Publications by authors named "Morgan Salmon"

36 Publications

Endothelial Transient Receptor Potential V4 Channels Mediate Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA. Electronic address:

Background: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), involving severe inflammation and edema, is a major cause of primary graft dysfunction following transplant. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels modulates vascular permeability. Thus, this study tests the hypothesis that endothelial TRPV4 channels mediate lung IRI.

Methods: C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), TRPV4, tamoxifen-inducible endothelial TRPV4 knockout (TRPV4), and tamoxifen-treated control (TRPV4) mice underwent lung IR using a left lung hilar-ligation model (n≥6 mice/group). WT mice were also treated with a TRPV4-specific inhibitor (GSK2193874; 1mg/kg) (WT+GSK219). Partial pressure of oxygen (PaO), edema (wet-to-dry weight ratio), compliance, neutrophil infiltration, and cytokine concentrations in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid were assessed. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) were characterized in vitro following exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation.

Results: Compared to WT, PaO following IR was significantly improved in TRPV4 mice (133.1±43.9 vs 427.8±83.1 mmHg, p<0.001) and WT+GSK219 mice (133.1±43.9 vs 447.0±67.6 mmHg, p<0.001). Pulmonary edema and neutrophil infiltration were also significantly reduced after IR in TRPV4 and WT+GSK219 mice versus WT. TRPV4 mice following IR demonstrated significantly improved oxygenation versus control (109.2±21.6 vs 405.3±41.4 mmHg, p<0.001) as well as significantly improved compliance, and significantly less edema, neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, CXCL1, IL-17, IFN-γ). Hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced permeability and CXCL1 expression by PMVECs was significantly attenuated by TRPV4 inhibitors.

Conclusions: Endothelial TRPV4 plays a key role in vascular permeability and lung inflammation following IR. TRPV4 channels may be a promising therapeutic target to mitigate lung IRI and decrease the incidence of primary graft dysfunction following transplant. (Word Count: 249/250).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.04.052DOI Listing
May 2021

Secondary Burn Progression Mitigated by an Adenosine 2A Receptor Agonist.

J Burn Care Res 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA.

Background: Current burn therapy is largely supportive with limited therapies to curb secondary burn progression. Adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonists have anti-inflammatory effects with decreased inflammatory cell infiltrate and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Using a porcine comb burn model, we examined whether A2AR agonists could mitigate burn progression.

Study Design: Eight full-thickness comb burns (4 prongs with 3 spaces per comb) per pig were generated with the following specifications: temperature 115° C, 3 kg force, and 30 second application time. In a randomized fashion, animals (4 per group) were then treated with A2AR agonist (ATL-1223, 3 ng/kg/min, intravenous infusion over 6 hours) or vehicle control. Necrotic interspace development was the primary outcome and additional histologic assessments were conducted.

Results: Analysis of unburned interspaces (72 per group) revealed that ATL-1223 treatment decreased the rate of necrotic interspace development over the first 4 days following injury (p<0.05). Treatment significantly decreased dermal neutrophil infiltration at 48 hours following burn (14.63±4.30 vs 29.71±10.76 neutrophils/high-power field, p=0.029). Additionally, ATL-1223 treatment was associated with fewer interspaces with evidence of microvascular thrombi through post-burn day 4 (18.8% vs 56.3%, p=0.002). Two weeks following insult, the depth of injury at distinct burn sites (adjacent to interspaces) was significantly reduced by ATL-1223 treatment (2.91±0.47 vs 3.28±0.58 mm, p=0.038).

Conclusion: This work demonstrates the ability of an A2AR agonist to mitigate burn progression through dampening local inflammatory processes. Extended dosing strategies may yield additional benefit and improve cosmetic outcome in those with severe injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/irab053DOI Listing
March 2021

Sex-Based Differences Among Experimental Swine Abdominal Aortic aneurysms.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 17;260:488-498. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Electronic address:

Background: Female sex protects against abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs); however, the mechanisms behind these sex-based differences remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of sex and sex hormones in AAA formation among swine.

Materials And Methods: Using a previous validated model, infrarenal AAA were surgically created in uncastrated male (n = 8), female (n = 5), and castrated male (n = 4) swine. Aortic dilation was measured on postoperative day 28 during the terminal procedure and compared to initial aortic diameter measured during the index procedure. Tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemistry, cytokine array, gelatin zymography, serum 17β-estradiol, and testosterone assay.

Results: Uncastrated males had significantly larger maximal aortic dilation compared to castrated males (113.5% ± 11.4% versus 38.1% ± 4.5%, P = 0.0012). Females had significantly higher mean aortic dilation compared to castrated males (96.2% ± 7.5% versus 38.1% ± 4.5%, P = 0.0004). Aortic diameters between females and uncastrated males were not significantly different on day 28. Female swine had significantly higher concentrations of 17β-estradiol compared with uncastrated males (1590 ± 873.3 ng/mL versus 95.2 ± 2.3 ng/mL, P = 0.047), with no significant difference between females and castrated males. Uncastrated male AAA demonstrated significantly more elastin degradation compared with female and castrated males (P = 0.01 and <0 .01, respectively). No differences existed for T-cells or smooth muscle cells between groups. Multiple proinflammatory cytokines were elevated within uncastrated male aortic walls compared to females and castrated males.

Conclusions: Sex hormones, specifically 17β-estradiol and testosterone, influence experimental swine AAA formation as demonstrated by increased aneurysm size, collagen turnover, and elastolysis in uncastrated males in processes reflective of human disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.11.061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946779PMC
April 2021

Pharmacologic inhibition of transient receptor channel vanilloid 4 attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

FASEB J 2020 07 7;34(7):9787-9801. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation is characterized by inflammation, leukocyte infiltration, and vascular remodeling. This study investigates the role of TRPV4 channels, which are transmembrane calcium channels that can regulate vascular tone, in modulating AAA formation. The elastase-treatment model of AAA in C57BL6 (WT) mice and Angiotensin II treatment model in ApoE mice were used to confirm our hypotheses. The administration of a specific TRPV4 antagonist, GSK2193874, in elastase-treated WT mice and in AngII-treated ApoE mice caused a significant attenuation of aortic diameter, decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, RANTES, and TNF-α), inflammatory cell infiltration (CD3 + T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils), elastic fiber disruption, and an increase in smooth muscle cell α-actin expression compared to untreated mice. Similarly, elastase-treated TRPV4 mice had a significant decrease in AAA formation, aortic inflammation, and vascular remodeling compared to elastase-treated WT mice on Day 14. In vitro studies demonstrated that the inhibition of TRPV4 channels mitigates aortic smooth muscle cell-dependent inflammatory cytokine production as well as decreases neutrophil transmigration through aortic endothelial cells. Therefore, our results suggest that TRPV4 antagonism can attenuate aortic inflammation and remodeling via decreased smooth muscle cell activation and neutrophil transendothelial migration during AAA formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000251RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162061PMC
July 2020

Porcine Model of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

J Vis Exp 2019 11 21(153). Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida.

Large animal models to study abdominal aortic aneurysms are sparse. The purpose of this model is to create reproducible, clinically significant infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in swine. To achieve this, we use a combination of balloon angioplasty, elastase and collagenase, and a lysyl oxidase inhibitor, called β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), to create clinically significant infrarenal aortic aneurysms, analogous to human disease. Noncastrated male swine are fed BAPN for 7 days prior to surgery to achieve a steady state in the blood. A midline laparotomy is performed and the infrarenal aorta is circumferentially dissected. An initial measurement is recorded prior to aneurysm induction with a combination of balloon angioplasty, elastase (500 units)/collagenase (8000 units) perfusion, and topical elastase application. Swine are fed BAPN daily until terminal procedure on either postoperative day 7, 14, or 28, at which time the aneurysm is measured, and tissue procured. BAPN + surgery pigs are compared to pigs that underwent surgery alone. Swine treated with BAPN and surgery had a mean aortic dilation of 89.9% ± 47.4% at day 7, 105.4% ± 58.1% at day 14, and 113.5% ± 30.2% at day 28. Pigs treated with surgery alone had significantly smaller aneurysms compared to BAPN + surgery animals at day 28 (p < 0.0003). The BAPN + surgery group had macroscopic and immunohistochemical evidence of end stage aneurysmal disease. Clinically significant infrarenal AAA can be induced using balloon angioplasty, elastase/collagenase perfusion and topical application, supplemented with oral BAPN. This model creates large, clinically significant AAA with hallmarks of human disease. This has important implications for the elucidation of AAA pathogenesis and testing of novel therapies and devices for the treatment of AAA. Limitations of the model include variation in BAPN ingested by swine, quality of elastase perfusion, and cost of BAPN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/60169DOI Listing
November 2019

Female Mice Exhibit Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Protection in an Established Rupture Model.

J Surg Res 2020 03 4;247:387-396. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Electronic address:

Background: Male gender is a well-established risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), whereas estrogen is hypothesized to play a protective role. Although rupture rates are higher in women, these reasons remain unknown. In the present study, we sought to determine if female mice are protected from AAA rupture.

Materials And Methods: Apolipoprotein E-deficient male and female mice (aged 7 wk; n = 25 per group) were infused with angiotensin II (AngII; 2000 ng/kg/min) plus β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) in the drinking water for 28 d to test the effects of gender on AAA rupture. Separately, a second group of male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice underwent AngII infusion + BAPN while being fed high-fat phytoestrogen free or a high-fat phytoestrogen diet to assess effects of phytoestrogens on rupture. In a third group, female mice either underwent oophorectomy or sham operation 4 wk before infusion of AngII and BAPN to further test the effects of female hormones on AA rupture. Surviving mice abdominal aorta were collected for histology, cytokine array, and gelatin zymography on postoperative day 28.

Results: Female mice had decreased AAA rupture rates (16% versus 46%; P = 0.029). Female mice expressed fewer elastin breaks (P = 0.0079) and decreased smooth muscle cell degradation (P = 0.0057). Multiple cytokines were also decreased in the female group. Gelatin zymography demonstrated significantly decreased pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2 in female mice (P = 0.001). Male mice fed a high dose phytoestrogen diet failed to decrease AAA rupture. Female mice undergoing oophorectomy did not have accelerated aortic rupture.

Conclusions: These data are the first to attempt to tease out hormonal effects on AAA rupture and the possible role of gender in rupture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111562PMC
March 2020

Murine Surgical Model of Topical Elastase Induced Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm.

J Vis Exp 2019 08 24(150). Epub 2019 Aug 24.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine;

According to the Center for Disease Control, aortic aneurysms (AAs) were considered a leading cause of death in all races and both sexes from 1999-2016. An aneurysm forms as a result of progressive weakening and eventual dilation of the aorta, which can rupture or tear once it reaches a critical diameter. Aneurysms of the descending aorta in the chest, called descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (dTAA), make up a large proportion of aneurysm cases in the United States. Uncontained dTAA rupture is almost universally lethal, and elective repair has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our model is to study dTAA specifically, to elucidate the pathophysiology of dTAA and to search for molecular targets to halt the growth or reduce the size of dTAA. By having a murine model to study thoracic pathology precisely, targeted therapies can be developed to specifically test dTAA. The method is based on the placement of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) directly on the outer murine aortic wall after surgical exposure. This creates a destructive and inflammatory reaction, which weakens the aortic wall and allows for aneurysm formation over weeks to months. Though murine models possess limitations, our dTAA model produces robust aneurysms of predictable size. Furthermore, this model can be used to test genetic and pharmaceutical targets which may arrest dTAA growth or prevent rupture. In human patients, interventions such as these could help avoid aneurysm rupture, and difficult surgical intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/60105DOI Listing
August 2019

Klf4, Klf2, and Zfp148 activate autophagy-related genes in smooth muscle cells during aortic aneurysm formation.

Physiol Rep 2019 04;7(8):e14058

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a progressive dilation of the aorta that is characterized by an initial influx of inflammatory cells followed by a pro-inflammatory, migratory, proliferative, and eventually apoptotic smooth muscle cell phenotype. In recent years, the mechanisms related to the initial influx of inflammatory cells have become well-studied; the mechanisms related to chronic aneurysm formation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis and death are less well-characterized. Autophagy is a generally believed to be a protective cellular mechanism that functions to recycle defective proteins and cellular organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. Our goal with the present study was to investigate the role of autophagy in smooth muscle cells during AAA formation. Levels of the autophagy factors, Beclin, and LC3 were elevated in human and mouse AAA tissue via both qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Confocal staining in human and mouse AAA tissue demonstrated Beclin and LC3 were present in smooth muscle cells during AAA formation. Treatment of smooth muscle cells with porcine pancreatic elastase or interleukin (IL)-1β activated autophagy-related genes in vitro while treatment with a siRNA to Kruppel-like transcription factor 4 (Klf4), Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (Klf2) or Zinc-finger protein 148 (Zfp148) separately inhibited activation of autophagy genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Klf4, Klf2, and Zfp148 separately bind autophagy genes in smooth muscle cells following elastase treatment. These results demonstrate that autophagy is an important mechanism related to Klfs in smooth muscle cells during AAA formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6483937PMC
April 2019

A novel swine model of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

J Vasc Surg 2019 07 24;70(1):252-260.e2. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. Electronic address:

Objective: Few large-animal models exist for the study of aortic aneurysms. β-Aminopropionitrile (BAPN) is a compound known to cause aortic aneurysms by inhibiting lysyl oxidase, a collagen cross-linking enzyme. It is hypothesized that BAPN plus aneurysm induction surgery would result in significant aneurysm formation in swine with biologic properties similar to human disease.

Methods: Initial experiments were performed in uncastrated male swine not treated with BAPN (surgery alone). Subsequently, uncastrated male swine were fed BAPN (0.15 g/kg) for 7 days before undergoing surgery; the infrarenal aorta was circumferentially dissected and measured, balloon dilated, and perfused with elastase (500 units) and type I collagenase (8000 units), with extraluminal elastase application. In the BAPN groups, daily BAPN feedings continued until swine harvest at postoperative days 7, 14, and 28.

Results: Swine undergoing surgery alone (n = 12) had significantly less dilation at 28 days compared with BAPN + surgery swine (51.9% ± 29.2% [0%-100%] vs 113.5% ± 30.2% [52.9%-146.2%]; P < .0003). Mean aortic dilation in animals undergoing treatment with surgery and BAPN was 86.9% ± 47.4% (range, 55.6%-157.1%), 105.4% ± 58.1% (50%-133.3%), and 113.5% ± 30.2% (52.9%-146.2%) at 7, 14, and 28 days, respectively. In the BAPN + surgery group, significant elastolysis was present at all time points, whereas aortic wall collagen content was not significantly different. Smooth muscle cells were significantly depleted at 14 and 28 days, and M1 macrophages were increased at 14 and 28 days (P < .05, all). Matrix metalloproteinase 2 was elevated at 7 days (P < .05). Multiple proinflammatory cytokines were elevated within the aortic wall of BAPN + surgery swine.

Conclusions: BAPN plus surgery resulted in significantly larger aortic aneurysms than surgery alone and was critical to aneurysm formation in this novel swine model. Hallmarks of human disease, such as elastin fragmentation, smooth muscle cell depletion, macrophage infiltration, matrix metalloproteinase activation, and proinflammatory cytokine expression, were observed in BAPN-treated swine. This model better parallels many of the characteristics of human AAAs and may be suitable for prehuman drug trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.09.057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6591111PMC
July 2019

ZFP148 (Zinc-Finger Protein 148) Binds Cooperatively With NF-1 (Neurofibromin 1) to Inhibit Smooth Muscle Marker Gene Expression During Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2019 01;39(1):73-88

From the Department of Surgery, The Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center (G.K.O., G.A.).

Objective- The goal of this study was to determine the role of ZFP148 (zinc-finger protein 148) in aneurysm formation. Approach and Results- ZFP148 mRNA expression increased at day 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after during abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in C57BL/6 mice. Loss of ZFP148 conferred abdominal aortic aneurysm protection using ERTCre+ ZFP148 flx/flx mice. In a third set of experiments, smooth muscle-specific loss of ZFP148 alleles resulted in progressively greater protection using novel transgenic mice (MYH [myosin heavy chain 11] Cre+ flx/flx, flx/wt, and wt/wt). Elastin degradation, LGAL3, and neutrophil staining were significantly attenuated, while α-actin staining was increased in ZFP148 knockout mice. Results were verified in total cell ZFP148 and smooth muscle-specific knockout mice using an angiotensin II model. ZFP148 smooth muscle-specific conditional mice demonstrated increased proliferation and ZFP148 was shown to bind to the p21 promoter during abdominal aortic aneurysm formation. ZFP148 smooth muscle-specific conditional knockout mice also demonstrated decreased apoptosis as measured by decreased cleaved caspase-3 staining. ZFP148 bound smooth muscle marker genes via chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis mediated by NF-1 (neurofibromin 1) promote histone H3K4 deacetylation via histone deacetylase 5. Transient transfections and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that NF-1 was required for ZFP148 protein binding to smooth muscle marker genes promoters during aneurysm formation. Elimination of NF-1 using shRNA approaches demonstrated that NF-1 is required for binding and elimination of NF-1 increased BRG1 recruitment, the ATPase subunit of the SWI/SWF complex, and increased histone acetylation. Conclusions- ZFP148 plays a critical role in multiple murine models of aneurysm formation. These results suggest that ZFP148 is important in the regulation of proliferation, smooth muscle gene downregulation, and apoptosis in aneurysm development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.311136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422047PMC
January 2019

Resolvin D1 decreases abdominal aortic aneurysm formation by inhibiting NETosis in a mouse model.

J Vasc Surg 2018 12;68(6S):93S-103S

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va; Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. Electronic address:

Objective: Resolvins have been shown to attenuate inflammation, whereas NETosis, the process of neutrophils releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), produces increased inflammation. It is hypothesized that treatment of animals with resolvin D1 (RvD1) would reduce abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation by inhibiting NETosis.

Methods: Wild-type 8- to 12-week-old C57BL/6 male mice (n = 47) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mice (n = 20) were used in two models to demonstrate the effects of RvD1 on AAA growth. In the topical elastase AAA model, wild-type mice were divided into three groups: a deactivated elastase control group, in which sham surgery was performed using deactivated elastase and mice were intravenously injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) once a day until harvest; an elastase group, in which active elastase was used to induce AAA and mice were injected with PBS daily until harvest; and an RvD1-treated group, in which AAA was induced and mice were injected with RvD1 daily until harvest. In the angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced AAA model, ApoE mice were fed a high-fat diet and implanted with osmotic infusion pumps containing Ang II (1000 ng/kg/min). The Ang II model was divided into two groups: an Ang II control group, in which Ang II was delivered and mice were injected with PBS daily until harvest; and an RvD1-treated group, in which Ang II was delivered and mice were injected with RvD1 daily until harvest. On postoperative day 3, day 14, or day 28, aortic and blood samples were collected for Western blot, histology, cytokine array, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gelatin zymography after aortic diameter measurement.

Results: The day 14 RvD1-treated group demonstrated 42% reduced AAA diameter compared with the elastase group (P < .001). On postoperative day 3, the RvD1-treated group showed decreased levels of NETosis markers citrullinated histone H3 (P = .04) and neutrophil elastase (P = .002) compared with the elastase group. Among important cytokines involved in AAA formation, interleukin (IL) 1β was downregulated (P = .02) whereas IL-10, a protective cytokine, was upregulated (P = .01) in the RvD1-treated group. Active matrix metalloproteinase 2 also decreased in the RvD1-treated group (P = .03). The RvD1-treated group in the Ang II AAA model, a second model, demonstrated reduced AAA diameter compared with the Ang II control group on day 28 (P < .046). The RvD1-treated group showed decreased levels of citrullinated histone H3 on day 3 (P = .002). Cytokines interferon γ, IL-1β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were all decreased on day 28 (P < .05).

Conclusions: RvD1-mediated inhibition of NETosis may represent a future medical treatment for the attenuation of AAA growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.05.253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459013PMC
December 2018

Tamsulosin attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm growth.

Surgery 2018 11 31;164(5):1087-1092. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville. Electronic address:

Background: Tamsulosin, an α-adrenergic receptor inhibitor, is prescribed to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia in men >60 years of age, the same demographic most susceptible to abdominal aortic aneurysm. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of tamsulosin on abdominal aortic aneurysm pathogenesis.

Methods: Abdominal aortic aneurysms were induced in WT C57BL/6 male mice (n = 9-18/group), using an established topical elastase abdominal aortic aneurysm model. Osmotic pumps were implanted in mice 5 days before operation to create the model, administering either low dose (0.125 µg/day tamsulosin), high dose (0.250µg/day tamsulosin), or vehicle treatments with and without topical application of elastase. Blood pressures were measured preoperatively and on postoperative days 0, 3, 7, and 14. On postoperative day 14, aortic diameter was measured before harvest. Sample aortas were prepared for histology and cytokine analysis.

Results: Measurements of systolic blood pressure did not differ between groups. Mice treated with the low dose of tamsulosin and with the high dose of tamsulosin showed decreased aortic diameter compared with vehicle-treated control (93% ± 24 versus 94% ± 30 versus 132% ± 24, respectively; P = .0003, P = .0003). Cytokine analysis demonstrated downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both treatment groups compared with the control (P < .05). Histology exhibited preservation of elastin in both low- and high-dose tamsulosin-treated groups (P = .0041 and P = .0018, respectively).

Conclusion: Tamsulosin attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm formation with increased preservation of elastin and decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism by which tamsulosin attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.06.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459011PMC
November 2018

Human mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate aortic aneurysm formation and macrophage activation via microRNA-147.

FASEB J 2018 May 29:fj201701138RR. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

The formation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and vascular remodeling. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) immunomodulate aortic inflammation, to mitigate AAA formation via modulation of microRNA-147. An elastase-treatment model of AAA was used in male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice. Administration of EVs in elastase-treated WT mice caused a significant attenuation of aortic diameter and mitigated proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cell infiltration, an increase in smooth muscle cell α-actin expression, and a decrease in elastic fiber disruption, compared with untreated mice. A 10-fold up-regulation of microRNA (miR)-147, a key mediator of macrophage inflammatory responses, was observed in murine aortic tissue in elastase-treated mice compared with controls on d 14. EVs derived from MSCs transfected with miR-147 mimic, but not with miR-147 inhibitor, attenuated aortic diameter, inflammation, and leukocyte infiltration in elastase-treated mice. In vitro studies of human aortic tissue explants and murine-derived CD11b macrophages induced proinflammatory cytokines after elastase treatment, and the expression was attenuated by cocultures with EVs transfected with miR-147 mimic, but not with miR-147 inhibitor. Thus, our findings define a critical role of MSC-derived EVs in attenuation of aortic inflammation and macrophage activation via miR-147 during AAA formation.-Spinosa, M., Lu, G., Su, G., Bontha, S. V., Gehrau, R., Salmon, M. D., Smith, J. R., Weiss, M. L., Mas, V. R., Upchurch, G. R., Sharma, A. K. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate aortic aneurysm formation and macrophage activation via microRNA-147.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201701138RRDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181641PMC
May 2018

A novel reproducible model of aortic aneurysm rupture.

Surgery 2018 02 28;163(2):397-403. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Given the unknown biologic antecedents before aortic aneurysm rupture, the purpose of this study was to establish a reproducible model of aortic aneurysm rupture.

Methods: We fed 7-week-old apolipoprotein E deficient mice a high-fat diet for 4 weeks and osmotic infusion pumps containing Angiotensin II were implanted. Angiotensin II was delivered continuously for 4 weeks at either 1,000 ng/kg/min (n = 25) or 2,000 ng/kg/min (n = 29). A third group (n = 14) were given Angiotensin II at 2,000 ng/kg/min and 0.2% β-aminopropionitrile dissolved in drinking water. Surviving mice were killed 28 days after pump placement, aortic diameters were measured, and molecular analyses were performed.

Results: Survival at 28 days was significantly different among groups with 80% survival in the 1,000 ng/kg/min group, 52% in the 2,000 ng/kg/min group, and only 14% in the Angiotensin II/β-aminopropionitrile group (P = .0001). Concordantly, rupture rates were statistically different among groups (8% versus 38% versus 79%, P < .0001). Rates of abdominal aortic aneurysm were 48%, 55%, and 93%, respectively, with statistically higher rates in the Angiotensin II/β-aminopropionitrile group compared with both the 1,000 ng and 2,000 ng Angiotensin II groups (P = .006 and P = .0165, respectively). Rates of thoracic aortic aneurysm formation were 12%, 52%, and 79% in the 3 groups with a statistically higher rate in the Angiotensin II/β-aminopropionitrile group compared with 1,000 ng group (P < .0001).

Conclusions: A reproducible model of aortic aneurysm rupture was developed with a high incidence of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysm. This model should enable further studies investigating the pathogenesis of aortic rupture, as well as allow for targeted strategies to prevent human aortic aneurysm rupture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2017.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5942234PMC
February 2018

In vivo lung perfusion rehabilitates sepsis-induced lung injury.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 01 14;155(1):440-448.e2. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. Electronic address:

Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of lung injury in adults and can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Using a novel technique of isolated in vivo lung perfusion (IVLP), we hypothesized that normothermic IVLP will improve oxygenation and compliance in a porcine model of sepsis-induced lung injury.

Methods: Mature adult swine (n = 8) were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 μg/kg over 2 hours) via the external jugular vein, followed by sternotomy and central extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannulation (right atrium to ascending aorta). The left pulmonary artery (inflow) and left superior and inferior pulmonary veins (outflow) were dissected out and cannulated to deliver isolated perfusion to the left lung. After 4 hours of normothermic IVLP with Steen solution, the left lung then underwent 4 hours of reperfusion after IVLP decannulation. Airway pressures and lung-specific pulmonary vein blood gases from the right lung (LPS control) and left lung (LPS + IVLP) of the same animal were compared.

Results: All animals demonstrated a significant reduction in the ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO) (P/F ratio) and total lung compliance at 2 hours after the start of LPS infusion (mean, 469 ± 19.7 mm Hg vs 222.2 ± 21.4 mm Hg; P < .0001). After reperfusion, 6 animals (75%) exhibited improved lung function, allowing for ECMO decannulation. Lung-specific oxygenation was superior in the left lung after 4 hours of reperfusion (mean, 310.5 ± 54.7 mm Hg vs 201.1 ± 21.7 mm Hg; P = .01). Similarly, total lung compliance improved after IVLP of the left lung. The lung wet weight to dry weight ratio demonstrated reduced edema in rehabilitated left lungs (mean, 6.5 ± 0.3 vs 7.5 ± 0.4; P = .04).

Conclusions: IVLP successfully rehabilitated LPS-injured lungs compared to ECMO support alone in this preclinical porcine model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2017.08.124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5744259PMC
January 2018

Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion Rehabilitates Sepsis-Induced Lung Injury.

Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Jun 21;103(6):1723-1729. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. Electronic address:

Background: Sepsis is the number one cause of lung injury in adults. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is gaining clinical acceptance for donor lung evaluation and rehabilitation and may expand the use of marginal organs for transplantation. We hypothesized that 4 hours of normothermic EVLP would improve compliance and oxygenation in a porcine model of sepsis-induced lung injury.

Methods: We used intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce a systemic inflammatory response in a porcine model of lung injury. Two groups of 4 animals each received a 2-hour infusion of LPS through the external jugular vein. Serial measurements of blood gases were performed every 30 minutes until the partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio dropped below 150 on two consecutive readings. Lungs were then randomized to treatment with 4 hours of normothermic EVLP with STEEN Solution (XVIVO Perfusion Inc, Englewood, CO) or 4 additional hours of in vivo perfusion (control). Airway pressures and blood gases were recorded for calculation of dynamic lung compliance and partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratios. EVLP was performed with hourly recruitment maneuvers and oxygen challenge.

Results: All animals reached a partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio of less than 150 mm Hg within 3 hours after start of the LPS infusion. Oxygenation and compliance in the control animals continued to decline during the 4-hour in vivo perfusion period, and 3 of the 4 animals died of severe hypoxia within 4 hours. The EVLP group demonstrated significant improvements hour 1 to hour 4 in oxygenation (365.8 ± 53.0 vs 584.4 ± 21.0 mm Hg, p = 0.02) and dynamic compliance (9.0 ± 2.8 vs 15.0 ± 3.6, p = 0.02 mL/cm HO).

Conclusions: EVLP successfully rehabilitated LPS-induced lung injury in this preclinical porcine model and may thus provide a means to rehabilitate many types of acute lung injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2017.01.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5438908PMC
June 2017

D-series resolvins inhibit murine abdominal aortic aneurysm formation and increase M2 macrophage polarization.

FASEB J 2016 12 12;30(12):4192-4201. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA; and

The role of resolvins in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has not been established. We hypothesized that treatment with D-series resolvins (RvD2 or RvD1) would attenuate murine AAA formation through alterations in macrophage polarization and cytokine expression. Male C57/B6 mice (n = 9 per group) 8 to 12 wk old received RvD2 (100 ng/kg/treatment), RvD1 (100 ng/kg/treatment), or vehicle only every third day beginning 3 d before abdominal aortic perfusion with elastase as prevention. Aortas were collected 14 d after elastase perfusion. Cytokine analysis (n = 5 per group) or confocal microscopy (n = 4 per group) was performed. In a separate experiment, RvD2 was provided to mice with small AAAs 3 d after elastase treatment (n = 8 per group). Additionally, apolipoprotein E knockout mice treated with angiotensin II (1000 ng/kg) were treated with RvD2 or vehicle alone (n = 10 per group) in a nonsurgical model of AAA. To determine the effect of RvD2 on macrophage polarization, confocal staining for macrophages, M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes, α-actin, and DAPI was performed. Mean aortic dilation was 96 ± 13% for vehicle-treated mice, 57 ± 9.7% for RvD2-treated mice, and 61 ± 11% for RvD1-treated mice (P < 0.0001). Proinflammatory cytokines macrophage chemotactic protein 1, C-X-C motif ligand 1, and IL-1β were significantly elevated in control animals compared to RvD2- and RvD1-treated animals (P < 0.05), resulting in a reduction of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 activity in resolvin-treated mice in both elastase and angiotensin II models. Treatment of existing small AAAs with RvD2 demonstrated a 25% reduction in aneurysm size at d 14 compared to vehicle alone (P = 0.018). Confocal histology demonstrated a prevalence of M2 macrophages within the aortic medium in mice treated with RvD2. Resolvin D2 exhibits a potent protective effect against experimental AAA formation. Treatment with RvD2 significantly influences macrophage polarization and decreases several important proinflammatory cytokines. Resolvins and the alteration of macrophage polarization represent potential future targets for prevention of AAA.-Pope, N. H., Salmon, M., Davis, J. P., Chatterjee, A., Su, G., Conte, M. S., Ailawadi, G., Upchurch, G. R., Jr. D-series resolvins inhibit murine abdominal aortic aneurysm formation and increase M2 macrophage polarization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201600144RRDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5102115PMC
December 2016

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate NADPH Oxidase-Dependent High Mobility Group Box 1 Production and Inhibit Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2016 05 17;36(5):908-18. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

From the Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (A.K.S., M.D.S., G.L., G.S., N.H.P., G.R.U.); and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan (J.R.S., M.L.W.).

Objective: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation is characterized by inflammation, smooth muscle activation, and matrix degradation. This study tests the hypothesis that macrophage-produced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) production is dependent on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox2), which leads to increase in interleukin (IL)-17 production resulting in AAA formation and that treatment with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can attenuate this process thereby inhibiting AAA formation.

Approach And Results: Human aortic tissue demonstrated a significant increase in HMGB1 expression in AAA patients when compared with controls. An elastase-perfusion model of AAA demonstrated a significant increase in HMGB1 production in C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) mice, which was attenuated by MSC treatment. Furthermore, anti-HMGB1 antibody treatment of WT mice attenuated AAA formation, IL-17 production, and immune cell infiltration when compared with elastase-perfused WT mice on day 14. Elastase-perfused Nox2(-/y) mice demonstrated a significant attenuation of HMGB1 and IL-17 production, cellular infiltration, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and AAA formation when compared with WT mice on day 14. In vitro studies showed that elastase-treated macrophages from WT mice, but not from Nox2(-/y) mice, produced HMGB1, which was attenuated by MSC treatment. The production of macrophage-dependent HMGB1 involved Nox2 activation and superoxide anion production, which was mitigated by MSC treatment.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that macrophage-produced HMGB1 leads to aortic inflammation and acts as a trigger for CD4(+) T-cell-produced IL-17 during AAA formation. HMGB1 release is dependent on Nox2 activation, which can be inhibited by MSCs leading to attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-17, and protection against AAA formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.116.307373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4861899PMC
May 2016

Pharmacologic blockade and genetic deletion of androgen receptor attenuates aortic aneurysm formation.

J Vasc Surg 2016 06 24;63(6):1602-1612.e2. Epub 2016 Jan 24.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA. Electronic address:

Background: Testosterone is theorized to play a major role in the pathophysiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) because this disease occurs primarily in men. The role of the androgen receptor (AR) in the formation of AAAs has not been well elucidated, and therefore, it is hypothesized that androgen blockade will attenuate experimental aortic aneurysm formation.

Methods: Aortas of 8- to 12-week-old male C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) mice or male AR knockout (AR(-/-)) mice were perfused with purified porcine pancreatic elastase (0.35 U/mL) to induce AAA formation. Two groups of WT male mice were treated with the AR blockers flutamide (50 mg/kg) or ketoconazole (150 mg/kg) twice daily by intraperitoneal injection. Aortas were harvested on day 14 after video micrometry was used to measure AAA diameter. Cytokine arrays and histologic analysis were performed on aortic tissue. Groups were compared using an analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc test.

Results: Flutamide and ketoconazole treatment (mean ± standard error of the mean) attenuated AAA formation in WT mice (84.2% ± 22.8% [P = .009] and 91.5% ± 18.2% [P = .037]) compared with WT elastase (121% ± 5.23%). In addition, AR(-/-) mice showed attenuation of AAA growth (64.4% ± 22.7%; P < .0001) compared with WT elastase. Cytokine arrays of aortic tissue revealed decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-α, IL-6, and IL-17 in flutamide-treated and AR(-/-) groups compared with controls.

Conclusions: Pharmacologic and genetic AR blockade cause attenuation of AAA formation. Therapies for AR blockade used in prostate cancer may provide medical treatment to halt progression of AAAs in humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.11.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884130PMC
June 2016

Ex vivo lung perfusion with adenosine A2A receptor agonist allows prolonged cold preservation of lungs donated after cardiac death.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016 Feb 30;151(2):538-45. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. Electronic address:

Objective: Ex vivo lung perfusion has been successful in the assessment of marginal donor lungs, including donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor lungs. Ex vivo lung perfusion also represents a unique platform for targeted drug delivery. We sought to determine whether ischemia-reperfusion injury would be decreased after transplantation of DCD donor lungs subjected to prolonged cold preservation and treated with an adenosine A2A receptor agonist during ex vivo lung perfusion.

Methods: Porcine DCD donor lungs were preserved at 4°C for 12 hours and underwent ex vivo lung perfusion for 4 hours. Left lungs were then transplanted and reperfused for 4 hours. Three groups (n = 4/group) were randomized according to treatment with the adenosine A2A receptor agonist ATL-1223 or the dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle: Infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide during ex vivo lung perfusion and reperfusion (DMSO), infusion of ATL-1223 during ex vivo lung perfusion and dimethyl sulfoxide during reperfusion (ATL-E), and infusion of ATL-1223 during ex vivo lung perfusion and reperfusion (ATL-E/R). Final Pao2/Fio2 ratios (arterial oxygen partial pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen) were determined from samples obtained from the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins.

Results: Final Pao2/Fio2 ratios in the ATL-E/R group (430.1 ± 26.4 mm Hg) were similar to final Pao2/Fio2 ratios in the ATL-E group (413.6 ± 18.8 mm Hg), but both treated groups had significantly higher final Pao2/Fio2 ratios compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide group (84.8 ± 17.7 mm Hg). Low oxygenation gradients during ex vivo lung perfusion did not preclude superior oxygenation capacity during reperfusion.

Conclusions: After prolonged cold preservation, treatment of DCD donor lungs with an adenosine A2A receptor agonist during ex vivo lung perfusion enabled Pao2/Fio2 ratios greater than 400 mm Hg after transplantation in a preclinical porcine model. Pulmonary function during ex vivo lung perfusion was not predictive of outcomes after transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.07.075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728036PMC
February 2016

Interleukin-6 Receptor Inhibition Prevents Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Formation.

Ann Thorac Surg 2015 Nov 10;100(5):1620-6. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. Electronic address:

Background: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) represent related but distinct disease processes. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is known to be significantly upregulated in human TAA and AAA. We hypothesize that loss of IL-6 is protective in experimental TAA and AAA.

Methods: Murine TAAs or AAAs were created using a novel model in C57/B6 mice by treating the intact aorta with elastase. Cytokine profiles were analyzed with antibody arrays (n = 5 per group). Separately, to determine the role of IL-6, thoracic (n = 7) or abdominal (n = 7) aortas of wild type mice and IL-6 knockout (KO) mice were treated with elastase. Additionally, thoracic animals treated with either the IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab (n = 8) or vehicle (n = 5). Finally, human TAA and AAA were analyzed with human cytokine array.

Results: Elastase treatment of thoracic aortas yielded dilation of 86.8% ± 9.6%, and abdominal aortas produced dilation of 85.6% ± 16.2%. Murine IL-6, CXCL13, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly elevated in TAA compared with AAA (p = 0.004, 0.028, and 0.001, respectively). The IL-6KO mice demonstrated significantly smaller TAA size relative to wild type mice (wild type 100.1% versus IL-6KO 76.5%, p = 0.04). The IL-6KO mice did not show protection from AAA (p = 0.732). Pharmacologic inhibition of IL-6 resulted in significant reduction in TAA size (tocilizumab 71.5% ± 13.2% versus vehicle 103.6% ± 20.7%, p = 0.005). Human TAA showed significantly greater IL-6 (p < 0.0001) compared with AAA and normal thoracic and abdominal aorta.

Conclusions: Interleukin-6 is significantly greater in both murine and human TAA compared with AAA, suggesting fundamental differences in these disease processes. Interleukin-6 receptor antagonism attenuates experimental TAA formation, indicating that IL-6 may be a potential target for human thoracic aneurysmal disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.05.009DOI Listing
November 2015

KLF4-dependent phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells has a key role in atherosclerotic plaque pathogenesis.

Nat Med 2015 Jun 18;21(6):628-37. Epub 2015 May 18.

1] Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. [2] Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Previous studies investigating the role of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis have provided controversial results owing to the use of unreliable methods for clearly identifying each of these cell types. Here, using Myh11-CreER(T2) ROSA floxed STOP eYFP Apoe(-/-) mice to perform SMC lineage tracing, we find that traditional methods for detecting SMCs based on immunostaining for SMC markers fail to detect >80% of SMC-derived cells within advanced atherosclerotic lesions. These unidentified SMC-derived cells exhibit phenotypes of other cell lineages, including macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). SMC-specific conditional knockout of Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) resulted in reduced numbers of SMC-derived MSC- and macrophage-like cells, a marked reduction in lesion size, and increases in multiple indices of plaque stability, including an increase in fibrous cap thickness as compared to wild-type controls. On the basis of in vivo KLF4 chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses and studies of cholesterol-treated cultured SMCs, we identified >800 KLF4 target genes, including many that regulate pro-inflammatory responses of SMCs. Our findings indicate that the contribution of SMCs to atherosclerotic plaques has been greatly underestimated, and that KLF4-dependent transitions in SMC phenotype are critical in lesion pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4552085PMC
June 2015

Attenuation of aortic aneurysms with stem cells from different genders.

J Surg Res 2015 Nov 14;199(1):249-58. Epub 2015 Apr 14.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia. Electronic address:

Background: No medical therapies are yet available to slow abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth. This study sought to investigate the effect of different genders of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on AAA growth in a murine AAA model. Given the decreased rate of AAA in women, it is hypothesized that female MSC would attenuate AAA growth more so than male MSC.

Materials And Methods: Aortas of 8-10-wk-old male C57Bl/6 mice were perfused with purified porcine pancreatic elastase to induce AAA formation. Bone marrow-derived MSC from male and female mice were dosed via tail vein injection (3 million cells per dose, 500 μL of volume per injection) on postaortic perfusion days 1, 3, and 5. Aortas were harvested after 14 d.

Results: Mean aortic dilation in the elastase group was 121 ± 5.2% (mean ± standard error of the mean), while male MSC inhibited AAA growth (87.8 ± 6.9%, P = 0.008) compared with that of elastase. Female MSC showed the most marked attenuation of AAA growth (75.2 ± 8.3% P = 0.0004). Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were only decreased in tissues treated with female MSC (P = 0.017, P = 0.001, and P < 0.0001, respectively, when compared with elastase).

Conclusions: These data exhibit that female MSC more strongly attenuate AAA growth in the murine model. Furthermore, female MSC and male MSC inhibit proinflammatory cytokines at varying levels. The effects of MSC on aortic tissue offer a promising insight into biologic therapies for future medical treatment of AAAs in humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.04.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604010PMC
November 2015

5-Lipoxygenase pathway in experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2014 Dec 16;34(12):2669-78. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

From the Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery (C.M.B., A.K.M., V.A.H., G.A.), Department of Surgery (G.S.M.), Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery (G.S., G.R.U.), Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics (M.S., G.K.O.), Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center (G.R.U., G.K.O., G.A.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering (G.A.), University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville; and Cardiovascular Disease Section, Bioscience Department, AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden (C.A.W.).

Objective: The impact of leukotriene production by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway in the pathophysiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has been debated. Moreover, a clear mechanism through which 5-LO influences AAA remains unclear.

Approach And Results: Aneurysm formation was attenuated in 5-LO(-/-) mice, and in lethally irradiated wild-type mice reconstituted with 5-LO(-/-) bone marrow in an elastase perfusion model. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-LO-attenuated aneurysm formation in both aortic elastase perfused wild-type and angiotensin II-treated LDLr(-/-) (low-density lipoprotein receptor) mice, with resultant preservation of elastin and fewer 5-LO and MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase)-producing cells. Separately, analysis of wild-type mice 7 days after elastase perfusion showed that 5-LO inhibition was associated with reduced polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration to the aortic wall. Importantly, 5-LO inhibition initiated 3 days after elastase perfusion in wild-type mice arrested progression of small AAA. Human AAA and control aorta corroborated these elastin and 5-LO expression patterns.

Conclusions: Inhibition of 5-LO by pharmacological or genetic approaches attenuates aneurysm formation and prevents fragmentation of the medial layer in 2 unique AAA models. Administration of 5-LO inhibitor in small AAA slows progression of AAA. Targeted interruption of the 5-LO pathway is a potential treatment strategy in AAA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4239157PMC
December 2014

Inhibition of interleukin-1β decreases aneurysm formation and progression in a novel model of thoracic aortic aneurysms.

Circulation 2014 Sep;130(11 Suppl 1):S51-9

From the Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (W.F.J., M.S., N.H.P., A.M., M.L.S., G.A.), Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (G.S., G.L., G.R.U.), Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center (G.K.O., G.R.U.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering (G.A.), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Background: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) are common, but experimental TAA models are limited and the role of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is undetermined.

Methods And Results: IL-1β protein was measured in human TAAs and control aortas, and IL-1β protein was increased ≈20-fold in human TAAs. To develop an experimental model of TAAs, 8- to 10-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice (wild type [WT]) underwent thoracotomy with application of periadventitial elastase (WT TAA) or saline (WT control; n=30 per group). Elastase treatment to thoracic aortas resulted in progressive dilation until day 14 with maximal dilation of 99.6±24.7% compared with 14.4±8.2% for WT saline control (P<0.0001). WT TAAs demonstrated elastin fragmentation, smooth muscle cell loss, macrophage infiltration, and increased IL-1β expression. Next, TAAs were induced in mice deficient of IL-1β (IL-1β knockout) or IL-1 receptor (IL-1R knockout; n=10 each). Genetic deletion of IL-1β and IL-1R significantly decreased thoracic aortic dilation (IL-1β knockout=54.2±16.8% and IL-1R knockout=62.6±17.2% versus WT TAA=104.7±23.8%; P<0.001for both). IL-1β knockout and IL-1R knockout aortas demonstrated preserved elastin and smooth muscle cells with fewer inflammatory cells. Correspondingly, IL-1β and IL-1R knockout aortas had decreased inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression. Separately, WT mice pretreated with either IL-1R antagonist anakinra (100 mg/kg per day) or vehicle alone (control) underwent elastase treatment. Pretreatment of WT mice with anakinra attenuated TAA formation (control: 99.2±15.5% versus anakinra: 68.3±19.2%; P<0.005). Finally, to investigate treatment of small TAAs, WT mice were treated with anakinra 3 days after TAA induction. Anakinra treatment in WT mice with small TAAs reduced aortic dilation on day 14 (control treatment: 89.1±18.6% versus anakinra treatment: 59.7±25.7%; P=0.01).

Conclusions: Periadventitial application of elastase to murine thoracic aortas reproducibly produced aneurysms with molecular and histological features consistent with TAA disease. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of IL-1β decreased TAA formation and progression, indicating that IL-1β may be a potential target for TAA treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5097450PMC
September 2014

Aromatase is required for female abdominal aortic aneurysm protection.

J Vasc Surg 2015 Jun 28;61(6):1565-74.e1-4. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va; Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va; Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. Electronic address:

Objective: The protective effects of female gender on the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) have been attributed to anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen. Estrogen synthesis is dependent on the enzyme aromatase, which is located both centrally in the ovaries and peripherally in adipose tissue, bone, and vascular smooth muscle cells. It is hypothesized that deletion of aromatase in both ovarian and peripheral tissues would diminish the protective effect of female gender and would be associated with increased aortic diameter in female mice.

Methods: Male and female 8- to 10-week-old mice with aromatase (wild type: WT) and without aromatase (ArKO) underwent elastase aortic perfusion with aortic harvest 14 days following. For the contribution of central and peripheral estrogen conversion to be evaluated, female WT mice were compared with female WT and ArKO mice that had undergone ovariectomy (ovx) at 6 weeks followed by elastase perfusion at 8 to 10 weeks. At aortic harvest, maximal aortic dilation was measured and samples were collected for immunohistochemistry and protein analysis. Serum was collected for serum estradiol concentrations. Groups were compared with analysis of variance. Human and mouse AAA cross sections were analyzed with confocal immunohistochemistry for aromatase, smooth muscle markers, and macrophage markers.

Results: Female WT mice had significant reduction in aortic dilation compared with male WT mice (F WT, 51.5% ± 15.1% vs M WT, 78.7% ± 14.9%; P < .005). The protective effects of female gender were completely eliminated with deletion of aromatase (F ArKO, 82.6% ± 13.8%; P < .05 vs F WT). Ovariectomy increased aortic dilation in WT mice (F WT ovx, 70.6% ± 11.7%; P < .05 vs F WT). Aromatase deletion with ovariectomy further increased aortic dilation compared with WT ovx mice (F ArKO ovx, 87.3% ± 14.7%, P < .001 vs F WT and P < .05 vs F WT ovx). Accordingly, female ArKO ovx mice had significantly higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin-1β and were associated with increased macrophage staining and decreased elastin staining. Regarding serum hormone levels, decreasing estradiol levels correlated with increasing aortic diameter (R = -0.565; P < .01). By confocal immunohistochemistry, both human and mouse AAA smooth muscle cells (smooth muscle α-actin positive) and macrophages (CD68 positive or Mac-2 positive) expressed aromatase.

Conclusions: The protective effect of female gender on AAAs is due to estrogen synthesis and requires the presence of both ovarian and extragonadal/peripheral aromatase. Peripheral estrogen synthesis accounts for roughly half of the protective effect of female gender. If peripheral aromatase could be targeted, high levels of local estrogen could be produced and may avoid the side effects of systemic estrogen.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2014.01.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4147033PMC
June 2015

KLF4 regulates abdominal aortic aneurysm morphology and deletion attenuates aneurysm formation.

Circulation 2013 Sep;128(11 Suppl 1):S163-74

Department of Surgery (M.S., W.F.J., A.W., N.H.P., G.S., G.R.U., G.A.) and The Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center (G.R.U., G.K.O., G.A.), University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA.

Background: KLF4 mediates inflammatory responses after vascular injury/disease; however, the role of KLF4 in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown. The goals of the present study were to (1) determine the role of KLF4 in experimental AAA; and (2) determine the effect of KLF4 on smooth muscle (SM) cells in AAAs.

Methods And Results: KLF4 expression progressively increased at days 3, 7, and 14 after aortic elastase perfusion in C57BL/6 mice. Separately, loss of a KLF4 allele conferred AAA protection using ERTCre+ KLF4 flx/wt mice in the elastase AAA model. In a third set of experiments, SM-specific loss of 1 and 2 KLF4 alleles resulted in progressively greater protection using novel transgenic mice (MYHCre+ flx/flx, flx/wt, and wt/wt) in the elastase AAA model compared with control. Elastin degradation, MAC2, and cytokine production (MCP1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-23) were significantly attenuated, whereas α-actin staining was increased in KLF4 knockout mice versus controls. Results were verified in global KLF4 and SM-specific knockout mice using an angiotensin II model of aneurysm formation. KLF4 inhibition with siRNA attenuated downregulation of SM gene expression in vitro, whereas in vivo studies demonstrated that KLF4 binds to promoters of SM genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Finally, human aortic aneurysms demonstrated significantly higher KLF4 expression that was localized to SM cells.

Conclusions: KLF4 plays a critical role in aortic aneurysm formation via effects on SM cells. These results suggest that KLF4 regulates SM cell phenotypic switching and could be a potential therapeutic target for AAA disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.000238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3922284PMC
September 2013

Genetic and pharmacologic disruption of interleukin-1β signaling inhibits experimental aortic aneurysm formation.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2013 Feb 3;33(2):294-304. Epub 2013 Jan 3.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Objective: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are common, but their exact pathogenesis remains unknown and no specific medical therapies are available. We sought to evaluate interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) in an experimental AAA model to identify novel therapeutic targets for AAA treatment.

Methods And Results: IL-1β mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in abdominal aortas of 8- to 12-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice after elastase aortic perfusion (wild-type [WT]) compared with saline perfusion. Mice with genetic deletion of IL-1β (IL-1β knockout [KO]) or IL-1R (IL-1R KO) that underwent elastase perfusion demonstrated significant protection against AAA formation, with maximal aortic dilations of 38.0±5.5% for IL-1β KO and 52.5±4.6% for IL-1R KO, compared with 89.4±4.0% for WT mice (P<0.005). Correspondingly, IL-1β KO and IL-1R KO aortas had reduced macrophage and neutrophil staining with greater elastin preservation compared with WT. In WT mice pretreated with escalating doses of the IL-1R antagonist anakinra, there was a dose-dependent decrease in maximal aortic dilation (R=-0.676; P<0.0005). Increasing anakinra doses correlated with decreasing macrophage staining and elastin fragmentation. Lastly, WT mice treated with anakinra 3 or 7 days after AAA initiation with elastase demonstrated significant protection against AAA progression and had decreased aortic dilation compared with control mice.

Conclusions: IL-1β is critical for AAA initiation and progression, and IL-1β neutralization through genetic deletion or receptor antagonism attenuates experimental AAA formation. Disrupting IL-1β signaling offers a novel pathway for AAA treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3632435PMC
February 2013