Publications by authors named "Morten Stilund"

7 Publications

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Activated monocytes and markers of inflammation in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis.

Immunol Cell Biol 2020 08 5;98(7):549-562. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 165, DK-8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.

In multiple sclerosis (MS), the inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) develop in distinct ways. This makes diagnosing patients difficult, imperative to initiating early and proper treatment. Several common features exist, among them a profound infiltration of monocytes into the CNS mediating demyelination and tissue destruction. In the periphery, monocytes are divided into three subsets depending on expression of CD14 and CD16, representing different stages of activation and differentiation. To investigate their involvement in MS, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 61 patients with incipient, untreated MS and 22 symptomatic control (SC) patients as well as 6 patients with radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) were characterized ex vivo. In addition, paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analyzed with a panel of biomarkers. In PBMC samples, we demonstrate decreased levels of nonclassical monocytes with a concomitant significant decrease of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) H3 envelope epitopes on this monocyte subset compared with SC and RIS. The observed HERV expression is present on nonclassical monocytes irrespective of MS and thus presumably a result of the inflammatory activation. For the other surface markers analyzed, we found significantly decreased expression between classical and nonclassical monocytes. In matched samples of CSF a highly significant increase in levels of soluble markers of activation and inflammation is shown, and notably this is not the case for the serum samples. Of the soluble markers investigated, interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23p40 had the highest discriminatory power in differentiating patients with MS from SC and RIS, almost comparable to the immunoglobulin G index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imcb.12337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496724PMC
August 2020

Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Neurol 2019 Sep;76(9):1035-1048

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.

Importance: Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions compared with healthy controls (HC) and is a candidate biomarker for neuroaxonal damage. The influence of age and sex is largely unknown, and levels across neurological disorders have not been compared systematically to date.

Objectives: To assess the associations of age, sex, and diagnosis with NfL in CSF (cNfL) and to evaluate its potential in discriminating clinically similar conditions.

Data Sources: PubMed was searched for studies published between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016, reporting cNfL levels (using the search terms neurofilament light and cerebrospinal fluid) in neurological or psychiatric conditions and/or in HC.

Study Selection: Studies reporting NfL levels measured in lumbar CSF using a commercially available immunoassay, as well as age and sex.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Individual-level data were requested from study authors. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the fixed effects of age, sex, and diagnosis on log-transformed NfL levels, with cohort of origin modeled as a random intercept.

Main Outcome And Measure: The cNfL levels adjusted for age and sex across diagnoses.

Results: Data were collected for 10 059 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [18.8] years; 54.1% female). Thirty-five diagnoses were identified, including inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (n = 2795), dementias and predementia stages (n = 4284), parkinsonian disorders (n = 984), and HC (n = 1332). The cNfL was elevated compared with HC in a majority of neurological conditions studied. Highest levels were observed in cognitively impaired HIV-positive individuals (iHIV), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Huntington disease. In 33.3% of diagnoses, including HC, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD), cNfL was higher in men than women. The cNfL increased with age in HC and a majority of neurological conditions, although the association was strongest in HC. The cNfL overlapped in most clinically similar diagnoses except for FTD and iHIV, which segregated from other dementias, and PD, which segregated from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.

Conclusions And Relevance: These data support the use of cNfL as a biomarker of neuroaxonal damage and indicate that age-specific and sex-specific (and in some cases disease-specific) reference values may be needed. The cNfL has potential to assist the differentiation of FTD from AD and PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.1534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6580449PMC
September 2019

Cerebrospinal fluid free kappa light chains and kappa index perform equal to oligoclonal bands in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2018 12;57(2):210-220

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background Detection of intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis by gold standard oligoclonal bands (OCB) or IgG index remains an integral part of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnostics, although both methods have weaknesses. Emerging evidence suggests that automated detection of free light chains (FLC) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic performance equal to OCB. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of CSF FLC with OCB and IgG index in a large cohort of Scandinavian patients referred for MS evaluation. Methods We prospectively included 230 patients suspected for MS. They are composed of patients with MS (n=96), clinically isolated syndrome (n=37), other neurological diseases (OND, n=31) and symptomatic controls (SC, n=66). CSF and serum samples were analyzed for kappa and lambda FLC, OCB and IgG index. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Both the absolute concentration of CSF-kappa and the kappa index had excellent MS diagnostic performances with ROC area under the curve of 0.93 and 0.94 (MS vs. SC+OND). At the 0.42 mg/L cutoff, CSF-kappa had sensitivity and specificity of 93.8% and 85.6%, whereas sensitivity and specificity for OCB was 82.3% and 93.8% (72.9% and 95.9% for IgG index at cutoff 0.64). CSF-lambda and lambda index performed inferior to CSF-kappa and kappa index. Conclusions CSF-kappa and kappa index represent automated, rapid and low-cost alternatives to OCB. Using merely the absolute concentration of CSF-kappa is a logistic advantage in the clinical laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2018-0400DOI Listing
December 2018

Subsets of activated monocytes and markers of inflammation in incipient and progressed multiple sclerosis.

Immunol Cell Biol 2018 02 11;96(2):160-174. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Bartholin Building, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 4, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune mediated, inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Substantial evidence points toward monocytes and macrophages playing prominent roles early in disease, mediating both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. Monocytes are subdivided into three subsets depending on the expression of CD14 and CD16, representing different stages of inflammatory activation. To investigate their involvement in MS, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 patients with incipient or progressed MS and 20 healthy controls were characterized ex vivo. In MS samples, we demonstrate a highly significant increase in nonclassical monocytes (CD14+CD16++), with a concomitant significant reduction in classical monocytes (CD14++CD16-) compared with healthy controls. Also, a significant reduction in the surface expression of CD40, CD163, and CD192 was found, attributable to the upregulation of the nonclassical monocytes. In addition, significantly increased levels of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope (Env) epitopes, encoded by both HERV-H/F and HERV-W, were specifically found on nonclassical monocytes from patients with MS; emphasizing their involvement in MS disease. In parallel, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analyzed for soluble biomarkers of inflammation and neurodegeneration. For sCD163 versus CD163, no significant correlations were found, whereas highly significant correlations between levels of soluble neopterine and the intermediate monocyte (CD14++CD16+) population was found, as were correlations between levels of soluble osteopontin and the HERV Env expression on nonclassical monocytes. The results from this study emphasize the relevance of further focus on monocyte subsets, particularly the nonclassical monocytes in monitoring of inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imcb.1025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5836924PMC
February 2018

A multi-biomarker follow-up study of patients with multiple sclerosis.

Brain Behav 2016 09 11;6(9):e00509. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Department of Neurology Aarhus University Hospital Nørrebrogade 44 DK-8000 Aarhus C Denmark.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the levels of the macrophage marker sCD163 and other biomarkers at the time of diagnosis of patients with either clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and assess relation to clinical indicators of prognosis, disease activity (DA), and changes in the levels of these biomarkers at follow-up.

Materials And Methods: The clinical status and MRI were reevaluated in 56 patients more than 1 year after diagnosis with a median follow-up time of 2 years. Levels of biomarkers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results: There was no significant difference in time to DA between patients with CIS and RRMS. A high sCD163 ratio (>0.07) was significantly ( = 0.04) associated with time to DA in the untreated patient group. In 21 patients reevaluated with serum and CSF samples, the sCD163 ratio levels decreased from 0.068 to 0.054 ( = 0.026) in the CIS/RRMS-treated group. The CSF CXCL13, CXCL13 ratio, CSF neurofilament light polypeptide and osteopontin levels also decreased significantly in the CIS/RRMS-treated group.

Conclusions: The levels of all biomarkers changed concurrently with MS treatment. The sCD163 ratio was identified as a potential novel marker for time to DA.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5036432PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.509DOI Listing
September 2016

Biomarkers of inflammation and axonal degeneration/damage in patients with newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis: contributions of the soluble CD163 CSF/serum ratio to a biomarker panel.

PLoS One 2015 10;10(4):e0119681. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Department of Biomedicine, Bartholin Building, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 4, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Background: Expression of soluble CD163 (sCD163), a macrophage/microglia biomarker, is increased in inflammatory conditions, and sCD163 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have recently been shown to be elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS): the sCD163 CSF/serum ratio was elevated in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) compared with symptomatic controls.

Objective: To investigate the contributions of the sCD163 CSF/serum ratio to a biomarker panel focusing on inflammation and axonal degeneration in newly diagnosed MS; thus optimising a diagnostic biomarker panel for MS.

Methods: After a full MS diagnostic work-up, including collection of paired samples of CSF and serum, 125 patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups based on their diagnosis, and patients with normal clinical and paraclinical findings were defined as symptomatic controls. Serum and CSF levels, ratios, and indices of sCD163, CXCL13, osteopontin, neopterin, and CSF levels of neurofilament light polypeptide were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). For sCD163 the results constitute a post-hoc analysis of already published data.

Results: All tested biomarkers, notably the sCD163 ratio, the CXCL13 ratio, the NEO ratio, the CSF level of NfL, the IgG index, and the serum level of OPN, were significantly correlated to RRMS, PPMS, and/or CIS. The individual biomarkers in single tests had a lower performance than the IgG index, however, their combined receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated excellent diagnostic discriminatory power.

Conclusion: The biomarker panel showed distinct profiles for each patient group and could be a valuable tool for clinical differentiation of MS subgroups. The combined ROC analysis showed that sCD163 contributes positively as a diagnostic marker to a panel of established MS biomarkers. Patients with PPMS were demonstrated to have significantly elevated levels of both inflammatory and degenerative markers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0119681PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393241PMC
April 2016

Soluble CD163 as a marker of macrophage activity in newly diagnosed patients with multiple sclerosis.

PLoS One 2014 2;9(6):e98588. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Background: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a macrophage specific protein known to be up-regulated in serum from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: To investigate sCD163 in serum and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) from patients undergoing MS diagnostic work-up and analyse its potential as a diagnostic biomarker.

Methods: After a full MS diagnostic work-up, including collection of paired samples of CSF and serum, 183 patients were evaluated for inclusion in this study. Patients were divided into groups based on their diagnosis. Patients with normal clinical and paraclinical findings were grouped as symptomatic controls. Serum and CSF levels of sCD163 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: sCD163 could be measured in all serum and CSF samples. A high sCD163 CSF/serum ratio in relation to molecular weight was found, strongly indicating local production in the CNS. Median levels of sCD163 were significantly decreased in serum and significantly elevated in CSF in patients with relapsing-remitting, and primary-progressive MS. There were, however, some overlaps of the measures between groups. In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis sCD163 CSF/serum ratio had an area under the curve of 0.72.

Conclusion: The sCD163 CSF/serum ratio was significantly increased in patients with MS and may reflect macrophage activation in MS lesions. These results suggest that primary progressive MS also is driven by inflammation in which the innate immune system plays a pivotal role.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0098588PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4041861PMC
January 2015
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