Publications by authors named "Moriko Ito"

12 Publications

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DOT1L inhibition is lethal for multiple myeloma due to perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

Oncotarget 2020 Mar 17;11(11):956-968. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBR) Oncology, Basel, Switzerland.

The histone 3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase (HMT) DOT1L is known to play a critical role for growth and survival of -rearranged leukemia. Serendipitous observations during high-throughput drug screens indicated that the use of DOT1L inhibitors might be expandable to multiple myeloma (MM). Through pharmacologic and genetic experiments, we could validate that DOT1L is essential for growth and viability of a subset of MM cell lines, in line with a recent report from another team. activity against established MM xenografts was observed with a novel DOT1L inhibitor. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of the dependency in MM, we examined gene expression changes upon DOT1L inhibition in sensitive and insensitive cell lines and discovered that genes belonging to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway and protein synthesis machinery were specifically suppressed in sensitive cells. Whole-genome CRISPR screens in the presence or absence of a DOT1L inhibitor revealed that concomitant targeting of the H3K4me3 methyltransferase SETD1B increases the effect of DOT1L inhibition. Our results provide a strong basis for further investigating DOT1L and SETD1B as targets in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082114PMC
March 2020

A conditional inducible JAK2V617F transgenic mouse model reveals myeloproliferative disease that is reversible upon switching off transgene expression.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(10):e0221635. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Disease Area Oncology, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Aberrant activation of the JAK/STAT pathway is thought to be the critical event in the pathogenesis of the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. The most frequent genetic alteration in these pathologies is the activating JAK2V617F mutation, and expression of the mutant gene in mouse models was shown to cause a phenotype resembling the human diseases. Given the body of genetic evidence, it has come as a sobering finding that JAK inhibitor therapy only modestly suppresses the JAK2V617F allele burden, despite showing clear benefits in terms of reducing splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms in patients. To gain a better understanding if JAK2V617F is required for maintenance of myeloproliferative disease once it has evolved, we generated a conditional inducible transgenic JAK2V617F mouse model using the SCL-tTA-2S tet-off system. Our model corroborates that expression of JAK2V617F in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells recapitulates key hallmarks of human myeloproliferative neoplasms, and exhibits gender differences in disease manifestation. The disease was found to be transplantable, and importantly, reversible when transgenic JAK2V617F expression was switched off. Our results indicate that mutant JAK2V617F-specific inhibitors should result in profound disease modification by disabling the myeloproliferative clone bearing mutant JAK2.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221635PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786561PMC
March 2020

The Public Repository of Xenografts Enables Discovery and Randomized Phase II-like Trials in Mice.

Cancer Cell 2016 04;29(4):574-586

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, 450 Brookline Avenue, Dana 510B, MA 02215, USA.

More than 90% of drugs with preclinical activity fail in human trials, largely due to insufficient efficacy. We hypothesized that adequately powered trials of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) in mice could efficiently define therapeutic activity across heterogeneous tumors. To address this hypothesis, we established a large, publicly available repository of well-characterized leukemia and lymphoma PDXs that undergo orthotopic engraftment, called the Public Repository of Xenografts (PRoXe). PRoXe includes all de-identified information relevant to the primary specimens and the PDXs derived from them. Using this repository, we demonstrate that large studies of acute leukemia PDXs that mimic human randomized clinical trials can characterize drug efficacy and generate transcriptional, functional, and proteomic biomarkers in both treatment-naive and relapsed/refractory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2016.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5177991PMC
April 2016

Inhibition of Wild-Type p53-Expressing AML by the Novel Small Molecule HDM2 Inhibitor CGM097.

Mol Cancer Ther 2015 Oct 23;14(10):2249-59. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

The tumor suppressor p53 is a key regulator of apoptosis and functions upstream in the apoptotic cascade by both indirectly and directly regulating Bcl-2 family proteins. In cells expressing wild-type (WT) p53, the HDM2 protein binds to p53 and blocks its activity. Inhibition of HDM2:p53 interaction activates p53 and causes apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest. Here, we investigated the ability of the novel HDM2 inhibitor CGM097 to potently and selectively kill WT p53-expressing AML cells. The antileukemic effects of CGM097 were studied using cell-based proliferation assays (human AML cell lines, primary AML patient cells, and normal bone marrow samples), apoptosis, and cell-cycle assays, ELISA, immunoblotting, and an AML patient-derived in vivo mouse model. CGM097 potently and selectively inhibited the proliferation of human AML cell lines and the majority of primary AML cells expressing WT p53, but not mutant p53, in a target-specific manner. Several patient samples that harbored mutant p53 were comparatively unresponsive to CGM097. Synergy was observed when CGM097 was combined with FLT3 inhibition against oncogenic FLT3-expressing cells cultured both in the absence as well as the presence of cytoprotective stromal-secreted cytokines, as well as when combined with MEK inhibition in cells with activated MAPK signaling. Finally, CGM097 was effective in reducing leukemia burden in vivo. These data suggest that CGM097 is a promising treatment for AML characterized as harboring WT p53 as a single agent, as well as in combination with other therapies targeting oncogene-activated pathways that drive AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-15-0429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4596780PMC
October 2015

A distinct p53 target gene set predicts for response to the selective p53-HDM2 inhibitor NVP-CGM097.

Elife 2015 May 12;4. Epub 2015 May 12.

Disease Area Oncology, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Biomarkers for patient selection are essential for the successful and rapid development of emerging targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. In this study, we report the discovery of a novel patient selection strategy for the p53-HDM2 inhibitor NVP-CGM097, currently under evaluation in clinical trials. By intersecting high-throughput cell line sensitivity data with genomic data, we have identified a gene expression signature consisting of 13 up-regulated genes that predicts for sensitivity to NVP-CGM097 in both cell lines and in patient-derived tumor xenograft models. Interestingly, these 13 genes are known p53 downstream target genes, suggesting that the identified gene signature reflects the presence of at least a partially activated p53 pathway in NVP-CGM097-sensitive tumors. Together, our findings provide evidence for the use of this newly identified predictive gene signature to refine the selection of patients with wild-type p53 tumors and increase the likelihood of response to treatment with p53-HDM2 inhibitors, such as NVP-CGM097.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4468608PMC
May 2015

Fibroblast growth factor receptors as novel therapeutic targets in SNF5-deleted malignant rhabdoid tumors.

PLoS One 2013 30;8(10):e77652. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077652PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813701PMC
August 2014

The tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14 is a negative regulator of YAP activity.

PLoS One 2013 16;8(4):e61916. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Disease Area Oncology, Basel, Switzerland.

The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a novel signaling pathway that controls organ size in Drosophila and mammals and is deregulated in a variety of human cancers. It consists of a set of kinases that, through a number of phosphorylation events, inactivate YAP, a transcriptional co-activator that controls cellular proliferation and apoptosis. We have identified PTPN14 as a YAP-binding protein that negatively regulates YAP activity by controlling its localization. Mechanistically, we find that the interaction of ectopic YAP with PTPN14 can be mediated by the respective WW and PPxY motifs. However, the PTPN14 PPxY motif and phosphatase activity appear to be dispensable for the negative regulation of endogenous YAP, likely suggesting more complex mechanisms of interaction and modulation. Finally, we demonstrate that PTPN14 downregulation can phenocopy YAP activation in mammary epithelial cells and synergize with YAP to induce oncogenic transformation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0061916PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3628344PMC
November 2013

FGFR genetic alterations predict for sensitivity to NVP-BGJ398, a selective pan-FGFR inhibitor.

Cancer Discov 2012 Dec 20;2(12):1118-33. Epub 2012 Sep 20.

Global Discovery Chemistry, 2Disease Area Oncology, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Unlabelled: Patient stratification biomarkers that enable the translation of cancer genetic knowledge into clinical use are essential for the successful and rapid development of emerging targeted anticancer therapeutics. Here, we describe the identification of patient stratification biomarkers for NVP-BGJ398, a novel and selective fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor. By intersecting genome-wide gene expression and genomic alteration data with cell line-sensitivity data across an annotated collection of cancer cell lines called the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, we show that genetic alterations for FGFR family members predict for sensitivity to NVP-BGJ398. For the first time, we report oncogenic FGFR1 amplification in osteosarcoma as a potential patient selection biomarker. Furthermore, we show that cancer cell lines harboring FGF19 copy number gain at the 11q13 amplicon are sensitive to NVP-BGJ398 only when concomitant expression of β-klotho occurs. Thus, our findings provide the rationale for the clinical development of FGFR inhibitors in selected patients with cancer harboring tumors with the identified predictors of sensitivity.

Significance: The success of a personalized medicine approach using targeted therapies ultimately depends on being able to identify the patients who will benefit the most from any given drug. To this end, we have integrated the molecular profiles for more than 500 cancer cell lines with sensitivity data for the novel anticancer drug NVP-BGJ398 and showed that FGFR genetic alterations are the most significant predictors for sensitivity. This work has ultimately endorsed the incorporation of specific patient selection biomakers in the clinical trials for NVP-BGJ398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0210DOI Listing
December 2012

Comprehensive mapping of p53 pathway alterations reveals an apparent role for both SNP309 and MDM2 amplification in sarcomagenesis.

Clin Cancer Res 2011 Feb 15;17(3):416-26. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Oncology Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: Reactivation of p53 tumor suppressor activity in diseases such as soft-tissue sarcoma is considered an attractive means of targeted therapy. By systematically assessing alterations affecting the p53 pathway, we aimed to (a) classify sarcoma subtypes, (b) define a potential role in malignancy, and (c) identify potential patient biomarkers in this heterogeneous disease.

Experimental Design: We have mapped mutational events in a panel of 192 benign or malignant bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. Analyses included TP53 and CDKN2A mutational and SNP status, MDM2 and MDM4 amplification and MDM2 SNP309 status.

Results: We found an inverse relationship between MDM2 amplification and TP53 mutations, with a predominantly wild-type CDKN2A background. A high rate of point mutations in TP53 was observed uniquely in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and MFH. Both MDM2 and MDM4 were also amplified in a subtype-specific manner, which was frequently seen as a coamplification event. We have also analyzed the risk allele frequencies for MDM2 SNP309, and show that the G allele was strongly associated with both liposarcomas and MDM2 amplification.

Conclusions: Our data emphasize the critical role of p53 inactivation in sarcomagenesis, whereby different pathway alterations may be related to the heterogeneity of the disease. Moreover, we observed a strong association of malignancy with TP53 mutation, or MDM2 amplification and the presence of a G allele in SNP309, especially in lipoma versus liposarcoma. We propose, therefore, that MDM2 markers along with TP53 sequencing should be considered as patient biomarkers in clinical trials of sarcomas using MDM2 antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2050DOI Listing
February 2011

Investigation of serotonin type 4 receptor expression in human and non-human primate gastrointestinal samples.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006 Sep;18(9):945-50

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, GI Department, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The serotonin type 4 (5-HT4) receptor has been associated with functions of the gastrointestinal tract such as modulation of the peristaltic reflex, smooth muscle tone, intestinal secretion and visceral sensitivity. The activation of peripheral 5-HT4 receptors with agonists such as tegaserod has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying and improve symptoms of constipation in animals and humans. However, detailed data on the expression profile and on the localization of this receptor subtype are lacking so far.

Objective: To study the pattern and expression levels of 5-HT4 receptor messenger RNA expression in the gut.

Method: Normal tissue samples were collected from the whole gastrointestinal tract of patients undergoing abdominal surgery and, in addition, of monkeys. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 5-HT4 receptor expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, using human and non-human primate tissues from the oesophagus to the rectum. In addition, the brain and heart of non-human primates were analysed.

Results: Significantly higher levels of 5-HT4 receptor mRNA were measured in the human stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum and also in the corresponding non-human primate gut segments, ranging from 2- to 12-fold compared with the liver. No differences were found between females and males of both human and non-human primates.

Conclusions: These results show 5-HT4 receptor mRNA expression throughout the gastrointestinal tract in humans and primates, and also support the preclinical and clinical findings of 5-HT4 receptors ligands exhibiting multiple effects throughout the gastrointestinal tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.meg.0000228975.87645.27DOI Listing
September 2006