Publications by authors named "Morad Chughtai"

170 Publications

Concomitant Total Shoulder Arthroplasty and Ipsilateral Carpal Tunnel Release: Is it Safe?

J Hand Surg Am 2022 Apr 1. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

Purpose: Symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with advanced ipsilateral glenohumeral arthritis requiring total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) may be easily overlooked. Even when diagnosed beforehand, most upper extremity surgeons have historically chosen to perform TSA and carpal tunnel release (CTR) separately. We hypothesized that combined single-stage TSA and CTR is feasible and yields results comparable with those when the 2 procedures are performed separately, while avoiding 2 surgeries.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent single-stage primary TSA and ipsilateral CTR between 2015 and 2019. The shoulder outcomes included pain, range of motion, and validated quality of life (QoL) questionnaires: Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) and Penn Shoulder Score. The CTR outcomes included pain, grip, pinch, VR-12, shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire (QuickDASH), and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. The time to the initiation of rehabilitation and complications were also analyzed. The comparison group consisted of patients who underwent independent TSA or CTR during the same period.

Results: Forty-one patients underwent concomitant TSA and CTR, 248 underwent isolated TSA, and 154 underwent isolated CTR. The shoulder outcomes of patients who underwent the combined procedure were similar to those of patients who underwent isolated TSA in terms of pain, range of motion, general QoL (VR-12), and shoulder-specific QoL (Penn Shoulder Score). The outcomes of patients who underwent the combined procedure were similar to those of patients who underwent isolated CTR in terms of pain, grip and pinch, general QoL (VR-12), QuickDASH, and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. The time to the initiation of rehabilitation was also comparable.

Conclusions: Concomitant CTR and TSA are feasible. The functional outcomes and QoL of patients who underwent the concomitant treatment were comparable with those of patients who underwent the 2 procedures separately.

Type Of Study/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.12.016DOI Listing
April 2022

Wrist Arthrotomy Saline Load Test.

Hand (N Y) 2022 Mar 27:15589447211043194. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH, USA.

Background: Failure to recognize a potential wrist arthrotomy may lead to missed septic arthritis and devastating sequelae. The saline load test is routinely used to recognize traumatic arthrotomies of other joints; however, there are limited data optimizing this test for the wrist. The purpose of this study was to investigate and perform saline load testing to identify traumatic arthrotomies of the wrist.

Methods: This was a cadaveric study of 15 wrists. Traumatic arthrotomies were created using a blunt trocar through the 3-4 portal. A 3-mL syringe with 0.1 mL markings was used to inject methylene blue dyed saline into the wrist through the 1-2 portal. Once extravasation was visible from the atherectomized site, the volume was recorded.

Results: The mean (range) volume injected to identify the arthrotomy of all wrists was 1.22 mL (range, 0.1-3.1 mL). Multivariate regression demonstrated that cadaver age, laterality, and extension range of motion were not significantly associated with the injected saline volume at extravasation ( > .05, each). Greater joint range of motion was independently associated with higher saline volume load for extravasation (odds ratio: 1.049; 95% confidence interval: 1.024-1.075; = .003).

Conclusions: We found that 2.68 and 3.02 mL of methylene blue dyed saline offered 95% and 99% sensitivity, respectively, for diagnosing traumatic wrist arthrotomy. The maximum volume of saline needed to recognize an arthrotomy was 3.1 mL. We recommend this be the minimum volume used to evaluate a traumatic wrist arthrotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15589447211043194DOI Listing
March 2022

Validation of a Smartphone-Based Institutional Electronic Data Capture System for Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthroplasty.

Hand (N Y) 2022 Mar 23:15589447221082163. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA.

Background: The Orthopaedic Minimal Data Set (OrthoMiDaS) Episode of care (OME) is a prospectively collected database enabling capture of patient and surgeon-reported data in a more efficient, comprehensive, and dependable manner than electronic medical record (EMR) review. We aimed to assess and validate the OME as a data capture tool for carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty compared to traditional EMR-based review. Specifically, we aimed to: (1) compare the completeness of the OME versus EMR data; and (2) evaluate the extent of agreement between the OME and EMR data-based datasets for carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty.

Methods: The first 100 thumb CMC arthroplasties after OME inception (Febuary, 2015) were included. Blinded EMR-based review of the same cases was performedfor 48 perioperative variables and compared to their OME-sourced counterparts. Outcomes included completion rates and agreement measures in OME versus EMR-based control datasets.

Results: The OME demonstrated superior completion rates compared to EMR-based retrospective review. There was high agreement between both datasets where 75.6% (34/45) had an agreement proportion of >0.90% and 82.2% (37/45) had an agreement proportion of >0.80. Over 40% of the variables had almost perfect to substantial agreement (κ > 0.60). Among the 6 variables demonstrating poor agreement, the surgeon-inputted OME values were more accurate than the EMR-based review control.

Conclusions: This study validates the use of the OME for CMC arthroplasty by illustrating that it is reliably able to match or supersede traditional chart review for data collection; thereby offering a high-quality tool for future CMC arthroplasty studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15589447221082163DOI Listing
March 2022

Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Intraosseous Access Abutting Tibial Stem Cement Mantle of a Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2022 02 2;12(1). Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio.

Case: A 79-year-old man 6 days status-post left total knee arthroplasty (TKA) presented to our institution from an outside hospital (OSH) after a suspected STEMI and ventricular fibrillation arrest. At the OSH, intraosseous (IO) access was placed in his right tibia. Orthopaedics was consulted for compartment syndrome at the IO access site. X-rays demonstrated this was secondary to the IO access abutting the cement mantle of a stemmed tibial component of a remote TKA, for which the patient required emergent fasciotomies.

Conclusions: Healthcare providers should be cognizant of potential orthopaedic hardware that can impede proper introduction of IO access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.21.00655DOI Listing
February 2022

What Are Drivers of Readmission for Readmission-Requiring Venous Thromboembolic Events After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty? An Analysis of 544,443 Cases.

J Arthroplasty 2022 05 19;37(5):958-965.e3. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potential postoperative complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). These events present with a range of severity, and some require readmission. The present study aimed to identify unexplored risk factors for severe VTE that lead to hospital readmission.

Methods: The Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality's National Readmissions Database was retrospectively queried for all patients who underwent primary THA (January 2016 to December 2018). Study population included patients who were readmitted for VTE within 90 days after an elective THA. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using patient demographics, insurance status, elective nature of the surgery, healthcare institution characteristics, and baseline comorbidities.

Results: Higher risk of readmission for VTE was evident among elderly (71-80 years vs <40 years: odds ratio [OR] 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.2, P = .0002), male patients (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2-1.3). Nonelective THAs were associated with markedly higher odds of readmission for VTE (OR 20.5, 95% CI 18.9-22.2), peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4), lymphoma (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1), metastatic cancer (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.2), obesity (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.6), and fluid-electrolyte imbalance (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2). Home health care (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.8) and discharge to skilled nursing facility (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.7-0.8) had lower odds of readmission for VTE vs unsupervised home discharge, while insurance type was not a significant driver(P > .05).

Conclusion: One in 135 THA patients is likely to experience a VTE requiring readmission after THA. Male patients, age >70 years, and specific baseline comorbidities increase such risk. Furthermore, discharge to a supervised setting mitigated the risk of VTE requiring readmission compared to unsupervised discharge. As VTE prophylaxis protocols continue to evolve, these patients may require optimized perioperative care pathways to mitigate VTE complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2022.01.024DOI Listing
May 2022

The "Fight Bite" Saline Joint Loading Test: Effectiveness in Detecting Simulated Traumatic Metacarpophalangeal Arthrotomies.

Hand (N Y) 2022 Jan 7:15589447211068184. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH, USA.

The saline load test is routinely used to recognize other joints' traumatic arthrotomies; however, there are currently no studies evaluating the novelty of this test for metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPJs). This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and sensitivity of saline load testing in identifying the traumatic arthrotomies of the MCPJs using human cadavers. This was a cadaveric study of 16 hands (79 MCPJs). Traumatic arthrotomies were created using 11-blade stab-incisions, followed by blunt probing into the joint on the radial or ulnar side of the flexed MCPJs. A 3-mL syringe was used to inject intra-articular methylene-blue-dyed saline from the contralateral side. The volume at saline extravasation was recorded. Test sensitivity and factors influencing extravasation volume were assessed. The mean (range) volume injected to identify arthrotomy of all MCPJs was 0.18 mL (0.1-0.4 mL). The mean volume to identify MCPJ arthrotomy of the thumb, index, long, ring, and small fingers was 0.16 mL (0.1-0.3 mL), 0.19 mL (0.1-0.3 mL), 0.21 mL (0.1-0.4 mL), 0.17 mL (0.1-0.3 mL), and 0.16 mL (0.1-0.3 mL), respectively. Cadaver age, laterality, and joint range of motion were not significantly associated with the injected volume at extravasation( > .05, each). Injection volumes of 0.3 and 0.32 mL were required to detect arthrotomies at 95% and 99% sensitivities across all MCPJs. None of the MCPJs required > 0.4 mL to detect arthrotomy. Saline joint loading volumes to detect traumatic arthrotomy were similar for all MCPJs. Injection volumes of 0.32 mL is suggested for 99% sensitivity. Our findings provide the first report, to our knowledge, on intra-articular injection volumes expected to detect an arthrotomy of MCPJ. This is critical for further validation using in vivo clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15589447211068184DOI Listing
January 2022

Validation of a Novel Smartphone-Based Electronic Data Capture System Following Surgical Fixation of Distal Radial Fractures.

Hand (N Y) 2022 Jan 7:15589447211057301. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH, USA.

Background: Large prospective institutional data provide the opportunity to conduct level II and III studies using robust methodologies and adequately powered sample-sizes, while circumventing limitations of retrospective databases. We aimed to validate a prospective data collection tool, the Orthopaedic Minimal Data Set Episode of Care (OME), implemented at a tertiary North American health care system for distal radial fracture (DRF) open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF).

Methods: The first 100 DRF ORIFs performed after OME inception (February 2015) were selected for this validation study. A blinded review of the operative notes and charts was performed, and extracted data of 75 perioperative DRF ORIF procedure variables were compared with OME collected data for agreement. Outcomes included completion rates and agreement measures in OME versus electronic medical record (EMR)-based control datasets. Data counts were evaluated using raw percentages and McNemar tests. Cohen (κ) and concordance correlation coefficient analyzed categorical and numerical variable agreement, respectively.

Results: Overall, OME demonstrated superior completion and agreement parameters versus EMR-based retrospective review. Nine data points (12.0%) demonstrated significantly higher completion rates within the OME dataset ( < .05, each), and 88% (66/75) of captured variables demonstrated similar completion rates. Up to 80.0% (60/75) of variables either demonstrated an agreement proportion of ≥0.90 or were solely reported in the OME. Of 33 variables eligible for agreement analyses, 36.4% (12/33) demonstrated almost perfect agreement (κ > 0.80), and 63.6% (21/33) exhibited almost perfect or substantial agreement (κ > 0.60).

Conclusions: The OME is a valid and accurate prospective data collection tool for DRF ORIF that is reliably able to match or supersede traditional retrospective chart review. Future investigations could use this tool for large-scale analyses investigating peri/intraoperative DRF ORIF variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15589447211057301DOI Listing
January 2022

Trends and risk factors for opioid administration for non-emergent lower back pain.

World J Orthop 2021 Sep 18;12(9):700-709. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 5200 Centre Avenue, Suite 415, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA.

Background: Non-emergent low-back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent presenting complaints to the emergency department (ED) and has been shown to contribute to overcrowding in the ED as well as diverting attention away from more serious complaints. There has been an increasing focus in current literature regarding ED admission and opioid prescriptions for general complaints of pain, however, there is limited data concerning the trends over the last decade in ED admissions for non-emergent LBP as well as any subsequent opioid prescriptions by the ED for this complaint.

Aim: To determine trends in non-emergent ED visits for back pain; annual trends in opioid administration for patients presenting to the ED for back pain; and factors associated with receiving an opioid-based medication for non-emergent LBP in the ED.

Methods: Patients presenting to the ED for non-emergent LBP from 2010 to 2017 were retrospectively identified from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey database. The "year" variable was transformed to two-year intervals, and a weighted survey analysis was conducted utilizing the weighted variables to generate incidence estimates. Bivariate statistics were used to assess differences in count data, and logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with patients being discharged from the ED with narcotics. Statistical significance was set to a value of 0.05.

Results: Out of a total of 41658475 total ED visits, 3.8% (7726) met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. There was a decrease in the rates of non-emergent back pain to the ED from 4.05% of all cases during 2010 and 2011 to 3.56% during 2016 and 2017. The most common opioids prescribed over the period included hydrocodone-based medications (49.1%) and tramadol-based medications (16.9), with the combination of all other opioid types contributing to 35.7% of total opioids prescribed Factors significantly associated with being prescribed narcotics included age over 43.84-years-old, higher income, private insurance, the obtainment of radiographic imaging in the ED, and region of the United States (all, 0.05). Emergency departments located in the Midwest [odds ratio (OR): 2.42, < 0.001], South (OR: 2.35, < 0.001), and West (OR: 2.57, 0.001) were more likely to prescribe opioid-based medications for non-emergent LBP compared to EDs in the Northeast.

Conclusion: From 2010 to 2017, there was a significant decrease in the number of non-emergent LBP ED visits, as well as a decrease in opioids prescribed at these visits. These findings may be attributed to the increased focus and regulatory guidelines on opioid prescription practices at both the federal and state levels. Since non-emergent LBP is still a highly common ED presentation, conclusions drawn from opioid prescription practices within this cohort is necessary for limiting unnecessary ED opioid prescriptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5312/wjo.v12.i9.700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472449PMC
September 2021

Surgical Technique and Outcomes of Reconstruction for Blauth Type III Thumb Hypoplasia.

Hand (N Y) 2021 Aug 23:15589447211038706. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA.

Background: Historically, amputation and pollicization has been the recommended surgical treatment for Blauth type III hypoplastic thumbs. However, due to aesthetic objections or cultural preferences, some parents seek out alternative surgical options. The present study describes a nontraditional technique that preserves and augments the hypoplastic thumb.

Methods: Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with Blauth type III hypoplastic thumbs who underwent thumb reconstruction at our institution from 2008 to 2018. The reconstruction procedure involved toe phalanx transfer, staged tendon transfers, and lengthening as needed. Motion was assessed categorically as ability to flex, extend, or oppose the thumb. Functionality was assessed as ability to pinch and grasp with the surgical hand. Patient- or parent-reported improvement in thumb function was also recorded.

Results: Of the 13 patients, 100% could flex, extend, and oppose the thumb to some degree. Eleven patients (85%) had functional one-handed grasp, and 9 (69%) had a functional pinch. Eleven patients (85%) reported no functional limitations of the operative hand. Thirteen patients (100%) reported improvement in hand function after surgery as compared to pre-operatively. There were 2 minor complications (15%), both of which resolved after intervention. No patients experienced donor-site morbidity.

Conclusions: Reconstruction of Blauth III thumbs is a nontraditional technique that allows for digit retention by salvaging the hypoplastic thumb. In the present study, the majority of patients had functional thumbs and all reported postoperative improvement. Overall, our results suggest that reconstruction is a viable surgical option for Blauth III hypoplastic thumbs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15589447211038706DOI Listing
August 2021

Acute compartment syndrome of the deltoid: a case report and systematic review of the literature.

JSES Int 2020 Dec 7;4(4):753-758. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Deltoid compartment syndrome is a rare entity. The purpose of this study was to report a recent case and perform a systematic literature review.

Methods: Patient data were gathered from chart review and clinical encounters. For the review, the MEDLINE, Embase, and Ovid databases were queried for deltoid compartment syndrome cases. Seventeen articles reporting on 18 patients with deltoid compartment syndrome were included.

Results: Including our patient, 9 of 19 patients (47.4%) presented with compartment syndrome limited to the deltoid. Most patients presented with additional affected compartments, most commonly in the ipsilateral arm (7 of 19, 37%). Isolated deltoid involvement often resulted from iatrogenic injury; of 10 iatrogenic reports, 8 involved only the deltoid. Of 19 cases, 5 (26%) occurred in powerlifters, climbers, or anabolic steroid or testosterone injectors. In 13 of 19 cases (68%), the patients were men aged 18-36 years, and only 1 female case (5%) was reported. Prolonged recumbence owing to substance abuse was documented in 6 of 19 cases (32%).

Conclusion: Deltoid compartment syndrome is rare, with only 19 reported cases, including our patient. Men are more commonly affected, and isolated deltoid compartment syndrome occurs in about 50% of reported cases. More than half of cases are iatrogenic, secondary to prolonged lateral decubitus positioning, injections, and surgical interventions about the shoulder. Prolonged recumbence from intoxication is also a common etiology. Providers should be aware of and recognize deltoid compartment syndrome to facilitate urgent surgical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.07.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738586PMC
December 2020

Liposomal Bupivacaine Is Both Safe and Effective in Controlling Postoperative Pain After Spinal Surgery in Children: A Controlled Cohort Study.

Clin Spine Surg 2020 12;33(10):E533-E538

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery.

Study Design: Retrospective comparative cohort study.

Objective: To evaluate: (1) pain relief efficacy; (2) opioid consumption; (3) length of stay (LOS); (4) discharge disposition (DD); and (5) safety and adverse effects of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) in pediatric patients who underwent spinal deformity correction.

Summary Of Background Data: LB is a long-acting, locally injectable anesthetic. Previous orthopedic studies investigating its use have been limited to adult patients. The use of LB as part of postoperative pain management in pediatric patients undergoing spine deformity correction surgery is yet to be evaluated.

Materials And Methods: A total of 195 patients that received LB as part of their postoperative pain management regimen were compared with 128 patients who received standard pain management without LB. Pain intensity, opioid consumption, LOS, and DD were recorded. Potential LB-related complications were reported as frequencies and statistically compared for superiority. Noninferiority tests were performed using the Farrington-Manning score test. Multivariate tests based on generalized estimating equations were performed to determine the common and average treatment effects. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.

Results: The LB cohort demonstrated lower pain scores [postoperative day 1 (POD 1)-median=2, interquartile range (IQR)=(0-5) vs. 5 (2.5-7); POD 2-3 (0-5) vs. 4 (3-6); P<0.001], lower overall opioid consumption (78.2 vs. 129 morphine milligram equivalents; P=0.0001) and consistently from POD 0 to 3 (mean differences; 7.47, 9.04, 17.2, and 17.3 morphine milligram equivalents, respectively; P<0.01), shorter LOS (median=3 d, IQR=3-4 vs. 4 d, IQR=4-6; P<0.001), and similar to-home DD (98% vs. 97%). Complications were similar among the cohorts in superiority and 10% noninferiority analyses. Patients in the LB cohort had lower odds for complications (odds ratio=0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93; P=0.009 and 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50-0.90; P=0.008).

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of LB when added to the current multimodal postoperative pain management regimens after pediatric spinal surgery.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000000996DOI Listing
December 2020

Algorithmic soft tissue femoral release in anterior approach total hip arthroplasty.

Arthroplast Today 2019 Dec 30;5(4):471-476. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Although the anterior approach for total hip arthroplasty has gained increasing utilization, some studies have suggested a higher risk of femoral complications, as well as difficulty with femoral exposure. Techniques of soft tissue releases have been described to offer better femoral exposure, and to help mitigate complications. The purpose of the study is to describe an algorithmic soft tissue femoral release in direct anterior approach total hip arthroplasty and to assess the clinical outcomes of patients upon which this algorithm of femoral soft tissue releases was utilized. Clinical outcomes with the Harris Hip Score, reoperation rates, component survivorship, and complications were analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2019.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6921189PMC
December 2019

Non-operative treatment options for knee osteoarthritis.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Oct;7(Suppl 7):S245

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent and debilitating condition for which a wide range of non-surgical treatment options are available. Although there is plethora of literature investigating their safety and efficacy, for many treatment modalities, a consensus has not yet been reached concerning efficacy. Therefore, it is essential for practitioners to understand the risks and benefits of the available treatments for the successful management of knee OA. This study explored the efficacy of non-surgical treatment options for knee OA including: (I) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); (II) weight loss; (III) intra-articular injections; (IV) physical therapy; and (V) bracing.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review of studies between 1995 and 2018 was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and EBSCO Host. Searches were performed using the following terms: total knee arthroplasty (TKA); cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors; bracing; physical therapy; weight loss; knee; treatment; therapeutics; OA; intra-articular injection; hyaluronic acid; corticosteroid; and alternatives. The initial search yielded 7,882 reports from which 545 relevant studies were identified. After full-text analysis, 43 studies were included for this analysis.

Results: NSAIDs are most effective when used continuously and may be used in conjunction with other forms of treatment for knee OA as they have been shown to provide some pain relief as well as functional improvements. Weight loss is a safe and effective way to improve knee pain, function, and stiffness without adverse effects. However, it can be very challenging for obese patients with knee OA due to their limited mobility and lack of adherence to a low-calorie diet. Intra-articular injections have had mixed results, with findings from recent studies indicating long-term outcomes to be equivocal. Physical therapy leads to significant improvements in pain and function. Decreased compliance with physical therapy is thought to be due to high copayments, pain with activities, lacks of transportation, and high time commitments. Brace modalities have demonstrated significant pain and functional improvements and prolongations of the time to TKA. Additionally, they limit the need for other treatment modalities which are associated with greater risks.

Conclusions: NSAIDs, weight loss, intraarticular injections, and physical therapy have all been shown to be effective non-surgical treatment options for knee OA. However, these options have some limitations, and are best when used in conjunction. Bracing for knee OA is a noninvasive, non-pharmacologic option which can significantly reduce pain and improve function with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, a combination of knee braces along with other non-operative modalities should be one mainstay of treatment in conjunction with other treatment modalities to reduce pain, improve function, stiffness, and mobility in knee OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.06.68DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6828999PMC
October 2019

No Evidence to Support Lowering Surgeon Reimbursement for Total Joint Arthroplasty Based on Operative Time: An Institutional Review of 12,567 Cases.

J Arthroplasty 2019 11 17;34(11):2523-2527. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Center for Adult Reconstruction, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Background: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has recently added primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) codes to the 2019 Potentially Misvalued Codes List. The American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons and the American Medical Association have called for contemporary data that would assess operative time to inform the decision on reimbursement valuation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to report total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) operative times within a large multihospital and physician organizational enterprise to assess stability over time.

Methods: The study was a retrospective review (2015-2019) of a prospectively maintained multihospital health system database. A total of 12,567 consecutive TJAs were included (5742 THAs by 16 surgeons; 6825 TKAs by 20 surgeons). Operative time was between incision and completion of wound closure. Descriptive statistics were performed for categorical/continuous variables, and trend analysis was performed to assess if there was a change in time over the study period.

Results: For THA, 43.1% were male, with a mean age of 64.1 ± 11.8 years and a mean BMI of 30.1 ± 6.6. The mean operative time was 96.4 ± 36.8 minutes. For TKA, 39.4% were male, with a mean age of 66.2 ± 9.4 years and a mean BMI of 32.7 ± 6.8. The mean operative time was 103.6 ± 29.9 minutes. Trend analysis demonstrated no significant difference in operative time across the study period.

Conclusion: Our analysis demonstrated that operative time has remained stable, with mean time for THA and TKA consistently within 3.6 minutes of the historical benchmark of 100 minutes. Given these findings in a large institutional cohort, there is no definitive evidence to support changing current procedural valuation for TJA based on operative time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.06.028DOI Listing
November 2019

Current Concepts in Osteoarthritis of the Ankle: Review.

Surg Technol Int 2019 11;35:280-294

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Northwell Health and Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, New York.

Ankle osteoarthritis constitutes a large burden to society and is a leading cause of chronic disability in the United States. Most commonly, it is post-traumatic, occurs in younger individuals, and is associated with obesity. This entity presents similarly to osteoarthritis of the other joints, with the typical nonspecific symptoms of stiffness, swelling, and pain. Radiographic investigation includes four weight-bearing standard views: antero-posterior and lateral foot, mortise view of the ankle, and a specialized view of the hindfoot. In this review, we covered epidemiology, anatomy and biomechanics, etiology, pathology, differential diagnoses, symptoms, physical examination, appropriate radiological investigation, as well as current treatment options and algorithms. Non-operative treatment options include weight loss, physical therapy, bracing, orthoses, pharmacologic treatments, corticosteroid injections, viscosupplementation, and biologic modalities. Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid has the most evidence-based support and has been shown to be safe and efficacious. For patients who have moderate to severe disease, surgery may be indicated. However, current surgical options are either associated with high rates of complications or restrict ankle range of motion (ROM). Early stages of the ankle osteoarthritis should be treated with the above-mentioned non-surgical methods, and once the disease progresses, surgical options can be utilized.
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November 2019

Difficult Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Cases Treated with an Offset Head Center Acetabular Shell.

Surg Technol Int 2019 May;34:445-450

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, New York, New York.

Acetabular bone loss is common during revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A new acetabular shell was developed with a goal of maintaining native hip center-of-rotation (COR) while achieving good fixation with standard instrumentation and technique. Previous radiographic studies have demonstrated the efficacy of this shell in lowering hip COR. In this case series, we demonstrate the use of this shell in patients undergoing difficult revision THAs. Based on these cases, we have presented how this offset COR acetabular shell may help bring down the hip COR in patients who undergo revision total hip arthroplasty with severe bone loss.
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May 2019

Use of an offset head center acetabular shell in difficult primary total hip arthroplasties.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Feb;7(4):75

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Several conditions may predispose patients to development of antero-lateral acetabular bone deficiency, including developmental dysplasia of the hip, osteonecrosis, or septic arthritis, among others. This may compromise the ability to gain acetabular component stability and impair reliable fixation. Large acetabular shells have often been used to achieve adequate fixation in scenarios of severe bone loss, however, these techniques have been shown to elevate the center of rotation (COR) of the hip and alter hip biomechanics. Recently, a new acetabular shell was developed with a goal of maintaining the native hip COR while achieving good fixation with standard instrumentation and technique. Previous radiographic studies have demonstrated the efficacy of this shell in lowering hip COR. In this case series, we demonstrate the use of this shell in patients with difficult hip pathologies. We have demonstrated how this offset COR acetabular shell may help bring down the COR of the hip in these quite challenging cases utilizing conventional techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.09.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409236PMC
February 2019

Not all primary total hip arthroplasties are equal-so is there a difference in reimbursement?

Ann Transl Med 2019 Feb;7(4):74

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Relative value units (RVUs) are a physician reimbursement model based on the effort required, or value, in providing a procedure or service for a patient. Procedures such as conversion total hip arthroplasties (THAs) can be compared to primary THAs, but many studies have revealed increased difficulties in conversion cases. Despite the increased time and effort for conversion THA, it is unknown if this is reflected in the RVU compensation model. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the: (I) mean operative times; (II) mean RVUs; (III) RVU/minute for primary and conversion THAs; and (IV) perform an individualized idealized surgeon annual cost difference analysis.

Methods: A total of 103,702 primary THA patients were identified using CPT code 27130 and 2,986 conversion THA patients were identified using CPT code 27132 using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. The mean RVUs, operative times (minutes), and RVU/minute were calculated and compared. An annualize cost analysis of dollar amounts per case, day, and the year was also performed.

Results: The mean operative times for the primary and conversion THA cohorts were 94 146 minutes (P<0.001) and mean RVUs were 21.24 25.68 (P<0.001). Interestingly, the mean RVU per minute was higher for the primary THA compared to the conversion THA groups (0.26 0.21, P<0.001). Annualized cost analysis revealed a potential $173,529 difference from performing primary conversion THAs.

Conclusions: Even though conversion THA can be considered to a more complex and demanding procedure, based on RVUs per minute of surgery, orthopaedic surgeons are reimbursed better for primary THA cases. This data could be used by orthopaedic surgeons to administer their practices better to yield the highest return on time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.08.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409238PMC
February 2019

Quadriceps tendinopathy: a review, part 2-classification, prognosis, and treatment.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Feb;7(4):72

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Overuse injuries of the extensor mechanism of the knee are common in both athletes and non-athletes and usually occur during activities associated with repetitive loading, stress, and knee extension. Numerous reports have been published describing extensor mechanism injuries in athletes, but there is a paucity of studies that focus on quadriceps tendinopathy in the non-athlete population. In addition, there is no universally accepted classification system for tendon pathology. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive literature review of these studies. This review consists of 2 parts. In the previous part we reviewed: (I) epidemiology and (II) diagnosis of quadriceps tendinopathy in the athlete as well as the general population. In this part we discuss: (I) classification; (II) prognosis; and (III) treatment results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.01.63DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409233PMC
February 2019

Quadriceps tendinopathy: a review-part 1: epidemiology and diagnosis.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Feb;7(4):71

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Overuse injuries of the extensor mechanism of the knee are common in both athletes and non-athletes and usually occur during activities associated with repetitive loading, stress, and knee extension. Historically, they have been labeled as Jumper's knee due to the high prevalence seen in the athletic community. In many published reports, the name "patellar tendinopathy" is used to describe this disorder of the quadriceps tendon at the patellar insertion, and the names are often used interchangeably. Numerous reports have been published describing extensor mechanism injuries in athletes, but there is a paucity of studies that focus on quadriceps tendinopathy. In addition, there is no universally accepted classification system for tendon pathology. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive literature review of these studies. This review consists of 2 parts. In the first part we review: (I) epidemiology and (II) diagnosis of quadriceps tendinopathy in the athlete as well as the general population. In the second part we discuss: (I) classification; (II) prognosis; and (III) treatment results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.01.58DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409230PMC
February 2019

Astym therapy: a systematic review.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Feb;7(4):70

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Soft tissue dysfunction can result from the degeneration of tissues as in the case of degenerative tendinopathy or from the build-up of problematic scar tissue, which can be the result of several aggravating factors, including overuse injuries, acute or chronic trauma, or as a result of surgery. This dysfunction often results in impaired movement, pain, and swelling of the affected area, which can lead to patient dissatisfaction and a lower quality of life. These soft tissue dysfunctions also have a marked economic impact. Although a number of traditional treatments attempt to address these issues, no optimal treatment choice has emerged. Traditional treatments are not always successful, can be invasive, and can consume many medical resources. A relatively new treatment approach, Astym therapy, is a potentially useful, non-invasive, more cost-effective option. This therapy was developed to address soft-tissue dysfunctions by stimulating the regeneration of soft tissues and the resorption of inappropriate scar tissue/fibrosis. It has been reported to help with the resorption and remodeling of abnormal tissue, thereby leading to improved motion, function and pain relief. The purpose of this analysis was to review the published literature related to Astym therapy on various musculoskeletal disorders. Specifically, we evaluated the effectiveness of this therapeutic method on disorders related to the: (I) knee; (II) upper extremity; (III) hamstring muscles; and (IV) ankle and Achilles tendon injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.11.49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409241PMC
February 2019

The role of prehabilitation with a telerehabilitation system prior to total knee arthroplasty.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Feb;7(4):68

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the usage of prehabilitation on a telehealth platform prior to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and its impact on short-term outcomes. Specifically, the study examined whether patients participating in a prehabilitation program impacted length of stay (LOS) and discharge disposition.

Methods: A total of 476 consecutive patients who underwent TKA at three institutions were included. The average age of the 476 patients was 65.1 years (range, 35 and 93 years). There was a total of 114 patients who utilized the novel prehabilitation program that provided exercises, nutritional advice, education regarding home safety and reducing medical risks, and pain management skills prior to surgery. A group of 362 patients who did not utilize the program formed the control cohort. The outcomes evaluated were LOS and discharge disposition to home, home with health aide (HHA), or skilled nursing facility (SNF).

Results: The average LOS in the prehabilitation group was significantly shorter than in the control group (2.0 2.7 days, P<0.001). Additionally, prehabilitation patients had more favorable discharge disposition status in comparison to the control group. In the prehabilitation patients, 77.2% went home without assistance, compared to 42.8% in the control group (P<0.001). Also, significantly fewer patients in the prehabilitation group were discharged to a SNF when compared to the control group (1.8% 21.8%, P<0.0001).

Conclusions: Prehabilitation preceding TKA in the current study showed early benefits in LOS and discharge disposition. This study will help expand the current literature and educate orthopaedic surgeons on a novel technology. To truly appreciate the role of telerehabilitation in the setting of TKA, further investigation is needed to investigate long-term outcomes, cost analysis, and patient and clinician satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.11.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409240PMC
February 2019

Soft Tissue Reconstruction for Deep Defects over a Complicated Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review.

J Knee Surg 2020 Jul 8;33(7):732-744. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Deep soft tissue defects after complicated primary or revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be devastating to the patient and technically challenging. The purpose of this review was to (1) discuss different methods used to provide coverage for deep defects of the knee following TKA, as well as to (2) report on their success rates. A comprehensive literature search was performed. Reports were only included if they (1) were case series, (2) were level III studies or above (including retrospective cohort studies and meta-analyses), (3) were in English, and (4) discussed the outcome of graft or flap coverage of soft tissue defects after total knee arthroplasty. A total of 28 case series and four retrospective comparative studies were retrieved. In 16 studies, 195 out of 241 patients who received gastrocnemius flaps (81%) experienced successful outcomes. In seven studies including 84 patients that underwent fasciocutaneous flap coverage, over 90% of patients experienced successful outcomes. In the four studies examining 144 patients with delayed versus prophylactic soft tissue reconstruction, up to 81% of patients experienced a successful outcome. Various factors must be taken into consideration when assessing full-thickness defects over a TKA and collaboration between plastic and orthopaedic surgeons is required to select the optimal approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1684012DOI Listing
July 2020

Accelerated Growth of Cellular Therapy Trials in Musculoskeletal Disorders: An Analysis of the NIH Clinical Trials Data Bank.

Orthopedics 2019 Mar 31;42(2):e144-e150. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the growth rate and the trends of musculoskeletal cellular therapy trials in the National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Data Bank; (2) analyze the study design and characteristics; and (3) assess which cellular therapies and disease conditions are studied. A systematic review of musculoskeletal clinical trials from 2005 to 2016 using cell-based therapies as the primary intervention was performed through ClinicalTrials.gov. The number of musculoskeletal cell-based clinical trials is increasing, with most being early stage, phase I/II, and using autologous cells harvested mostly from bone marrow to target cartilage-related diseases. Among the 282 clinical trials identified, only 99 (35.1%) were completed; 62 of the 99 (62.6%) did not list any related publications. [Orthopedics. 2019; 42(2):e144-e150.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20190118-04DOI Listing
March 2019

Postoperative stroke after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in patients with carotid artery stenosis: a statewide database analysis.

Spine J 2019 04 21;19(4):597-601. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Center for Spine Health, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Carotid artery injury and stroke secondary to prolonged retraction remains an extremely rare complication in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). However, multiple studies have demonstrated that carotid artery retraction during the surgical approach may alter the normal blood flow, leading to a significant reduction in the cross-sectional area of the vessel. Others have suggested that dislodgment of atherosclerotic plaques following manipulation of the carotid artery can be a potential risk for intracranial embolus and stroke.

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate: (1) the incidence of postoperative stroke following ACDF and (2) incidence of other postoperative complications in a cohort of patients who had a diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis (CAS) versus those who did not.

Patient Sample: This study utilized the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. All patients who underwent (ACDF) and had a preoperative diagnosis of CAS were identified using the International Classification of Disease, ninth revision codes. Those who had a previous history of stroke were excluded. Patients who had CAS were propensity score matched to patients without history of CAS for demographics and Charlson/Deyo comorbidity scores.

Outcome Measures: Incidence of postoperative stroke and other complications were compared between the cohorts. The threshold for statistical significance was set at a p<.05. This study received no funding. The authors report no conflict of interests relevant to this study.

Results: There were 34,975 patients who underwent an ACDF in the study time period. After excluding those under the age of 18 and with history of previous stroke, there were 61 patients who had CAS that were compared with a propensity-matched cohort. The CAS cohort had a significantly higher incidence of postoperative stroke during their hospitalization (6.6% vs 0%, p<.042). The CAS cohort also had higher rates of acute renal failure (27.9% vs 4.9%, p = .01) and sepsis (18% vs 4.9%, p = .023). There were no stroke related deaths.

Conclusions: Patients with CAS who underwent ACDF had a statistically significant greater incidence of developing a postoperative stroke. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated the development of postoperative stroke in patients with CAS undergoing ACDF. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to estimate the true incidence of stroke in this specific patient population. However, our results may illustrate the importance of preoperative optimization, approach-selection, and postoperative stroke surveillance in patients with a history of CAS who undergoes ACDF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2018.09.011DOI Listing
April 2019

Total knee arthroplasty in the face of a previous tuberculosis infection of the knee: what do we know in 2018?

Expert Rev Med Devices 2018 10 28;15(10):717-724. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

a Department of Orthopaedic Surgery , Cleveland Clinic , Cleveland , OH , USA.

Introduction: TB of the knee is often associated with marked morbidity because of its late and non-specific presentation. The use of TKA (total knee arthroplasty) in the face of a previous tuberculous knee infection has been criticized with multiple controversies. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to assess: (1) clinical outcomes, (2) radiographic outcomes, and (3) complications of TKA in the face of a previous healed TB infection. Our analysis has demonstrated that previous TB infection of the knee joint does not preclude TKA if indicated and suggests placing patients who have ESR or CRP results out of normal range on pre-operative anti-TB prophylactic antibiotic for a minimum of 2 weeks. In case of local recurrence following TKA, antibiotic therapy alone can be an effective treatment option.

Areas Covered: We examined reported outcomes of performing TKA in patients with previous TB infection of the knee. Different strategies recommended by different authors to maximize the success of TKA in this situation are also discussed.

Expert Commentary: TKA has been proven to be effective in patients who are status post tuberculous arthritis when thoughtful patient selection and peri-operative planning is conducted. Tuberculosis continues to have a rising incidence and increasing spread of multi-drug resistant strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17434440.2018.1520633DOI Listing
October 2018

Value proposition of robotic total knee arthroplasty: what can robotic technology deliver in 2018 and beyond?

Expert Rev Med Devices 2018 09 7;15(9):619-630. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

a Department of Orthopaedic Surgery , Cleveland Clinic , Cleveland , OH , USA.

Introduction: Robotic-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has undergone marked development and increasingly gained interest with multiple studies demonstrating excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes. However, a value assessment that encompasses other aspects related to the adoption of this technology is necessary to fully appreciate the cost/benefit ratio and potential present and future returns. Due to the relative paucity of evidence, this review was conducted to compare newer generation robotic TKA systems vs. historic ones and we evaluated: 1) clinical outcomes; 2) radiographic outcomes; 3) safety; 4) learning curve; 5) operating room efficiency; 6) effect on ergonomic health; and 7) cost analysis of robotic - assisted TKA to understand their value proposition.

Areas Covered: Comprehensive and detailed discussion of past and contemporary robotic-arm assisted TKA systems. What are the clinical and radiological outcomes and how robotic systems have evolved to offer potential advantages in 2018.

Expert Commentary: Robotic systems for TKA have undergone substantial development with proven excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes. However, there are still limitations to overcome. Overall, recent robotic technology is on a steep curve of adoption and expected only to grow, backed by the demonstrated clinical success and cost - benefit value that is projected to favor further growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17434440.2018.1515011DOI Listing
September 2018

Cementless Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

Orthopedics 2018 Sep 21;41(5):263-273. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

This review evaluated (1) original and newer cementless implants; (2) outcomes of newer designs; (3) risks and benefits; and (4) newer cementless vs cemented total knee arthroplasties. A search for all reports on cementless total knee arthroplasties published from January 2010 to April 2017 was performed, and 31 studies were included for final analysis. Newer cementless total knee arthroplasty designs have shown excellent survivorship, functional outcomes, and satisfaction rates in both young and elderly populations. Compared with cement fixation, there may be potential benefits with the newer cementless implants. However, these findings need to be further substantiated with additional studies reporting longer-term results. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(5):263-273.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20180815-05DOI Listing
September 2018

Classification systems of hip osteonecrosis: an updated review.

Int Orthop 2019 05 18;43(5):1089-1095. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) typically impacts middle-aged patients who are typically more active and in whom many surgeons would try to delay performing a total hip arthroplasty (THA). This poses a clinical decision-making challenge. Therefore, several options for joint preservation have been advocated, but varying indications and success rates have led to debate on when to use the various procedures. This is due in part to the lack of a generalized system for assessing ONFH, as well as the absence of a standardized method of data collection for patient stratification. Due to the paucity of studies, in this review, we aimed to provide an up-to-date review of the most widely utilized classification systems and discuss the characteristics of each system.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted. Studies published between January 1st, 1975 and March 1st, 2018 were reviewed. The following key words were used in combination with Boolean operators AND or OR for the literature search: "osteonecrosis," "avascular necrosis," "hip," "femoral head," "classification," "reliability," and "validity." We defined the inclusion criteria for qualifying studies for this review as follows: (1) studies that reported on the classification systems for hip osteonecrosis, (2) studies that reported on the inter-observer reliability of the classification systems, and (3) studies that reported on the intra-observer reliability of any ONFH classification systems. In addition, we employed the following exclusion criteria: (1) studies that assessed classification systems for traumatic osteonecrosis, (2) Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, or (3) Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Additionally, we excluded case reports and duplicate studies among searched databases.

Results: The following classification systems were the most commonly utilized: The Ficat and Arlet, Steinberg, the Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO), and the Japanese Investigation Committee (JIC) classification systems. The details of each system have been discussed and their inter- and intra-observer reliability has been compared.

Conclusion: To this date, there is a lack of consensus on a universal and comprehensive system, and the use of any of the previous classification systems is a matter of dealer's choice. The Ficat and Arlet system was the earliest yet remains the most widely utilized system. Newer classification systems have been developed and some such as the JIC shows promising prognostic value while maintaining simplicity. However, larger validating studies are needed. While all of these systems have their strengths, the lack of a unified classification and staging system is still a problem in the diagnosis and prognosis ONFH. Further multi-center collaborative efforts among osteonecrosis experts are needed to adopt a universal classification system that may positively reflect on patient's outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-018-4018-4DOI Listing
May 2019
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