Publications by authors named "Morgan E Wall"

3 Publications

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Safety and efficacy of low-titer O whole blood resuscitation in a civilian level I trauma center.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 08;91(2S Suppl 2):S162-S168

From the Department of Surgery (P.M.K.B., P.M.M., A.M.A., R.C.C.), Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (M.E.W.), Bethesda, Maryland; and Department of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery (J.E.F., J.S.R., R.A.H., V.G.S.), Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

Background: Military experience has shown low-titer O whole blood (LTOWB) to be safe and beneficial in the resuscitation of hemorrhaging trauma patients. However, few civilian centers use LTOWB for trauma resuscitation. We evaluated the early experience and safety of a LTOWB program at a level 1 civilian trauma center.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our trauma registry from January 2018 to June 2020 for patients admitted in shock (defined as ≥1 of the following: heart rate, >120 beats per minute; systolic blood pressure, <90 mm Hg; or shock index, >0.9) who received blood products within 24 hours. Patients were grouped by resuscitation provided: LTOWB (group 1), component therapy (CT; group 2), and LTOWB-CT (group 3). Safety, outcomes, and variables associated with LTOWB transfusion and mortality were analyzed.

Results: 216 patients were included: 34 in Group 1, 95 in Group 2, and 87 in Group 3. Patientsreceiving LTOWB were more commonly male (p<0.001) and had a penetrating injury (p=0.005). Groups 1 and 3 had higher median ISS scores compared to Group 2 (19 and 20 vs 17; p=0.01). Group 3 received more median units of blood product in the first 4h (p<0.001) and in the first 24h (p<0.001). There was no difference between groups in 24h mortality or transfusion-related complications (all p>0.05). Arrival ED SBP was associated with LTOWB transfusion (odds ratio [OR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.00, p=0.03). ED lactate was independently associated with 24h mortality. (OR 1.27, CI 1.02-1.58, p=0.03). LTOWB transfusion was not associated with mortality (p=0.49). Abstract.

Conclusion: Severely injured patients received LTOWB-CT and more overall product units but had similar 24 h mortality when compared with the LTOWB or CT groups. No increase in transfusion-related complications was seen after LTOWB transfusion. Low-titer O whole blood should be strongly considered in the resuscitation of trauma patients at civilian centers.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective, therapeutic, level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000003289DOI Listing
August 2021

An Educational Intervention Reduces Opioids Prescribed Following General Surgery Procedures.

J Surg Res 2021 01 3;257:399-405. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Brooke Army Medical Center, Ft Sam Houston, Texas; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address:

Background: Variability exists in opioid prescribing practices among surgeons, frequently resulting in the prescription of excessive opioids. This study evaluated the ability of a single educational intervention targeted toward general surgery residents to reduce the quantity of postoperative opioids prescribed.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated opioid prescribing practices 12 mo prior to and 6 mo following a 30-min lecture for general surgery residents that discussed prescribing guidelines and multimodal analgesia. Opioid volumes (normalized to oral morphine equivalents, OME), opioid type, nonopioid pain medications, and refills requested were analyzed for opioid-naïve adult patients undergoing excisional breast biopsy (EB), mastectomy (M), laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), open umbilical hernia repair (OUHR), open inguinal hernia repair (OIHR), or laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR).

Results: 695 and 376 patients preintervention and postintervention were included, respectively. Median OME prescribed decreased for EB (150 mg to 75 mg, P < 0.001), M (225 mg to 150 mg, P = 0.85), LA (150 mg to 94 mg, P < 0.001), LC (150 mg to 82 mg, P < 0.001), OUHR (150 mg to 103 mg, P < 0.001), OIHR (175 mg to 100 mg, P = 0.001), and LIHR (200 mg to 113 mg, P < 0.001). Fewer patients received opioids alone and more patients received an opioid with two nonopioid adjuncts (P < 0.001). More patients received oxycodone as fewer received acetaminophen-containing opioid combinations (P < 0.001). Patients requiring refills decreased (11.9% to 7.2%) (P = 0.014).

Conclusions: Following this targeted intervention, patients were discharged with fewer OME and more nonopioid analgesics, even as refill requests decreased. Educating residents on opioid prescription guidelines and multimodal therapy is effective and should be part of the annual didactic curriculum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.08.012DOI Listing
January 2021

Fitness consequences of short- and long-distance pollinations in Phlox hirsuta, an endangered species.

Am J Bot 2015 Oct 5;102(10):1659-65. Epub 2015 Oct 5.

Department of Organismal and Environmental Biology, Christopher Newport University, 1 Avenue of the Arts, Newport News, Virginia 23606 USA.

Premise Of The Study: The persistence of rare and endangered plant species may depend on the distance pollinators travel when dispersing pollen. Pollinations between adjacent plants, which are often genetically similar, can decrease seed set, germination, and/or progeny vigor due to shared S-alleles or inbreeding depression. Interpopulation pollen dispersal is often suggested as a management tool to increase genetic diversity; however, long-distance pollinations also have the potential to decrease fitness.

Methods: We performed experimental hand pollinations in the field and germination experiments in a growth chamber to determine the effect of intrapopulation pollination distance (1 m, 10 m, and 100 m) on seed set, seed germination, progeny growth, and progeny reproduction in Phlox hirsuta. In addition, we included interpopulation pollinations (6740 m) to determine whether artificial gene flow is a viable management option for this endangered species.

Key Results: Although pollination distance did not affect the number of healthy seeds produced or the likelihood of radicle emergence, it did significantly affect the ability of germinating seeds to successfully produce cotyledons. Outbreeding depression was observed during seed germination and early seedling development. Seedlings resulting from interpopulation pollinations developed more slowly and were less likely to survive to produce cotyledons than seedlings resulting from all three intrapopulation pollination distances.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the success of P. hirsuta does not depend on the distance pollinators travel within populations and that conservation strategies that involve transporting genes between populations can be counterproductive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1500270DOI Listing
October 2015
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