Publications by authors named "Morteza Abdollahi"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A comparison of diet quality indices in a nationally representative cross-sectional study of Iranian households.

Nutr J 2020 12 5;19(1):132. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, 3220, Australia.

Background: Iranian diet quality has been evaluated using indices that have not been created based on Iranian dietary guidelines. This study aimed to examine the applicability of two diet quality indices by examining their associations with nutrient adequacy, nutrient intakes and sociodemographics.

Methods: Dietary data were collected using three 24-h dietary recalls from Iranian households. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization 2002 (WHO/FAO) cut points. Household diet quality was calculated using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Sociodemographics of the household members were assessed. Regression analyses were used to examine associations between diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and between sociodemographics and diet quality.

Results: A total of 6935 households were included in the analysis. Higher household diet quality was associated with adequate intake of calcium (HEI: OR 1.11, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.13; DQI-I: OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.16), vitamin C (HEI: OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.20; DQI-I: OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.12) and protein (HEI: OR 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.02; DQI-I: OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.09). Higher household diet quality was associated with household heads who were older (> 56 years old) (HEI: β 2.06, 95% CI: 1.63, 2.50; DQI-I β 2.90, 95% CI: 2.34, 3.45), higher educated (college/university completed) (HEI: β 4.54, 95% CI: 4.02, 5.06; DQI-I: β 2.11, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.77) and living in urban areas (HEI: β 2.85, 95% CI: 2.54, 3.16; DQI-I: β 0.72, 95% CI: 0.32, 1.12).

Conclusions: Based on associations with nutrient adequacy and sociodemographics, the applicability of two diet quality indices for assessing the diet quality of Iranian households was demonstrated. Results also indicated DQI-I may be more applicable than HEI for evaluating Iranian nutrient adequacy. Findings have implications for the design and assessment of diet quality in Iranian populations. Future research should examine the link between these diet quality indices and health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00646-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719237PMC
December 2020

A process mineralogy approach to study the efficiency of milling of molybdenite circuit processing.

Sci Rep 2020 Dec 3;10(1):21211. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

This study is conducted with the aim of investigating the efficiency of open and closed-circuit molybdenite ore comminution processes (primary and secondary mill, respectively), through mineralogical study of mills feed and product. For this purpose, particle size distribution, minerals distribution, degree of liberation and interlocking of minerals in mills feed and product were studied. According to the results, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrite and covellite constitute the major part of the mineral composition of open-circuit mill feed. Minerals at the mill product, in the order of abundance include liberated molybdenite particles, liberated chalcopyrite and interlocked chalcopyrite with pyrite, liberated and interlocked pyrite particles, and associated silicate gangues. The d values of the feed and product particles of the open-circuit mill are equal to 13.80 and 13.40 microns, respectively. Degree of liberation of molybdenite for the feed and product of this mill is almost the same and is equal to 98.0%. Closed-circuit mill feed includes, in order of is abundance, liberated molybdenite particles in the form of blades and irregular polygonal shapes, liberated and interlocked chalcopyrite, and liberated and interlocked pyrite particles with gangue minerals. Molybdenite particles in the mill product are almost completely liberated, and the degree of liberation values of chalcopyrite and pyrite are 84.40% and 91.40%, respectively. According to particles size distribution of the feed (d equal to 25.03 microns) and the product (d equal to 24.24 microns) of closed-circuit mill, it can be stated that comminution is not well-operated in closed-circuit mill due to the low solid percentage of closed-circuit mill feed and the inefficiency of hydrocyclone. Examination of Mo, Cu, and Fe grade variations for 10 days in both off and on modes of mill shows that closed-circuit mill does not have an impact on comminution process. It can even be concluded that the mill has a destructive effect the flotation process by producing slimes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78337-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713122PMC
December 2020

Low food and nutrition literacy (FNLIT): a barrier to dietary diversity and nutrient adequacy in school age children.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Jun 12;13(1):286. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Nutrition Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (WHO Collaborating Center) and Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: This study aims to assess the relationship between Food and Nutrition Literacy (FNLIT) and dietary diversity score (DDS); FNLIT and nutrient adequacy (NAR%, MAR%) in school-age children in Iran.

Results: This cross-sectional study was undertaken on 803 primary school students in Tehran, Iran. Socio-economic, as well as three 24-h dietary recalls were collected through interviewing students and their mothers/caregivers. FNLIT was measured by a self-administered locally designed and validated questionnaire. Low level of FFNL was significantly associated with higher odds of low DDS (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.32-3.62), the first tertile of fruit diversity score (OR = 3.88, 95% CI 2.14-6.99), and the first tertile of dairy diversity score (OR = 9.60, 95% CI 2.07-44.58). Low level of IFNL was significantly associated with probability of lower meat diversity score (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.07-2.81). Low level of FLL was also significantly associated with probability of lower DDS (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.11-2.94), dairy diversity score (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.02-3.98), and meat diversity score (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.32-3.45).Low FNLIT and its subscales were associated with higher odds of low level of NAR of protein, calcium, vitamin B3, B6, B9, as well as the probability of lower level of MAR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05123-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291429PMC
June 2020

Isolation and removal of cyanide from tailing dams in gold processing plant using natural bitumen.

J Environ Manage 2020 May 21;262:110286. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Gilsonite as a natural occurrence of bitumen and due to the presence of carbon in its structure is a suitable adsorbent for a wide variety of pollutants. In this research, the adsorption of cyanide from the wastewater of gold processing plants using gilsonite were investigated. In this way, the effect of particle size of gilsonite, the weight and mixing time with solution, on the amount of cyanide adsorption have been studied. In addition, in one experiment, the effect of processed gilsonite on its adsorption ability was investigated. Based on the obtained results, the maximum adsorption of 61.64% was obtained in the size range of -1+0.5 and -2+1 mm of gilsonite. With increasing adsorbent weight and mixing time, the cyanide adsorption rate were increased. On the other hand, with the processing of the gilsonite sample, the amounts of adsorption were increased considerably. This study indicated that gilsonite can be used as an isolation and absorbent in the structure and floor of the tailing dumps of mineral processing plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110286DOI Listing
May 2020

Zinc supplementation is an effective and feasible strategy to prevent growth retardation in 6 to 24 month children: A pragmatic double blind, randomized trial.

Heliyon 2019 Nov 1;5(11):e02581. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Nutrition Department, Undersecretary of Public Health Ministry of Health & Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is naturally available in most foods. Deficiency of this micronutrient in particular can cause a number of health complications. Zinc deficiency during infancy is more troublesome as rapid growth and nutrient relied development takes place in this period. Most severe outcomes of zinc deficiency during infancy are considered to be, impaired immunity, growth retardation and impaired neurodevelopment. The aim of this pragmatic study is to determine whether zinc supplementation strategy is feasible and effective for reducing growth retardation at national level.

Methods: A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel group effectiveness trial that evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation in infant development. Children aged 6-24 months were recruited from healthcare centers of Damavand, Pishva and Varamin in the beginning of the study (n = 682). The Subjects were then randomly allocated in two groups of intervention (n = 272), and control (n = 308), where a daily dose of zinc sulfate (5ml) suspension containing 5mg elemental zinc and placebo were administered for the period of 6 month. Investigators, care givers and the parents of the children were blinded to the nature of the intervention. Anthropometric measures were evaluated at the beginning and after the six month intervention period. The primary outcome measured was linear growth and length difference, serum zinc and ferritin concentrations were the secondary outcomes.

Findings: Following the intervention, compared with the placebo, zinc supplementation was associated with significant difference in the average length increment (primary outcome) (placebo 523 ± 219 vs. intervention 579 ± 218 cm, p = 002). No significant difference was observed in concentrations of serum zinc and ferritin. After the intervention the prevalence of zinc deficiency was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the placebo group. No complications and adverse effects were reported and the compliance was very good (7 children out of 344 didn't comply with the intake of syrup).

Interpretation: Zinc supplementation for six month among children (6-24 months) had beneficial outcomes on growth and average length increment, therefore we propose it is a feasible strategy for preventing growth retardation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6839004PMC
November 2019

The Association between Household Socioeconomic Status, Breastfeeding, and Infants' Anthropometric Indices.

Int J Prev Med 2018 12;9:89. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The growth, learning, and contribution to active life in the communities are better in well-nourished children, and various factors influence infants' feeding. In this study, we assessed whether household socioeconomic status (SES) affects infants' length-for-age, weight-for-age (indicators of health and nutritional status) and breastfeeding (BF) (a necessity for optimal growth and health) status.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 150 households with infants of 1-1.5 years old were interviewed on these variables: family size, dwelling ownership, duration of BF, exclusive BF (EBF) for 6 months, parents' age, parents' ethnicity, birth order, delivery type, and parents' education. Weight and length at 4 and 12 months were obtained from centers' records. To determine SES, we assessed total years of parents' education and household asset ownership by an index of nine owned assets.

Results: The average of 4-month length in the low SES group was significantly lower than the two others ( < 0.05). In middle socioeconomic group, duration of BF was significantly higher (19.5 ± 7.3 months vs. 18.0 ± 8.0 months in low and 17.5 ± 7.9 months in high SES groups) ( < 0.05). Comparing illiterate mothers, university degree holders and university students were 73% less likely to not having EBF. Moreover, those with middle SES showed to be about 40% less likely to not having EBF.

Conclusions: Nutritional status, duration of BF, and EBF might be determined by household SES and maternal education. Therefore, these findings can be used to decide how to focus on appropriate target groups in family education planning to improve children's development to its most possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_52_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202780PMC
October 2018

Food and nutrition literacy (FNLIT) and its predictors in primary schoolchildren in Iran.

Health Promot Int 2019 Oct;34(5):1002-1013

Sax Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

This study used a locally designed and validated questionnaire to describe the distribution of food and nutrition literacy (FNLIT) in a cross-sectional sample of 803 students aged 10-12 years from elementary schools in Tehran city, Iran. Logistic regression was used to assess the extent to which various independent covariates were associated with low FNLIT. The data were used to identify significant differences using a range of social and cultural variables relevant to the context of school students in Iran. The results of the study showed that although the total FNLIT level was good, this headline finding masked important differences in the sub-domains. More than half of the children (69%) had high levels of FNLIT in the cognitive domain, but in the skills domain, very few (3%) scored highly. The study also identified some associations between the total FNLIT and its subscales and sociodemographic variables including gender, parent's education and age, birth order. These results highlighted groups within the school population who were at higher risk of having lower FNLIT levels. They also indicate that girls feel more able to exert choice and control over food and nutrition decisions than boys are but may be less able to do so in practice. Overall, these results are a general reminder to schools of the different learning needs of children from different family backgrounds. The article highlights the need for continuous improvement in the health education curriculum of schools in Iran, particularly highlighting the importance of giving greater attention to the development of practical food and nutrition skills alongside more traditional food and nutrition knowledge. Additional studies (with long-term follow-up) are needed to more fully assess and understand the predictors of FNLIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/day050DOI Listing
October 2019

Risk Factors for Hydatidiform Mole: Is Husband’s Job a Major Risk Factor?

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 10 26;18(10):2657-2662. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Centre (IRHRC) , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran .

Background: The hydatidiform mole (HM) is a precancerous placenta considered as a gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). It may convert to more invasive forms of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), endangering women’s health by more severe complications. Most GTN cases originate from HM, which is associated with uterine bleeding, preeclampsia and thyroid problems. Its etiology has not been adequately explored, but some risk factors have been reported. The aim of the present study was to assess any relationships between molar pregnancy and factors including mothers’ and husbands’ occupations. Methods: In this case control study, seventy complete molar pregnancies (cases) were compared with 200 normal pregnancies (controls) in 5 educational hospitals affiliated to medical universities in Tehran, Iran. Data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression modeling. Results: There was no significant relationship between the risk of molar pregnancy and age, education, blood RH, parity, duration of OCP use, intra-uterine device usage, smoking, consanguinity of woman and husband, ethnicity, history of infertility, history of moles in the family, and dwelling ownership. The two groups were statistically different regarding husbands’ jobs, history of abortion, use OCP, and ABO blood group. The odds ratio with a husband’s physical job having exposure to dust and soil was 18.2 (CI: 8.26-43.03, PV˂0.001). Logistic regression analysis only showed husband’s job and husband’s physical job exposure to dust and soil as predictors. Conclusion: Husband’s jobs and especially exposure to dust and soil could be a major risk factor for molar pregnancy. More studies on the epidemiology, occupational health, microbiology and genetics are warranted to shed more light on this abnormal pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.10.2657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5747385PMC
October 2017

Pattern of prenatal care utilization in Tehran: A population based longitudinal study.

Women Birth 2018 Jun 28;31(3):e147-e151. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: To assess the pattern of prenatal care utilization in Tehran in 2015.

Methods: A total of 2005 pregnant women who lived in the catchment area of the study participated. Participants were followed from the sixth week of pregnancy until birth. Data were collected either through interviews or from written medical records.

Findings: More than 95% of mothers completed all eight prenatal care visits. Some 99% of mothers completed at least four visits. The prenatal care utilization was equal among all different socio-economic regions in Tehran. Gynecologists were the main healthcare providers in prenatal care visits. In addition, 75% of mothers went to gynecologists at their office or in hospitals for ordering first-trimester screening tests.

Conclusions: Prenatal care utilization complied with both national guidelines and recommendations of World Health Organization regarding the number of conducted visits. Equal accessibility and availability of prenatal care service despite the socio-economical differences of families is suggestive of equity and social justice in terms of providing health services in both public and private sectors. Among healthcare providers, gynecologists were the main healthcare provider for prenatal care visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2017.09.013DOI Listing
June 2018

Developing and validating a scale to measure Food and Nutrition Literacy (FNLIT) in elementary school children in Iran.

PLoS One 2017 27;12(6):e0179196. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Department of Community Nutrition, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute; and Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Food and nutrition literacy is an emerging term which is increasingly used in policy and research. Though research in this area is growing, progression is limited by the lack of an accepted method to measure food and nutrition literacy. The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess food and nutrition literacy in elementary school children in the city of Tehran.

Methods: The study was conducted in three phases. To develop Food and Nutrition Literacy (FNLIT) questionnaire, a comprehensive literature review and a qualitative study were initially performed to identify food and nutrition literacy dimensions and its components. Content and face validity of the questionnaire were evaluated by an expert panel as well as students. In the second phase, construct validity of the scale was evaluated using Explanatory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA). In the last phase (confirmatory phase), the final version of the questionnaire was evaluated on 400 students.

Results: Findings show Content Validity Ratio (CVR) and Content Validity Index (CVI) of the 62-item questionnaire at acceptable levels of 0.87 and 0.92, respectively. EFA suggested a six-factor construct, namely, understanding food and nutrition information, knowledge, functional, interactive, food choice, and critical. The results of CFA indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed models. All subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha≥0.70), except for critical skill subscale (0.48). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.90, CI: 0.83-0.94) indicated that Food and Nutrition Literacy (FNLIT) scale had satisfactory stability. Each phase of development progressively improved the questionnaire, which resulted in a 46-item (42 likert-type items and 4 true-false items) Food and Nutrition Literacy (FNLIT) scale. The questionnaire measured two domains with 6 subscales, including: 1) cognitive domain: understanding and knowledge; 2) skill domain: functional, food choice, interactive, and critical skills.

Conclusion: The developed food and nutrition literacy scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure food and nutrition literacy in children. This measure lays a solid empirical and theoretical foundation for future research and tailored interventions to promote food and nutrition literacy in this age group.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179196PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5487019PMC
September 2017

Vitamin D Status and Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Women: A Case-Control Study.

J Am Coll Nutr 2016 Sep-Oct;35(7):639-646. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

b Cancer Research Center , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IRAN.

Objective: Considering the rising incidence of breast cancer and high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Iran, this case-control study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum concentration and intake of vitamin D and risk of breast cancer.

Methods: A total of 135 incident breast cancer cases at the Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were matched with 135 controls by age and menopausal status. A validated and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by participant interviews. To determine the vitamin D content of foods we used the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient database. To analyze the food frequency questionnaires we used the data collected in the Iranian Household Food Pattern Study, conducted by the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute and the Iranian Ministry of Agriculture. Five-milliliter blood samples were collected to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.

Results: Women in the fourth quartile of serum 25(OH)D level had 3 times lower risk of developing breast cancer compared to those in the first quartile. In the adjusted model the inverse relationship remained significant (odds ratio [OR] = 0.269; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.122-0.593). In the stratified model by menopausal status the inverse association was only seen in premenopausal women (OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.094-0.687). Dietary intake of vitamin D was inversely associated with risk of breast cancer (OR fourth quartile [Q4] vs first quartile [Q1] = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.196-0.784; p = 0.008). After adjusting for the confounding factors, this inverse association remained significant.

Conclusion: Results from this case-control study support the protective effect of higher serum concentration of 25(OH)D against breast cancer. Moreover, dietary but not total intake of vitamin D was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2015.1127786DOI Listing
March 2017

A comparison of food pattern, macro- and some micronutrients density of the diet across different socio-economic zones of Tehran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2016 7;30:340. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Food and Nutrition Policy and Planning Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The consumption of low quality foods is common in low socioeconomic areas; and according to epidemiological studies, the density of nutrients often proves the quality of diet. This study aimed to compare the density of macronutrients and micronutrients in various parts of Tehran.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed from September to December 2007 in all the 22 districts of the municipality of Tehran including 1,807 households. Experienced interviewers completed a 24-hour recall questionnaire. To estimate the nutrient densities, nutrient intake (grams or milligrams) was calculated per 1,000 kcal energy intake. To calculate the density of energy intake, energy intake (kcal) was divided by 100 g of foodstuff. The 22 districts of Tehran were divided into five zones of north, center, east, west and south. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used.

Results: The highest density of protein and fat intake was observed in the north of Tehran, while carbohydrate density was highest in the west, east and south zones, and energy density was highest in the south zone (p<0.05). Calcium and vitamin C had the highest density in the north of Tehran, and vitamin A and riboflavin had the highest density in the north and center of Tehran, and the lowest level in the south of Tehran (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Despite the high density of energy in the south of Tehran, a deficiency of micronutrient intake was obvious, reflecting the importance of the impact of socioeconomic factors.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4898859PMC
July 2016

Total fluid intake of children and adolescents: cross-sectional surveys in 13 countries worldwide.

Eur J Nutr 2015 Jun 18;54 Suppl 2:57-67. Epub 2015 Jun 18.

GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

Purpose: To describe total fluid intake (TFI) according to socio-demographic characteristics in children and adolescents worldwide.

Methods: Data of 3611 children (4-9 years) and 8109 adolescents (10-18 years) were retrieved from 13 cross-sectional surveys (47 % males). In three countries, school classes were randomly recruited with stratified cluster sampling design. In the other countries, participants were randomly recruited based on a quota method. TFI (drinking water and beverages of all kinds) was obtained with a fluid-specific record over 7 consecutive days. Adequacy was assessed by comparing TFI to 80 % of adequate intake (AI) for total water intake set by European Food Safety Authority. Data on height, weight and socio-economic level were collected in most countries.

Results: The mean (SD) TFI ranged from [1.32 (0.68)] to [1.35 (0.71)] L/day. Non-adherence to AIs for fluids ranged from 10 % (Uruguay) to >90 % (Belgium). Females were more likely to meet the AIs for fluids than males (4-9 years: 28 %, OR 0.72, p = 0.002; 10-18 years: 20 %, OR 0.80, p = 0.001), while adolescents were less likely to meet the AI than children (OR 1.645, p < 0.001 in males and OR 1.625, p < 0.001 in females).

Conclusions: A high proportion of children and adolescents are at risk of an inadequate fluid intake. This risk is especially high in males and adolescents when compared with females or children categories. This highlights water intake among young populations as an issue of global concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0946-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4473088PMC
June 2015

The impact of dietary habits and metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular and diabetes mortality in countries of the Middle East and North Africa in 2010: a comparative risk assessment analysis.

BMJ Open 2015 May 20;5(5):e006385. Epub 2015 May 20.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objective/design: We conducted a comparative risk assessment analysis to estimate the cardiometabolic disease (CMD) mortality attributable to 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors in 20 countries of the Middle East by age, sex and time. The national exposure distributions were obtained from a systematic search of multiple databases. Missing exposure data were estimated using a multilevel Bayesian hierarchical model. The aetiological effect of each risk factor on disease-specific mortality was obtained from clinical trials and observational studies. The number of disease-specific deaths was obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease mortality database. Mortality due to each risk factor was determined using the population attributable fraction and total number of disease-specific deaths.

Setting/population: Adult population in the Middle East by age, sex, country and time.

Results: Suboptimal diet was the leading risk factor for CMD mortality in 11 countries accounting for 48% (in Morocco) to 72% (in the United Arab Emirates) of CMD deaths. Non-optimal systolic blood pressure was the leading risk factor for CMD deaths in eight countries causing 45% (in Bahrain) to 68% (in Libya) of CMD deaths. Non-optimal body mass index and fasting plasma glucose were the third and fourth leading risk factors for CMD mortality in most countries. Among individual dietary factors, low intake of fruits accounted for 8% (in Jordan) to 21% (in Palestine) of CMD deaths and low intake of whole grains was responsible for 7% (in Palestine) to 22% (in the United Arab Emirates) of CMD deaths. Between 1990 and 2010, the CMD mortality attributable to most risk factors had decreased except for body mass index and trans-fatty acids.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight key similarities and differences in the impact of the dietary and metabolic risk factors on CMD mortality in the countries of the Middle East and inform priorities for policy measures to prevent CMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4442236PMC
May 2015

High occurrence of food insecurity among urban Afghan refugees in Pakdasht, Iran 2008: a cross-sectional study.

Ecol Food Nutr 2015 9;54(3):187-99. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

a Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

This research aimed to evaluate food security and its association with anthropometric measures among Afghan refugees living in Pakdasht, one of the main harbors of Afghan refugees in the neighborhood of Tehran. A total of 414 registered Afghan refugee households were recruited in a cross-sectional study. About 88% of households were food insecure. Unemployment and socioeconomic status were the major determinants of food insecurity among the refugee households. While about 58% of women were overweight/obese, the prevalence of underweight and wasting were remarkable in children (11.0% and 12.7%, respectively), indicating a recent malnutrition. Government and organizations working for refugees must focus their activities on empowering Afghan refugees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2013.834819DOI Listing
December 2015

Nutritional assessment for primary school children in tehran: an evaluation of dietary pattern with emphasis on snacks and meals consumption.

Int J Prev Med 2014 May;5(5):611-6

Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetic, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran.

Methods: A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported.

Results: All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often.

Conclusions: Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050682PMC
May 2014

Oral Zinc Supplementation Positively Affects Linear Growth, But not Weight, in Children 6-24 Months of Age.

Int J Prev Med 2014 Mar;5(3):280-6

Department of Nutrition Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Childhood zinc deficiency is a common problem in many developing countries where people rely mainly on plant based diets with low zinc contents. Zinc supplementation is one of strategies to combat zinc deficiency and its consequences in children. The aim of this community trial was to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on the linear growth of children 6-24 months of age and to examine the feasibility of its implementation in the context of primary health care (PHC).

Methods: Rural community health centers providing maternal and child care in two areas with moderate rates of malnutrition were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups, including 393 and 445 children 6-24 months of age, respectively. Children in both groups received routine iron and multivitamin or vitamin A and D supplements through PHC services. Mothers of children in the intervention group were asked to give a single dose of 5 ml/day zinc sulfate syrup (containing 5 mg elemental zinc) to their children for 3 months while children in the control group did not receive the supplement.

Results: Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and on a monthly basis in both groups. We found a 0.5 cm difference in the height increment in the intervention group as compared with the control (P < 0.001). Zinc supplementation had no effect on weight increment of children.

Conclusions: Oral zinc supplementation was found to be both practical and effective in increasing linear growth rate of children less than 2 years of age through PHC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4018636PMC
March 2014

Is household food insecurity associated with overweight/obesity in women?

Iran J Public Health 2013 1;42(4):380-90. Epub 2013 Apr 1.

Dept. of Community Nutrition, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Despite reports on association between overweight/obesity among women and household food insecurity (FI) in developed countries, such association is not evident in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the association between household FI and weight status in adult females in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 418 households were selected through systematic cluster sampling from 6 districts of Tehran. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Socio-economic status of the household was assessed by a questionnaire. Three consecutive 24-hour diet recalls were completed. FI was measured using adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Logistic regression was used to test the effects of SES and food security on weight status, simultaneously. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) potential causal relationships between FI and weight status was explored.

Results: Only 1.0% of women were underweight, while 40.3% were overweight and 33% were obese, respectively. Severe, moderate, and mild food insecurity was observed in 11.5, 14.7, and 17.8%, respectively. Among women in moderately food insecure households, the possibility of overweight was lower than those of food secure households (OR 0.41; CI95%:0.17-0.99), while in severely food insecure households, the risk of abdominal obesity for women was 2.82 times higher than food secures (CI95%:1.12-7.08) (P<0.05). SEM detected no causal relationship between FI and weight status.

Conclusion: Association of severe food insecurity with abdominal obesity in adult females of households may indicate their vulnerability and the need for tailoring programs to prevent further health problems in this group.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684724PMC
June 2013

Correlation of cancer incidence with diet, smoking and socio- economic position across 22 districts of Tehran in 2008.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013 ;14(3):1669-76

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Variation in cancer incidence in geographical locations is due to different lifestyles and risk factors. Diet and socio-economic position (SEP) have been identified as important for the etiology of cancer but patterns are changing and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations of the incidence of common cancers with food groups, total energy, smoking, and SEP.

Materials And Methods: In an ecological study, disaggregated cancer data through the National Cancer Registry in Iran (2008) and dietary intake, smoking habits and SEP obtained through a population based survey within the Urban Health Equity Assessment (Urban-HEART) project were correlated across 22 districts of Tehran.

Results: Consumption of fruit, meat and dairy products adjusted for energy were positively correlated with bladder, colorectal, prostate and breast and total cancers in men and women, while these cancers were adversely correlated with bread and fat intake. Also prostate, breast, colorectal, bladder and ovarian cancers had a positive correlation with SEP; there was no correlation between SEP and skin cancer in both genders and stomach cancer in men.

Conclusions: The incidence of cancer was higher in some regions of Tehran which appeared to be mainly determined by SEP rather than dietary intake. Further individual data are required to investigate reasons of cancer clustering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.3.1669DOI Listing
January 2014

Parental determinants of overweight and obesity in Iranian adolescents: a national study.

Iran J Pediatr 2012 Mar;22(1):35-42

Nutrition Research Department, Research Institute and Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.

Objective: Overweight among adolescents is not only an important public health problem but also a problem affecting economic growth in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the parental determinants of overweight and obesity in Iranian adolescents at national level.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the Comprehensive Study on Household Food Consumption Patterns and Nutritional Status of IR Iran during 2001-2003. In adolescents, anthropometric indices were defined based on the CDC 2000 cut-off points for age and gender-specific body mass index (BMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaire. Among the 7158 participating households, data on 7908 adolescents aged 11-19 years (3750 girls and 4158 boys) was analyzed.

Findings: The prevalence of overweight (85-94th percentile) in boys and girls was 6.2%, and 8.7%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity (≥95th percentile) among boys and girls was similar (3.3%). Parents' weight status, father's job and parents' education showed significant association with weight status in adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that parental overweight and obesity, parental education and father's job were the main parental determinants of overweight and obesity in Iranian adolescents.

Conclusion: Parental overweight and obesity, parental education and father's job seem to be the major parental determinants of overweight in Iranian adolescents. Future prevention programs must take these risk factors into account.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3448213PMC
March 2012

Validity of an adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale in urban households in Iran.

Public Health Nutr 2012 Jan 2;15(1):149-57. Epub 2011 Aug 2.

Department of Community Nutrition, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 19395-4741, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To assess the validity of a locally adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) in the measurement of household food insecurity (FI) in the city of Tehran.

Design: A cross-sectional study.

Setting: Urban households were selected through a systematic cluster sampling method from six different districts of Tehran. The socio-economic status of households was evaluated using a questionnaire by means of interviews. An adapted HFIAS was used to measure FI. Content validity was assessed by an expert panel, and the questionnaire was then tested among ten households for clarity. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the measure with a number of determinants and consequences of FI. Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's α and exploratory factor analysis. For repeatability, the questionnaire was administered twice to twenty-five households at an interval of 20 d and Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated.

Subjects: A total of 416 households.

Results: In all, 11·8 %, 14·4 % and 17·5 % of the households were severely, moderately and mildly food insecure, respectively. Cronbach's α was 0·855. A significant correlation was observed between the two administrations of the questionnaire (r = 0·895, P < 0·001). Factor analysis of HFIAS items revealed two factors: the first five items as factor 1 (mild-to-moderate FI) and the last four as factor 2 (severe FI). Heads of food-secure households had higher education and higher job position compared with heads of food-insecure households (P < 0·001). Income and expenditure were lower in food-insecure households compared with food-secure households.

Conclusions: Adapted HFIAS showed acceptable levels of internal consistency, criterion validity and reliability in assessing household FI among Tehranians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011001376DOI Listing
January 2012

Trauma care system in Iran.

Chin J Traumatol 2011 Jun;14(3):131-6

Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: The high burden of injuries in Iran necessitates the establishment of a comprehensive trauma care system. The purpose of this paper is to describe the current status of trauma system regarding the components and function.

Methods: The current status of trauma system in all components of a trauma system was described through expert panels and semi-structured interviews with trauma specialists and policy makers.

Results: Currently, various organizations are involved in prevention, management and rehabilitation of injuries, but an integrative system approach to trauma is rather deficient. There has been ongoing progress in areas of public education through media, traffic regulation reinforcement, hospital care and prehospital services. Meanwhile, there are gaps regarding financing, legislations and education of high risk groups. The issues on education and training standards of the front line medical team and continuing education and evaluation are yet to be addressed. Trauma registry has been piloted in some provinces, but as it needs the well-developed infrastructure (regarding staff, maintenance, financial resources), it is not yet established in our system of trauma care.

Conclusions: It seems that one of the problems with trauma care in Iran is lack of coordination among trauma system organizations. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in our country in the recent decade, decreasing the burden of injuries necessitates an organized approach to prevention and management of trauma in the context of a trauma system.
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June 2011

Evaluating the prognostic factors effective on the outcome of patients with glioblastoma multiformis: does maximal resection of the tumor lengthen the median survival?

World Neurosurg 2010 Feb 21;73(2):128-34; discussion e16. Epub 2009 Oct 21.

Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The ETR that should be undertaken in patients with GBM remains controversial. This study aims to reiterate some independent predicting factors and to underscore the role and the ETR in increasing the survival of patients in the situation of developing countries, that is, without preoperative MRI or tractography. The authors submit additional information to be added to the list of CTRs in the management of malignant brain tumors.

Methods: The authors prospectively analyzed a cohort of 35 consecutive patients with histologically proven GBM who underwent tumor resection in surgically amenable areas for the first time at Sina Hospital, Tehran, between 2003 and 2005. Demographic data, volumetric measurements, and other characteristics identified on preoperative and immediate postoperative MR imaging as well as intraoperative and postoperative clinical data were collectively analyzed by SPSS for Windows, version 11.5 (SPSS, Chicago, Ill).

Results: Cox proportional hazards model multivariate analysis identified the following independent predictors of survival: Karnofsky performance scale ≥80 (P = .01), ETR (P = .01), tumor location in functionally silent prefrontal area (P = .002) vs tumor location in corpus callosum (P = .001), postoperative RT (P = .004), and postoperative chemotherapy (P = .001)

Conclusion: Maximal resection of the tumor volume is an independent variable associated with longer survival times in patient with GBM. Gross total resection should be performed whenever possible, although not at the expense of increased morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2009.06.001DOI Listing
February 2010

Epidemiology of outpatient burns in Tehran: an analysis of 4813 cases.

Burns 2010 Feb 8;36(1):109-13. Epub 2009 Oct 8.

Division of Surgery, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aims to demonstrate the epidemiologic characteristics of outpatient burn injuries in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed over a 1-year period in a referral burn centre in Tehran and included all outpatient burns. The required data were recorded by two trained physicians. Of the 4813 studied patients, including 293 infants, 2901 patients (60%) were male (P<0.001). The mean age of the adult patients was 31.3+/-18.3 years, while for infants it was 10.68+/-2.27 months. In all age groups and both genders, scalding was the most common aetiology. Majority of the burns were non-intentional (n=4808) and 70.5% of the injuries occurred at home. Housewives consisted of 24% of the burn patients. With respect to the site of burn, multiple injuries were the most frequent (53%) followed by upper extremities (37%). Most of the burns (96%) were partial thickness. Significant association was present between the aetiology and depth of burn (P<0.001). The mean affected total body surface area (TBSA) was 3.16+/-2.92% and there was significant association between burnt TBSA and the mechanism of injury (P<0.001). In conclusion, it seems that women aged 21-30 years and children younger than 10 years are at greater risk of these injuries and therefore should be the target for preventive strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2009.02.011DOI Listing
February 2010

The efficacy of an herbal medicine, Carmint, on the relief of abdominal pain and bloating in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study.

Dig Dis Sci 2006 Aug 26;51(8):1501-7. Epub 2006 Jul 26.

The Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases (RCGLD), Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Carmint contains total extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha spicata, and Coriandrum sativum, which have antispasmodic, carminative, and sedative effects. As abdominal pain/discomfort and bloating are commonly observed in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, we decided to evaluate the effectiveness of Carmint in relieving these symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients. We randomly assigned 32 irritable bowel syndrome patients to receive either Carmint or placebo, plus Loperamide or psyllium (based on their predominant bowel function), for 8 weeks. T-test analysis of the results showed that the severity and frequency of abdominal pain/discomfort were significantly lower in the Carmint group than the placebo group at the end of the treatment (P=0.016 and P=0.001, respectively), as were the severity and frequency of bloating (P=0.02 and P=0.002, respectively). This pilot study suggests that Carmint plus loperamide or Carmint plus psyllium (depending on the irritable bowel syndrome subtype) might be effective in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-006-9079-3DOI Listing
August 2006

The full moon and admission to emergency rooms.

Indian J Med Sci 2004 May;58(5):191-5

Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Sina Hospital, Tehran, Imam-Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Tehran University and Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate an ancient hypothesis; the moon effect might increase incidence of injuries and hence admission of patients with trauma to Emergency Rooms (ERs) on full moon days.

Methods: During thirteen months, 58000 trauma patients admitted in three hospitals that had the highest load of trauma patients in Tehran were studied. Due to lack of complete data, 3543 patients (6.1%) were excluded from the study, leaving 54457 cases for further analysis. We selected lunar calendar for our study, so dates of patients' admissions were converted to lunar months and three day- periods with 15th as middle day were defined as full moon days.

Results: In our study the number of trauma patients was not increased during the full moon days against other days of lunar month. Statistical analyses of data didn't exhibit a positive relation between full moon days and increasing of trauma patient admission to ERs. An association between assault and attempted suicide was not observed around the full moon days either. The results did not show significant reduction of GCS score of patients on full moon days and there was not any increase in severity of traumatic injury sustained during full moon days.

Conclusions: It seems necessary to conduct studies regarding the probability of moon effect through on different database, geographic areas and for appropriate periods in order to reach a conclusive result.
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May 2004

Fall-related injuries in the elderly in Tehran.

Injury 2003 Nov;34(11):809-14

Sina Trauma Research Center, Sina General Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hasan Abad Square, Tehran 11364, Iran.

During 13 months of data gathering, all injury-related information concerning trauma patients was gathered according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10). The severity of the injury was calculated according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-90) in six major university hospitals in Tehran. Twelve percent of 8000 hospitalised trauma patients were elderly (65 years or older) and 70% of them (675 patients) had suffered from fall-related injuries. Falling on the ground and falling on stairs were the most common kinds of injury (with 462 (68%) and 122 (18%) cases, respectively). In the home and on the street were the most common sites of fall occurrence (with 520 cases (77%) and 91 cases (13.5%), respectively). After adjustment for the gender, kind of fall and Injury Severity Score, it was shown that the elderly were more prone to death than their younger counterparts (odds ratio=5.8, 95% CI for odds ratio: 2.3-7.2), but there was no significant difference in mortality rate between elderly men and women. Further studies are needed to evaluate personal and environmental risk factors for falls in our population. Furthermore, significantly higher mortality rate in our elderly trauma victims necessitates prudent attention to elderly trauma care in our teaching hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0020-1383(02)00376-5DOI Listing
November 2003

Obesity: risk of venous thrombosis and the interaction with coagulation factor levels and oral contraceptive use.

Thromb Haemost 2003 Mar;89(3):493-8

National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common disease with an annual incidence of about 1 in 1000. Many risk factors have already been studied, both genetic and acquired. It is unclear whether obesity affects thrombotic risk in unselected patients. Obesity is common, with a prevalence of 20-25% and may therefore have a considerable impact on the overall incidence of thrombosis. We evaluated the risk of thrombosis due to overweight and obesity using data from a large population based case-control study. Four hundred and fifty-four consecutive patients with a first episode of objectively diagnosed thrombosis from three Anticoagulation Clinics in the Netherlands were enrolled in a case-control study. Controls were matched on age and sex to patients and were introduced by the patients. All patients completed a standard questionnaire and interview, with weight and height measured under standard conditions. The associations of obesity with clotting factor levels were studied to investigate possible mechanisms. Obesity (BMI >/=30 kg/m(2)) increased the risk of thrombosis twofold (CI95: 1.5 to 3.4), adjusted for age and sex. Obese individuals had higher levels of factor VIII and factor IX, but not of fibrinogen. The effect on risk of obesity was not changed after adjustment for coagulation factors levels (fibrinogen, F VIII, F IX, D-dimer). The relative risk estimates were similar in different age groups and in both sexes, indicating a larger absolute effect in older age groups. Evaluation of the combined effect of obesity and oral contraceptive pills among women aged 15-45 revealed that oral contraceptives further increased the effect of obesity on the risk of thrombosis, leading to 10-fold increased risk amongst women with a BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2) who used oral contraceptives. Obesity is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis. Among women with a BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2) the synergistic effect with oral contraceptives should be considered when prescribing these.
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March 2003