Publications by authors named "Moon Kim"

1,239 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nanozymes in Point-of-Care Diagnosis: An Emerging Futuristic Approach for Biosensing.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Sep 13;13(1):193. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Nanomaterial-based artificial enzymes (or nanozymes) have attracted great attention in the past few years owing to their capability not only to mimic functionality but also to overcome the inherent drawbacks of the natural enzymes. Numerous advantages of nanozymes such as diverse enzyme-mimicking activities, low cost, high stability, robustness, unique surface chemistry, and ease of surface tunability and biocompatibility have allowed their integration in a wide range of biosensing applications. Several metal, metal oxide, metal-organic framework-based nanozymes have been exploited for the development of biosensing systems, which present the potential for point-of-care analysis. To highlight recent progress in the field, in this review, more than 260 research articles are discussed systematically with suitable recent examples, elucidating the role of nanozymes to reinforce, miniaturize, and improve the performance of point-of-care diagnostics addressing the ASSURED (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free and deliverable to the end user) criteria formulated by World Health Organization. The review reveals that many biosensing strategies such as electrochemical, colorimetric, fluorescent, and immunological sensors required to achieve the ASSURED standards can be implemented by using enzyme-mimicking activities of nanomaterials as signal producing components. However, basic system functionality is still lacking. Since the enzyme-mimicking properties of the nanomaterials are dictated by their size, shape, composition, surface charge, surface chemistry as well as external parameters such as pH or temperature, these factors play a crucial role in the design and function of nanozyme-based point-of-care diagnostics. Therefore, it requires a deliberate exertion to integrate various parameters for truly ASSURED solutions to be realized. This review also discusses possible limitations and research gaps to provide readers a brief scenario of the emerging role of nanozymes in state-of-the-art POC diagnosis system development for futuristic biosensing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00717-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Exploring the Binding Mechanism of PF-07321332 SARS-CoV-2 Protease Inhibitor through Molecular Dynamics and Binding Free Energy Simulations.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 24;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea.

The novel coronavirus disease, caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly spreading around the world, poses a major threat to the global public health. Herein, we demonstrated the binding mechanism of PF-07321332, α-ketoamide, lopinavir, and ritonavir to the coronavirus 3-chymotrypsin-like-protease (3CL) by means of docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The analysis of MD trajectories of 3CL with PF-07321332, α-ketoamide, lopinavir, and ritonavir revealed that 3CL-PF-07321332 and 3CL-α-ketoamide complexes remained stable compared with 3CL-ritonavir and 3CL-lopinavir. Investigating the dynamic behavior of ligand-protein interaction, ligands PF-07321332 and α-ketoamide showed stronger bonding via making interactions with catalytic dyad residues His41-Cys145 of 3CL. Lopinavir and ritonavir were unable to disrupt the catalytic dyad, as illustrated by increased bond length during the MD simulation. To decipher the ligand binding mode and affinity, ligand interactions with SARS-CoV-2 proteases and binding energy were calculated. The binding energy of the bespoke antiviral PF-07321332 clinical candidate was two times higher than that of α-ketoamide and three times than that of lopinavir and ritonavir. Our study elucidated in detail the binding mechanism of the potent PF-07321332 to 3CL along with the low potency of lopinavir and ritonavir due to weak binding affinity demonstrated by the binding energy data. This study will be helpful for the development and optimization of more specific compounds to combat coronavirus disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430524PMC
August 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response to the BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine in Persons with Past Natural Infection.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Sep 6;36(35):e250. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, Korea.

There are still no agreed guidelines on the vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for previously infected patients. Here, we present two seropositive healthcare workers (HCWs) working in an isolation ward who recovered from COVID-19 in April 2020 and got vaccinated with BNT162b2 vaccine in March 2021. We have assessed the clinical course, vaccine-related adverse events, and antibody response after natural infection and after first and second dose vaccination. One of the two HCWs was asymptomatic during quarantine, but the other had mild upper respiratory infection symptoms 1 day before admission, and the symptoms continued for 9 days. There was no pneumonic infiltration in chest X-ray in both patients, and no COVID-19 specific treatment was administered. Total immunoglobulin antibody and neutralizing antibody to anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were confirmed to be present in both HCWs in blood tests performed at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after discharge. Antibody response to mRNA vaccination showed marked elevation after the first vaccination, which was 30-40 times higher than that of antibody titer after natural infection in each patient (83.2 U/mL vs. > 2,500 U/mL in patient 1; 61.6 U/mL vs. > 2,500 U/mL in patient 2). Signal inhibition rate of neutralizing antibodies was also increased to over 97%. Due to this increased effect, there was little difference in antibody levels after the first and second dose. Both patients 1 and 2 suffered more from adverse vaccine reactions after the second vaccination than from COVID-19 symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422040PMC
September 2021

Prediction of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Using Crown-Rump Length at 11 to 13 + 6 Weeks of Gestation.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Objectives: To assess the risk of a fetus with a smaller or larger than expected crown-rump length (CRL) for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: The data of 960 healthy singleton pregnancies conceived via in vitro fertilization were retrospectively collected. Fetal CRL was measured between 11 and 13 + 6 weeks of gestation, and small and large fetal CRLs were defined as fetuses below the 10th and above the 90th centiles, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Results: The mean birth weights of fetuses with small, normal, and large CRLs were 3002 g, 3205 g, and 3378 g, respectively. A small fetal CRL was associated with an increased risk of smaller-than-gestational-age neonates (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-5.08; P < .001) and preterm delivery before 34 gestational weeks (aOR, 6.48; 95% CI, 1.36-30.79; P = .019). A large fetal CRL was associated with an increased risk of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates, and the risk persisted even after adjustment for well-known risk factors of macrosomia, such as pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational diabetes, and excessive gestational weight gain (aOR, 3.67; 95% CI, 2.04-6.59; P < .001). However, a large fetal CRL was associated with a decreased risk of gestational diabetes (aOR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.76; P = .026).

Conclusions: Fetal CRL measured at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks gestation is worth using as a predictor of LGA as well as small for gestational age or preterm delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15810DOI Listing
September 2021

Endogenous Stem Cell-Based In Situ Tissue Regeneration Using Electrostatically Interactive Hydrogel with a Newly Discovered Substance P Analog and VEGF-Mimicking Peptide.

Small 2021 Sep 4:e2103244. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon, 16499, Korea.

The use of chemoattractants to promote endogenous stem cell-based in situ tissue regeneration has recently garnered much attention. This study is the first to assess the endogenous stem cell migration using a newly discovered substance P (SP) analog (SP1) by molecular dynamics simulations as an efficient chemoattractant. Further, a novel strategy based on electrostatic interaction using cationic chitosan (Ch) and anionic hyaluronic acid (HA) to prepare an SP1-loaded injectable C/H formulation without SP1 loss is developed. The formulation quickly forms an SP1-loaded C/H hydrogel in situ through in vivo injection. The newly discovered SP1 is found to possess human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) migration-inducing ability that is approximately two to three times higher than that of the existing SP. The designed VEGF-mimicking peptide (VP) chemically reacts with the hydrogel (C/H-VP) to sustain the release of VP, thus inducing vasculogenic differentiation of the hMSCs that migrate toward the C/H-VP hydrogel. Similarly, in animal experiments, SP1 attracts a large number of hMSCs toward the C/H-VP hydrogel, after which VP induces vasculogenic differentiation. Collectively, these findings indicate that SP1-loaded C/H-VP hydrogels are a promising strategy to facilitate endogenous stem cell-based in situ tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103244DOI Listing
September 2021

High-Throughput Phenotyping Approach for the Evaluation of Heat Stress in Korean Ginseng ( Meyer) Using a Hyperspectral Reflectance Image.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 21;21(16). Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

has been used as a traditional medicine to strengthen human health for centuries. Over the last decade, significant agronomical progress has been made in the development of elite ginseng cultivars, increasing their production and quality. However, as one of the significant environmental factors, heat stress remains a challenge and poses a significant threat to ginseng plants' growth and sustainable production. This study was conducted to investigate the phenotype of ginseng leaves under heat stress using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). A visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) HSI system were used to acquire hyperspectral images for normal and heat stress-exposed plants, showing their susceptibility (Chunpoong) and resistibility (Sunmyoung and Sunil). The acquired hyperspectral images were analyzed using the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique, combining the variable importance in projection and successive projection algorithm methods. The correlation of each group was verified using linear discriminant analysis. The developed models showed 12 bands over 79.2% accuracy in Vis/NIR and 18 bands with over 98.9% accuracy at SWIR in validation data. The constructed beta-coefficient allowed the observation of the key wavebands and peaks linked to the chlorophyll, nitrogen, fatty acid, sugar and protein content regions, which differentiated normal and stressed plants. This result shows that the HSI with the PLS-DA technique significantly differentiated between the heat-stressed susceptibility and resistibility of ginseng plants with high accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21165634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8402434PMC
August 2021

Research Progress and Prospects of Nanozyme-Based Glucose Biofuel Cells.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Aug 19;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea.

The appearance and evolution of biofuel cells can be categorized into three groups: microbial biofuel cells (MBFCs), enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs), and enzyme-like nanomaterial (nanozyme)-based biofuel cells (NBFCs). MBFCs can produce electricity from waste; however, they have significantly low power output as well as difficulty in controlling electron transfer and microbial growth. EBFCs are more productive in generating electricity with the assistance of natural enzymes, but their vulnerability under diverse environmental conditions has critically hindered practical applications. In contrast, because of the intrinsic advantages of nanozymes, such as high stability and robustness even in harsh conditions, low synthesis cost through facile scale-up, and tunable catalytic activity, NBFCs have attracted attention, particularly for developing wearable and implantable devices to generate electricity from glucose in the physiological fluids of plants, animals, and humans. In this review, recent studies on NBFCs, including the synthetic strategies and catalytic activities of metal and metal oxide-based nanozymes, the mechanism of electricity generation from glucose, and representative studies are reviewed and discussed. Current challenges and prospects for the utilization of nanozymes in glucose biofuel cells are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11082116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8402078PMC
August 2021

Effective Cryopreservation of a Bioluminescent Auxotrophic -Based Amino Acid Array to Enable Long-Term Ready-to-Use Applications.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 26;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdae-ro, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam 13120, Korea.

Amino acid arrays comprising bioluminescent amino acid auxotrophic are effective systems to quantitatively determine multiple amino acids. However, there is a need to develop a method for convenient long-term preservation of the array to enable its practical applications. Here, we reported a potential strategy to efficiently maintain cell viability within the portable array. The method involves immobilization of cells within agarose gel supplemented with an appropriate cryoprotectant in individual wells of a 96-well plate, followed by storage under freezing conditions. Six cryoprotectants, namely dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, and trehalose, were tested in the methionine (Met) auxotroph-based array. Carbohydrate-type cryoprotectants (glycerol, sucrose, and trehalose) efficiently preserved the linearity of determination of Met concentration. In particular, the array with 5% trehalose exhibited the best performance. The Met array with 5% trehalose could determine Met concentration with high linearity (R value = approximately 0.99) even after storage at -20 °C for up to 3 months. The clinical utilities of the Met and Leu array, preserved at -20 °C for 3 months, were also verified by successfully quantifying Met and Leu in spiked blood serum samples for the diagnosis of the corresponding metabolic diseases. This long-term preservation protocol enables the development of a ready-to-use bioluminescent -based amino acid array to quantify multiple amino acids and can replace the currently used laborious analytical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios11080252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393857PMC
July 2021

Deep Learning-Based Algorithm for the Detection and Characterization of MRI Safety of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices on Chest Radiographs.

Korean J Radiol 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: With the recent development of various MRI-conditional cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), the accurate identification and characterization of CIEDs have become critical when performing MRI in patients with CIEDs. We aimed to develop and evaluate a deep learning-based algorithm (DLA) that performs the detection and characterization of parameters, including MRI safety, of CIEDs on chest radiograph (CR) in a single step and compare its performance with other related algorithms that were recently developed.

Materials And Methods: We developed a DLA (X-ray CIED identification [XCID]) using 9912 CRs of 958 patients with 968 CIEDs comprising 26 model groups from 4 manufacturers obtained between 2014 and 2019 from one hospital. The performance of XCID was tested with an external dataset consisting of 2122 CRs obtained from a different hospital and compared with the performance of two other related algorithms recently reported, including PacemakerID (PID) and Pacemaker identification with neural networks (PPMnn).

Results: The overall accuracies of XCID for the manufacturer classification, model group identification, and MRI safety characterization using the internal test dataset were 99.7% (992/995), 97.2% (967/995), and 98.9% (984/995), respectively. These were 95.8% (2033/2122), 85.4% (1813/2122), and 92.2% (1956/2122), respectively, with the external test dataset. In the comparative study, the accuracy for the manufacturer classification was 95.0% (152/160) for XCID and 91.3% for PPMnn (146/160), which was significantly higher than that for PID (80.0%,128/160; < 0.001 for both). XCID demonstrated a higher accuracy (88.1%; 141/160) than PPMnn (80.0%; 128/160) in identifying model groups ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: The remarkable and consistent performance of XCID suggests its applicability for detection, manufacturer and model identification, as well as MRI safety characterization of CIED on CRs. Further studies are warranted to guarantee the safe use of XCID in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2021.0201DOI Listing
August 2021

Multidimensional Biomarker Analysis Including Mitochondrial Stress Indicators for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Gut Liver 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Physiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accompanied by a complex and multifactorial pathogenesis with sequential progressions from inflammation to fibrosis and then to cancer. This heterogeneity interferes with the development of precise diagnostic and prognostic strategies for NAFLD. The current approach for the diagnosis of simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis mainly consists of ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, elastography, and various serological analyses. However, individual dry and wet biomarkers have limitations demanding an integrative approach for the assessment of disease progression. Here, we review diagnostic strategies for simple steatosis, steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, followed by potential biomarkers associated with fat accumulation and mitochondrial stress. For mitochondrial stress indicators, we focused on fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), angiopoietin-related growth factor and mitochondrial-derived peptides. Each biomarker may not strongly indicate the severity of steatosis or steatohepatitis. Instead, multidimensional analysis of different groups of biomarkers based on pathogenic mechanisms may provide decisive diagnostic/prognostic information to develop a therapeutic plan for patients with NAFLD. For this purpose, mitochondrial stress indicators, such as FGF21 or GDF15, could be an important component in the multiplexed and contextual interpretation of NAFLD. Further validation of the integrative evaluation of mitochondrial stress indicators combined with other biomarkers is needed in the diagnosis/prognosis of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl210106DOI Listing
August 2021

Primary hepatic sarcoidosis presenting with cholestatic liver disease and mimicking primary biliary cholangitis.

Yeungnam Univ J Med 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea.

Sarcoidosis often involves the liver. However, primary hepatic sarcoidosis confined to the liver without evidence of systemic involvement is rare. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with hepatic sarcoidosis who initially presented with elevated liver enzymes and suspicious cirrhotic nodules on computed tomography. The patient had cirrhosis but did not have portal hypertension. Based on the initial histopathologic finding of chronic granulomatous inflammation and the common clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis, he was initially diagnosed with primary biliary cholangitis, and his daily dosage of ursodeoxycholic acid was increased to 900 mg. After 14 months of treatment, his total serum bilirubin concentration was 10.9 mg/dL (upper normal limit, 1.2 mg/dL). Additionally, a transjugular liver biopsy revealed multiple noncaseating granulomas. He was diagnosed with primary hepatic sarcoidosis involving the lungs, heart, spleen, kidneys, and skin. Treatment with methylprednisolone was initiated. Two weeks later, he was started on azathioprine, and the dose of steroid was simultaneously reduced. These findings indicate the importance of including hepatic sarcoidosis as a possible diagnosis in patients with elevated liver enzymes or cryptogenic cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2021.01151DOI Listing
August 2021

Automated detection of superficial fungal infections from microscopic images through a regional convolutional neural network.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(8):e0256290. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Dermatology, Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Direct microscopic examination with potassium hydroxide is generally used as a screening method for diagnosing superficial fungal infections. Although this type of examination is faster than other diagnostic methods, it can still be time-consuming to evaluate a complete sample; additionally, it possesses the disadvantage of inconsistent reliability as the accuracy of the reading may differ depending on the performer's skill. This study aims at detecting hyphae more quickly, conveniently, and consistently through deep learning using images obtained from microscopy used in real-world practice. An object detection convolutional neural network, YOLO v4, was trained on microscopy images with magnifications of 100×, 40×, and (100+40)×. The study was conducted at the Department of Dermatology at Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019, using 3,707 images (1,255 images for training, 1,645 images for testing). The average precision was used to evaluate the accuracy of object detection. Precision recall curve analysis was performed for the hyphal location determination, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed on the image classification. The F1 score, sensitivity, and specificity values were used as measures of the overall performance. The sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 95.2% and 100% in the 100× data model, and 99% and 86.6% in the 40× data model; the sensitivity and specificity in the combined (100+40)× data model were 93.2% and 89%, respectively. The performance of our model had high sensitivity and specificity, indicating that hyphae can be detected with reliable accuracy. Thus, our deep learning-based autodetection model can detect hyphae in microscopic images obtained from real-world practice. We aim to develop an automatic hyphae detection system that can be utilized in real-world practice through continuous research.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256290PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370604PMC
August 2021

Person-Centered Goal Setting: A Systematic Review of Intervention Components and Level of Active Engagement in Rehabilitation Goal-Setting Interventions.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Aug 8. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Program in Occupational Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Objective: This systematic review aims to examine (1) what components are used in current person-centered goal-setting interventions for adults with health conditions in rehabilitation and (2) the extent to which the engagement of people in their rehabilitation goal setting is encouraged.

Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, and Web of Science from inception to November 2020.

Study Selection: Primary inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles that evaluated person-centered goal-setting interventions for adults with health conditions in rehabilitation. Two independent reviewers screened 28,294 records, and 22 articles met inclusion criteria.

Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently completed data extraction and quality assessment using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDRo) scale based on the original authors' descriptions, reports, and protocol publications. Any discrepancies were resolved by consensus or in consultation with another senior reviewer.

Data Synthesis: Using narrative synthesis, we found that current person-centered goal setting has variability in their inclusion of intervention components. A considerable number of components are underimplemented in current practice, with formulation of coping plan and follow-up being most commonly left out. The active engagement of people does appear to be promoted within the components that are included in the interventions. Nine studies were high-quality defined as a total PEDro scale score of 6 or above.

Conclusions: Although current person-centered goal setting encourages the active engagement of people, many of these interventions lack components considered important for supporting goal achievement and optimal outcomes. Future practice may be improved by incorporating a comprehensive set of goal-setting components and encouraging the active engagement of people throughout the entire goal-setting process. Together, these practices may facilitate the achievement of meaningful rehabilitation goals and improve rehabilitation outcomes for adults with health conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.06.025DOI Listing
August 2021

Colorimetric determination of phenolic compounds using peroxidase mimics based on biomolecule-free hybrid nanoflowers consisting of graphitic carbon nitride and copper.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 08 7;188(9):293. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdae-ro, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, 13120, Republic of Korea.

Hybrid nanoflowers consisting of graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) and copper were successfully constructed without the involvement of any biomolecule, by simply mixing them at room temperature to induce proper self-assembly to achieve a flower-like morphology. The resulting biomolecule-free GCN-copper hybrid nanoflowers (GCN-Cu NFs) exhibited an apparent peroxidase-mimicking activity, possibly owing to the synergistic effect from the coordination of GCN and copper, as well as their large surface area, which increased the number of catalytic reaction sites. The peroxidase-mimicking GCN-Cu NFs were then employed in the colorimetric determination of selected phenolic compounds hydroquinone (HQ), methylhydroquinone (MHQ), and catechol (CC). For samples without phenolic compounds, GCN-Cu NFs catalyzed the oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of HO, producing an intense blue color signal. Conversely, in the presence of phenolic compounds, the oxidation of TMB was inhibited, resulting in a significant reduction of the color signal. Using this strategy, HQ, MHQ, and CC were selectively and sensitively determined in a linear range up to 100 μM with detection limits down to 0.82, 0.27, and 0.36 μM, respectively. The practical utility of this assay system was also validated by using it to detect phenolic compounds spiked in tap water, yielding a good recovery of 97.1-108.9% and coefficient of variation below 3.0%, demonstrating the excellent reliability and reproducibility of this strategy. Colorimetric determination of phenolic compounds using peroxidase mimics based on biomolecule-free hybrid nanoflowers consisting of graphitic carbon nitride and copper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04937-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Predictors of Newborn's Weight for Height: A Machine Learning Study Using Nationwide Multicenter Ultrasound Data.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jul 16;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ewha Medical Center, Ewha Medical Institute, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul 07804, Korea.

There has been no machine learning study with a rich collection of clinical, sonographic markers to compare the performance measures for a variety of newborns' weight-for-height indicators. This study compared the performance measures for a variety of newborns' weight-for-height indicators based on machine learning, ultrasonographic data and maternal/delivery information. The source of data for this study was a multi-center retrospective study with 2949 mother-newborn pairs. The mean-squared-error-over-variance measures of five machine learning approaches were compared for newborn's weight, newborn's weight/height, newborn's weight/height and newborn's weight/hieght. Random forest variable importance, the influence of a variable over average node impurity, was used to identify major predictors of these newborns' weight-for-height indicators among ultrasonographic data and maternal/delivery information. Regarding ultrasonographic fetal biometry, newborn's weight, newborn's weight/height and newborn's weight/height were better indicators with smaller mean-squared-error-over-variance measures than newborn's weight/height. Based on random forest variable importance, the top six predictors of newborn's weight were the same as those of newborn's weight/height and those of newborn's weight/height: gestational age at delivery time, the first estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference in week 36 or later, maternal weight and body mass index at delivery time, and the first biparietal diameter in week 36 or later. These six predictors also ranked within the top seven for large-for-gestational-age and the top eight for small-for-gestational-age. In conclusion, newborn's weight, newborn's weight/height and newborn's weight/height are more suitable for ultrasonographic fetal biometry with smaller mean-squared-error-over-variance measures than newborn's weight/height. Machine learning with ultrasonographic data would be an effective noninvasive approach for predicting newborn's weight, weight/height and weight/height.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11071280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304217PMC
July 2021

Hepatopulmonary syndrome is related to the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure and poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients.

Hepatol Int 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, 20, Ilsanro, Wonju, 26426, Republic of Korea.

Background And Aims: Long-term prospective data on hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) from a large number of patients, especially in Asian patients, are lacking. We evaluated the long-term prognosis of HPS and the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), and related factors.

Methods: A total of 142 patients with cirrhosis who underwent saline-agitated contrast echocardiography for the diagnosis of HPS were enrolled and observed prospectively from 2014 to 2019.

Results: A total of 59 patients (41%) were diagnosed with HPS (24 grade 1, 23 grade 2, 12 grade 3). Thirty-eight and 37 patients died in the HPS and non-HPS groups, respectively (p < 0.01). The 5-year survival rate was 47% in the HPS group and 62% in the non-HPS group. In the Cox proportional hazards model, HPS and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score ≥ 18, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class B/C were significant risk factors for mortality after adjusting for other risk factors (HPS hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9, p = 0.01; MELD score ≥ 18 HR = 2.3, p < 0.01; CTP class B/C HR = 2.9, p < 0.01). Compared to that in non-HPS group, the HPS group had a significantly higher incidence of ACLF during follow-up (p < 0.01) and more frequently presented with lung involvement of ACLF (p = 0.03).

Conclusions: In the long-term follow-up cohort, patients with HPS showed poorer prognosis than that of patients without HPS. HPS was a risk factor for ACLF development independent of hepatic dysfunction, and lung involvement was significantly common than without ACLF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10226-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Enhanced Osteogenesis of Dental Pulp Stem Cells In Vitro Induced by Chitosan-PEG-Incorporated Calcium Phosphate Cement.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Biosystems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

The use of bone graft materials is required for the treatment of bone defects damaged beyond the critical defect; therefore, injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is actively used after surgery. The application of various polymers to improve injectability, mechanical strength, and biological function of injection-type CPC is encouraged. We previously developed a chitosan-PEG conjugate (CS/PEG) by a sulfur (VI) fluoride exchange reaction, and the resulting chitosan derivative showed high solubility at a neutral pH. We have demonstrated the CPC incorporated with a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted chitosan (CS/PEG) and developed CS/PEG CPC. The characterization of CS/PEG CPC was conducted using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The initial properties of CS/PEG CPCs, such as the pH, porosity, mechanical strength, zeta potential, and in vitro biocompatibility using the WST-1 assay, were also investigated. Moreover, osteocompatibility of CS/PEG CPCs was carried out via Alizarin Red S staining, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot analysis. CS/PEG CPC has enhanced mechanical strength compared to CPC, and the cohesion test also demonstrated in vivo stability. Furthermore, we determined whether CS/PEG CPC is a suitable candidate for promoting the osteogenic ability of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC). The elution of CS/PEG CPC entraps more calcium ion than CPC, as confirmed through the zeta potential test. Accordingly, the ion trapping effect of CS/PEG is considered to have played a role in promoting osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. The results strongly suggested that CS/PEG could be used as suitable additives for improving osteogenic induction of bone substitute materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13142252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309336PMC
July 2021

Plausible Pnicogen Bonding of Cinchonidine as a Chiral Scaffold in Catalysis.

Front Chem 2021 6;9:669515. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gachon University, Incheon, South Korea.

As a non-covalent interaction of a chiral scaffold in catalysis, pnicogen bonding of cinchonidine (), a cinchona alkaloid, was simulated to consider whether the interaction can have the potential controlling enantiotopic face like hydrogen bonding. Among five reactive functional groups in , two stable complexes of the hydroxyl group (X-epi-CD1) at C and of the quinoline ring (X-epi-CD2) at N with pnictide family analytes [X = substituted phosphine (PX), i.e., F, Br, Cl, CF, CN, HO, NO, and CH, and pnictide family analytes, i.e., PBr, BiI, SbI, and AsI] were predicted with intermolecular interaction energies, charge transfer (Q and Q), and band gap energies of HOMO-LUMO (Eg) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of density functional theory. It was found that the dominant site of pnicogen bonding in epi-CD is the quinoline ring (N atom) rather than the hydroxyl group (O atom). In addition, the UV-Vis spectra of the complex were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level and compared with experimental measurements. Through these calculations, two intermolecular interactions (H-bond vs. pnicogen bond) of were compared.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.669515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290064PMC
July 2021

Structural insights into the distinctive RNA recognition and therapeutic potentials of RIG-I-like receptors.

Med Res Rev 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.

RNA viruses, including the coronavirus, develop a unique strategy to evade the host immune response by interrupting the normal function of cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs). RLRs rapidly detect atypical nucleic acids, thereby triggering the antiviral innate immune signaling cascade and subsequently activates the interferons transcription and induction of other proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Nonetheless, these receptors are manipulated by viral proteins to subvert the host immune system and sustain the infectivity and replication potential of the virus. RIG-I senses the single-stranded, double-stranded, and short double-stranded RNAs and recognizes the key signature, a 5'-triphosphate moiety, at the blunt end of the viral RNA. Meanwhile, the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is triggered by longer double stranded RNAs, messenger RNAs lacking 2'-O-methylation in their 5'-cap, and RNA aggregates. Therefore, structural insights into the nucleic-acid-sensing and downstream signaling mechanisms of these receptors hold great promise for developing effective antiviral therapeutic interventions. This review highlights the critical roles played by RLRs in viral infections as well as their ligand recognition mechanisms. In addition, we highlight the crosstalk between the toll-like receptors and RLRs and provide a comprehensive overview of RLR-associated diseases as well as the therapeutic potential of RLRs for the development of antiviral-drugs. Moreover, we believe that these RLR-based antivirals will serve as a step toward countering the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/med.21845DOI Listing
July 2021

Circulating miRNA is a useful diagnostic biomarker for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 19;11(1):14639. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University Medical Center, 97, Guro-Dong Gil, Guro-Dong, Guro-Ku, Seoul, 08308, Republic of Korea.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered as a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To distinguish NASH from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), we evaluated the diagnostic value of circulating miRNAs. Small RNA sequencing was performed on 12 NAFL patients and 12 NASH patients, and the miRNA expression was compared. After selecting miRNAs for the diagnosis of NASH, we analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of each miRNA and the combination of miRNAs. External validation was performed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Among the 2,588 miRNAs, 26 miRNAs significantly increased in the NASH group than in the NAFL group. Among the 26 elevated miRNAs in the NASH group, 8 miRNAs were selected, and in silico analysis was performed. Only four miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-151a-3p, miR-192-5p, and miR-4449) showed significant area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for NASH diagnosis. The combination of the four miRNAs showed satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for NASH (AUC 0.875; 95% CI 0.676-0.973). External validation revealed similar diagnostic accuracy for NASH (AUC 0.874; 95% CI 0.724-0.960). NASH represents significantly distinct miRNA expression profile compared with NAFL. The combination of serum circulating miRNAs can be used as a novel biomarker for the NASH diagnosis in NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94115-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8289842PMC
July 2021

A near-complete genome sequence of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) provides key insights into the modern breeding program.

Plant Genome 2021 Jul 18:e20121. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Dep. of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National Univ., Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.), a fast-growing legume species, is an important source of carbohydrates and proteins in developing countries of Asia. Here, we constructed a near-complete genome sequence of mungbean with a scaffold N50 value of 5.2 Mb and only a 0.4% gap, with a total scaffold size of 475 Mb. We identified several misassembled pseudomolecules (Chr03, Chr04, Chr05, and Chr08) in the previous draft assembly; Chr03, Chr04, and Chr08 were assembled into one chromosome, and Chr05 was broken into two chromosomes in the improved reference genome assembly, thus providing more accurate linkage information to breeders. Additionally, using an ultra-high-resolution linkage map constructed based on resequencing data, we identified several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the underlying candidate genes affecting synchronous pod maturity (SPM). Mungbean homologs of two soybean ([Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowering genes, E3 (phytochrome A) and J (early flowering 3), were identified as candidate genes for the QTLs, and the candidate genes for plant height, node number, and SPM showed critical nucleotide substitutions between the reference cultivar and other genotypes (landraces and wild accessions). Based on the analysis of genetic diversity among 276 accessions collected from 23 countries, we identified 36 selective sweep regions and observed that the overall genetic diversity of cultivars decreased to 30% of that in wild accessions postdomestication. The near-complete genome sequence of mungbean represents an important resource for genome-assisted improvement in the mungbean breeding program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20121DOI Listing
July 2021

Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of 1-stearoyl- 2-docosahexaenoyl, 1-stearoyl- 2-arachidonoyl, and 1,2-stearoyl phosphocholines.

Chem Phys Lipids 2021 Sep 14;239:105116. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD, 20705, United States.

Mixed chain phospholipids containing a saturated fatty acid at sn1 and a polyunsaturated fatty acid in sn2 are common in the specialized biological membranes prevalent in neural, retinal and organ tissues. Particularly important are mixed lipids containing palmitic or stearic acid and arachidonic or docosahexaenoic acid. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements and phase transitions. Herein we utilize GTRS for 1-18:0, 2-20:4n-6 PC; 1-18:0 2-22:6n-3 PC; and 1-18:0, 2-18:0 PC from -80 to 50 °C temperatures. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 0.2 °C increments and first/second derivatives allowed detailed vibrational mode assignment and analysis. Samples were analyzed neat and with molecular hydration. Previously reported phase transitions for hydrated 18:0-20:4PC and 18:0-22:6PC and numerous spectral differences resulting from hydration and the double bond structure were clearly observed. Molecular models showed that the addition of minimal water molecules results in significant structural differences compared to the neat molecules; 18:0-22:6PC is strikingly compact with water when viewed from the hydrophilic end. This precise Raman data cannot be observed in typically utilized fully hydrated vesicle samples, however the improved GTRS will allow for more precise analysis in fully hydrated vesicles because the underlying modes in the unavoidably broadened spectra can be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2021.105116DOI Listing
September 2021

A Novel Robot-Assisted Kinematic Measure for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

Psychiatry Investig 2021 Jul 16;18(7):645-651. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Hanyang University Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. In contrast to neurocognitive measurements of inattention and impulsivity, there has been limited research regarding the objective measurement of hyperactivity in youths with ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of a newly developed Robot-assisted Kinematic Measure for ADHD (RAKMA) in children with ADHD.

Methods: In total, 35 children with ADHD aged 5 to 12 years and 50 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and the Korean ADHD Diagnostic Scale. RAKMA performance was represented by RAKMA stimulus-response and hyperactivity variables. We compared the RAKMA performance of those with ADHD and with that of HCs and also investigated the correlation between the RAKMA variables and ADHD clinical scale scores.

Results: Significant differences between the ADHD and HC groups were observed regarding most RAKMA variables, including correct reactions, commission errors, omission errors, reaction times, migration distance, and migration speed scores. Significant correlations were detected between various ADHD clinical scale scores and RAKMA variables.

Conclusion: The RAKMA was a clinically useful tool for objectively measuring hyperactivity symptoms in children with ADHD. Further studies with larger samples are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2021.0036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328839PMC
July 2021

Photon Proton Beam Therapy for T1-3 Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thoracic Esophagus Without Lymph Node Metastasis.

Front Oncol 2021 21;11:699172. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, South Korea.

Background And Purpose: We compared treatment outcomes and toxicities of photon radiotherapy proton beam therapy (PBT) and evaluated radiation field effects for T1-3 squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus (EC) without lymph node metastasis.

Methods: Medical records of 77 patients with T1-3N0M0 thoracic EC treated with radiotherapy between 2011 and 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 61 (79.2%) individuals had T1 EC. The initial clinical target volume encompassed the whole esophagus with or without supraclavicular and/or abdominal lymph nodes (extended-field radiotherapy; 67 patients, 87.0%) or the area 3-5 cm craniocaudally and 1-2 cm radially from the gross tumor volume (involved-field radiotherapy; 10 patients, 13.0%). The final clinical target volume included margins of at least 1 cm from the gross tumor volume, with total radiation doses of 50-66 (median, 66) cobalt gray equivalent. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and PBT were used in twenty-four, five, and forty-eight patients, respectively. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 17 (22.0%) patients overall and only five (8.0%) T1 patients.

Results: PBT showed significantly lower lung and heart radiation exposure in mean dose, V5, V10, V20, and V30 than photon radiotherapy. The median follow-up for all patients was 46 (interquartile range, 22-72) months. The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 56.5 and 64.9%, respectively, with no significant survival difference between photon radiotherapy and PBT. In patients with T1 EC, 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 62.6 and 73.5%, respectively.

Conclusions: Extended-field radiotherapy using modern radiotherapy techniques without chemotherapy showed satisfactory clinical outcomes for lymph node-negative T1 EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.699172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255910PMC
June 2021

Optimization of Position and Number of Hotspot Detectors Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm to Estimate Material Levels Inside a Silo.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;21(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.

To realize efficient operation of a silo, level management of internal storage is crucial. In this study, to address the existing measurement limitations, a silo hotspot detector, which is typically utilized for internal silo temperature monitoring, was employed. The internal temperature data measured using the hotspot detectors were used to train an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm to predict the level of the internal storage of the silo. The prediction accuracy was evaluated by comparing the predicted data with ground truth data. We combined the ANN model with the genetic algorithm (GA) to improve the prediction accuracy and establish efficient sensor installation positions and number to proceed with optimization. Simulation results demonstrated that the best predictive performance (up to 97% accuracy) was achieved when the ANN structure was 9-19-19-1. Furthermore, the numbers of efficient sensors and sensors positions determined using the proposed ANN-GA technique were reduced from seven to five or four, thereby ensuring economic feasibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21134427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271723PMC
June 2021

Review: Application of Artificial Intelligence in Phenomics.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 25;21(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Biosystems Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Plant phenomics has been rapidly advancing over the past few years. This advancement is attributed to the increased innovation and availability of new technologies which can enable the high-throughput phenotyping of complex plant traits. The application of artificial intelligence in various domains of science has also grown exponentially in recent years. Notably, the computer vision, machine learning, and deep learning aspects of artificial intelligence have been successfully integrated into non-invasive imaging techniques. This integration is gradually improving the efficiency of data collection and analysis through the application of machine and deep learning for robust image analysis. In addition, artificial intelligence has fostered the development of software and tools applied in field phenotyping for data collection and management. These include open-source devices and tools which are enabling community driven research and data-sharing, thereby availing the large amounts of data required for the accurate study of phenotypes. This paper reviews more than one hundred current state-of-the-art papers concerning AI-applied plant phenotyping published between 2010 and 2020. It provides an overview of current phenotyping technologies and the ongoing integration of artificial intelligence into plant phenotyping. Lastly, the limitations of the current approaches/methods and future directions are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21134363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271724PMC
June 2021

KASL clinical practice guidelines: Management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2021 Jul 22;27(3):363-401. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2021.0178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273632PMC
July 2021

Parallel Nanoimprint Forming of One-Dimensional Chiral Semiconductor for Strain-Engineered Optical Properties.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Aug 8;12(1):160. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

The low-dimensional, highly anisotropic geometries, and superior mechanical properties of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials allow the exquisite strain engineering with a broad tunability inaccessible to bulk or thin-film materials. Such capability enables unprecedented possibilities for probing intriguing physics and materials science in the 1D limit. Among the techniques for introducing controlled strains in 1D materials, nanoimprinting with embossed substrates attracts increased attention due to its capability to parallelly form nanomaterials into wrinkled structures with controlled periodicities, amplitudes, orientations at large scale with nanoscale resolutions. Here, we systematically investigated the strain-engineered anisotropic optical properties in Te nanowires through introducing a controlled strain field using a resist-free thermally assisted nanoimprinting process. The magnitude of induced strains can be tuned by adjusting the imprinting pressure, the nanowire diameter, and the patterns on the substrates. The observed Raman spectra from the chiral-chain lattice of 1D Te reveal the strong lattice vibration response under the strain. Our results suggest the potential of 1D Te as a promising candidate for flexible electronics, deformable optoelectronics, and wearable sensors. The experimental platform can also enable the exquisite mechanical control in other nanomaterials using substrate-induced, on-demand, and controlled strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00493-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770755PMC
August 2020

Human Glioblastoma Visualization: Triple Receptor-Targeting Fluorescent Complex of Dye, SIWV Tetra-Peptide, and Serum Albumin Protein.

ACS Sens 2021 06 8;6(6):2270-2280. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) has been highlighted in the clinical site for guiding surgical procedures and providing the surgeon with a real-time visualization of the operating field. FGS is a powerful technique for precise surgery, particularly tumor resection; however, clinically approved fluorescent dyes have often shown several limitations during FGS, such as non-tumor-targeting, low in vivo stability, insufficient emission intensity, and low blood-brain barrier penetration. In this study, we disclose a fluorescent dye complex, peptide, and protein for the targeted visualization of human glioblastoma (GBM) cells and tissues. Our noble triple receptor-targeting fluorescent complex (named ) consists of (i) dipolar oxazepine dye (), which has high stability, low cytotoxicity, bright fluorescence, and two-photon excitable, (ii) tetra-peptide (SIWV) for the targeting of the caveolin-1 receptor, and (iii) bovine serum-albumin (BSA) protein for the targeting of albondin (gp60) and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine receptor. The photophysical properties and binding mode of were analyzed, and the imaging of GBM cell lines and human clinical GBM tissues were successfully demonstrated in this study. Our findings hold great promise for the application of to GBM identification and the surgery at clinical sites, as a new FGS agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c00320DOI Listing
June 2021

Highly Sensitive Fluorescent Detection of Acetylcholine Based on the Enhanced Peroxidase-Like Activity of Histidine Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 1;11(5). Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdae-ro, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam 13120, Gyeonggi, Korea.

Inspired by the active site structure of natural horseradish peroxidase having iron as a pivotal element with coordinated histidine residues, we have developed histidine coated magnetic nanoparticles ([email protected]) with relatively uniform and small sizes (less than 10 nm) through one-pot heat treatment. In comparison to pristine MNPs and other amino acid coated MNPs, [email protected] exhibited a considerably enhanced peroxidase-imitating activity, approaching 10-fold higher in catalytic reactions. With the high activity, [email protected] then were exploited to detect the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. By coupling choline oxidase and acetylcholine esterase with [email protected] as peroxidase mimics, target choline and acetylcholine were successfully detected via fluorescent mode with high specificity and sensitivity with the limits of detection down to 200 and 100 nM, respectively. The diagnostic capability of the method is demonstrated by analyzing acetylcholine in human blood serum. This study thus demonstrates the potential of utilizing [email protected] as peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes for detecting important biological and clinical targets with high sensitivity and reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11051207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147487PMC
May 2021
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