAC, and negatively with age, sex, liver function, body mass index, homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance, HCV RNA, and viral load. Significant intercorrelation was reported between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and apoptotic and oxidative markers, which suggested progression of liver pathogenesis and fibrogenesis via oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

Conclusion: The data showed that vitamin D status was significantly correlated with pathogenesis and fibrogenesis of the liver in geriatric patients infected with HCV genotype 4. The deficiency in 25(OH)D levels was shown to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of liver via apoptotic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mechanistic pathways. The data point to adequate vitamin D levels being recommended for a good response to treatment strategies, especially in older CHC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S104599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862759PMC
January 2018

Oral administration of potassium bromate induces neurobehavioral changes, alters cerebral neurotransmitters level and impairs brain tissue of swiss mice.

Behav Brain Funct 2016 May 12;12(1):14. Epub 2016 May 12.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Background: Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. The present study reports the side effects of KBrO3 administration on the brain functions and behaviour of albino mice.

Methods: Animals were divided into three groups: control, low dose KBrO3 (100 mg/kg/day) and high dose KBrO3 (200 mg/kg/day) groups.

Results: Administration of KBrO3 led to a significant change in the body weight in the animals of the high dose group in the first, second and the last weeks while water consumption was not significantly changed. Neurobehavioral changes and a reduced Neurotransmitters levels were observed in both KBrO3 groups of mice. Also, the brain level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in KBrO3 receiving animals was decreased. Histological studies favoured these biochemical results showing extensive damage in the histological sections of brain of KBrO3-treated animals.

Conclusions: These results show that KBrO3 has serious damaging effects on the central nervous system and therefore, its use should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12993-016-0098-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4865012PMC
May 2016

Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) juice against cadmium neurotoxicity in albino mice (Mus musculus).

Behav Brain Funct 2016 Feb 4;12(1). Epub 2016 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Parsley was employed as an experimental probe to prevent the behavioral, biochemical and morphological changes in the brain tissue of the albino mice following chronic cadmium (Cd) administration.

Methods: Non-anesthetized adult male mice were given parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) daily by gastric intubation at doses of 10 and 20 g/kg/day. The animals were divided into six groups: Group A, mice were exposed to saline; Groups B and C, were given low and high doses of parsley juice, respectively; Group D, mice were exposed to Cd; Groups E and F, were exposed to Cd and concomitantly given low and high doses of parsley, respectively.

Results: Cd intoxication can cause behavioral abnormalities, biochemical and histopathological disturbances in treated mice. Parsley juice has significantly improved the Cd-associated behavioral changes, reduced the elevation of lipid peroxidation and normalized the Cd effect on reduced glutathione and peroxidase activities in the brain of treated mice. Histological data have supported these foundations whereas Cd treatment has induced neuronal degeneration, chromatolysis and pyknosis in the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata.

Conclusion: The low dose (5 g/kg/day) of parsley exhibited beneficial effects in reducing the deleterious changes associated with Cd treatment on the behavior, neurotransmitters level, oxidative stress and brain neurons of the Cd-treated mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12993-016-0090-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4743362PMC
February 2016

Infection of Female BWF1 Lupus Mice with Malaria Parasite Attenuates B Cell Autoreactivity by Modulating the CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis and Its Downstream Signals PI3K/AKT, NFκB and ERK.

PLoS One 2015 24;10(4):e0125340. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Food Science and Nutrition Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal autoreactivity in B cells. Lymphocytes and their soluble mediators contribute to the disease pathogenesis. We recently demonstrated that infecting lupus mice with malaria confers protection against lupus nephritis by attenuating oxidative stress in both liver and kidney tissues. In the current study, we further investigated B cell autoreactivity in female BWF1 lupus mice after infection with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria, using ELISA, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The lupus mice exhibited a significant elevation in plasma levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, BAFF and APRIL and a marked elevation of IgG2a, IgG3 and ant-dsDNA autoantibodies compared with normal healthy mice. Infecting lupus mice with live but not gamma-irradiated malaria parasite partially and significantly restored the levels of the soluble mediators that contribute to the progression of lupus. Furthermore, the B cells of lupus mice exhibited an increased proliferative capacity; aberrant overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4; and a marked elevation in responsiveness to their cognate ligand (CXCL12) via aberrant activation of the PI3K/AKT, NFκB and ERK signaling pathways. Interestingly, infecting lupus mice with live but not gamma-irradiated malaria parasite restored a normal proliferative capacity, surface expression of CXCR4 and B cell response to CXCL-12. Taken together, our data present interesting findings that clarify, for the first time, the molecular mechanisms of how infection of lupus mice with malaria parasite controls B cell autoreactivity and thus confers protection against lupus severity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0125340PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409368PMC
April 2016

Malarial infection of female BWF1 lupus mice alters the redox state in kidney and liver tissues and confers protection against lupus nephritis.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013 10;2013:156562. Epub 2013 Nov 10.

Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by an imbalanced redox state and increased apoptosis. Tropical infections, particularly malaria, may confer protection against SLE. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of SLE. We have measured changes in the levels of nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in both kidney and liver tissues of female BWF1 lupus mice, an experimental model of SLE, after infection with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. We observed a decrease in NO, H2O2, and MDA levels in kidney tissues after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. Similarly, the levels of NO and H2O2 were significantly decreased in the liver tissues of lupus mice after infection with live malaria. Conversely, GSH levels were obviously increased in both kidney and liver tissues after infection of lupus mice with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. Liver and kidney functions were significantly altered after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. We further investigated the ultrastructural changes and detected the number of apoptotic cells in kidney and liver tissues in situ by electron microscopy and TUNEL assays. Our data reveal that infection of lupus mice with malaria confers protection against lupus nephritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/156562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3844167PMC
July 2014

Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlie the anti-tumor activities exerted by Walterinnesia aegyptia venom combined with silica nanoparticles against multiple myeloma cancer cell types.

PLoS One 2012 10;7(12):e51661. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

Princess Johara Alibrahim Center for Cancer Research, Prostate Cancer Research Chair, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal disease of plasma cells that remains incurable despite the advent of several novel therapeutics. In this study, we aimed to delineate the impact of snake venom extracted from Walterinnesia aegyptia (WEV) alone or in combination with silica nanoparticles (WEV+NP) on primary MM cells isolated from patients diagnosed with MM as well as on two MM cell lines, U266 and RPMI 8226. The IC(50) values of WEV and WEV+NP that significantly decreased MM cell viability without affecting the viability of normal peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined to be 25 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml, respectively. Although both WEV (25 ng/ml) and WEV+NP (10 ng/ml) decreased the CD54 surface expression without affecting the expression of CXCR4 (CXCL12 receptor) on MM cells, they significantly reduced the ability of CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) to induce actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and the subsequent reduction in chemotaxis. It has been established that the binding of CXCL12 to its receptor CXCR4 activates multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways that regulate MM cell chemotaxis, adhesion, and proliferation. We found that WEV and WEV+NP clearly decreased the CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated activation of AKT, ERK, NFκB and Rho-A using western blot analysis; abrogated the CXCL12-mediated proliferation of MM cells using the CFSE assay; and induced apoptosis in MM cell as determined by PI/annexin V double staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Monitoring the expression of B-cell CCL/Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members and their role in apoptosis induction after treatment with WEV or WEV+NP revealed that the combination of WEV with NP robustly decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic effectors Bcl-2, Bcl(XL) and Mcl-1; conversely increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic effectors Bak, Bax and Bim; and altered the mitochondrial membrane potential in MM cells. Taken together, our data reveal the biological effects of WEV and WEV+NP and the underlying mechanisms against myeloma cancer cells.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051661PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518476PMC
June 2013

Induction of apoptosis and growth arrest in human breast carcinoma cells by a snake (Walterinnesia aegyptia) venom combined with silica nanoparticles: crosstalk between Bcl2 and caspase 3.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2012 30;30(3):653-65. Epub 2012 Jul 30.

Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

We recently demonstrated that the snake venom extracted from Walterinnesia aegyptia (WEV) either alone or combined with silica nanoparticles (WEV+NP) enhanced the proliferation of mice immune cells and simultaneously decreased the proliferation of human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-231). However, the molecular mechanism of how this venom induced growth arrest of breast cancer cells has not been studied. In this context, we extended our study to evaluate the anti-tumor potential of WEV and WEV+NP on the human breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, as well as their effects on non-tumorigenic normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10). The IC(50 )values of WEV alone and WEV+NP in these cell lines were determined to be 50 ng/ml and 20 ng/ml, respectively. Interestingly, at these concentrations, the venom did not affect the viability of normal MCF-10 cells and treatment of all these cell lines with NP alone did not affect their viability. Using annexin-V binding assay followed by flow cytometry analysis, we found that combination of WEV with NP strongly induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells without significant effect on normal MCF-10 cells. Furthermore, we found that WEV+NP decreased the expression of Bcl2 and enhanced the activation of caspase 3 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Most importantly, WEV+NP-treated breast cancer cells, but not normal MCF-10 cells, exhibited a significant (P<0.05) reduction in actin polymerization and cytoskeletal rearrangement in response to CXCL12. Our data reveal biological effects of WEV or WEV+NP and the underlying mechanisms to fight breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000341446DOI Listing
December 2012

Gene expression in rabbit appendices infected with Eimeria coecicola.

Vet Parasitol 2012 May 12;186(3-4):222-8. Epub 2011 Nov 12.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Eimeria coecicola causes intestinal coccidiosis in rabbits and, thereby, enormous economic losses in rabbit farms. Here, we investigate the final target site of E. coecicola, the appendix of rabbits, at the level of gene expression. Rabbits, orally infected with E. coecicola, begin to shed parasitic oocysts with their feces on day 5 p.i., and approximately 1.1 million oocysts are maximally shedded on day 7 p.i. At maximal shedding, the appendix has increased in size by about 2-3-folds and reveals increased hemorrhage which is associated with increases in nitrite/nitrate, malondialdehyde and catalase activity and a decrease in glutathione. Agilent 2-color oligo whole rabbit genome microarray, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, detects 45 and 36 genes whose expression is more than 2-fold up- and down-regulated, respectively, by E. coecicola infection on day 7 p.i. The most dramatic increase by approximately 50-fold reveals the mRNA of the pro- and anti-inflammatory pleiotropic cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6), whereas the largest decrease by approximately 13-fold is detected for mRNAs encoding for DBP, SULT3A1, CRP and glutathione-S transferase. Also, there are up- and down-regulations in the expression of genes encoding diverse regions of antibodies. Our data suggest that IL-6 plays a central role in the infection of the appendix of rabbits by E. coecicola, presumably involved in both pathological injuries, host defences and healing processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.11.031DOI Listing
May 2012
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