Publications by authors named "Moon Jung Choi"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of genes involved in neuronal cell death and recovery over time in rat axotomy and neurorrhaphy models through RNA sequencing.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2021 Jun 5;113:103628. Epub 2021 May 5.

Regeneration Medicine Research Center, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Facial nerves are frequently injured during cosmetic or other types of facial surgery. However, information on the genes involved in the damage and recovery of the facial nerves is limited. Here, we aimed to identify the genes affected by facial nerve injury and repair using next-generation sequencing. We established a rat axotomy model and a parallel epineurial neurorrhaphy model, in which gene expression was analyzed from 3 days to 8 weeks after surgery. We discovered that ARRB1, SGK1, and GSK3B genes associated with neuronal cell death were upregulated in the axotomy model. In contrast, MFRP, MDK, and ACE genes involved in neural recovery and regeneration exhibited higher expression in the neurorrhaphy model. In the present study, the analysis of the big data obtained from the next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) technology reveals that the expression of genes involved in neuronal cell death is induced during nerve damage, and those associated with neural recovery are more abundantly expressed during repair processes. These results are considered to be useful for the establishment of the treatment of related diseases and basic research in various neuroscience fields by utilizing damage and recovery mechanism of facial nerves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2021.103628DOI Listing
June 2021

Porous discoidal polymeric particles for effective drug delivery minimizing phagocytosis.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2021 Dec;49(1):390-396

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Mirae Campus, Korea.

Curcumin has great potential in cancer treatment and prevention. However, free curcumin for anticancer effect is limited due to its low water solubility and instability. Delivery of free curcumin using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, such as poly (lactic--glycolic acid) (PLGA), can improve these undesirable problems. In this study, a top-down fabrication method using PLGA was employed to deliver free curcumin, engineering size, shape, and surface properties. As a result, porous discoidal polymeric particles (DPPs) were produced in ammonium bicarbonate with a hydrodynamic diameter of 5 µm and a negatively charged surface. The loading amount of free curcumin in the porous DPPs was higher than non-porous DPPs. drug release study showed that curcumin release from porous DPPs was 1.4-fold higher than non-porous ones. The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results demonstrated that porous DPPs decrease phagocytosis by macrophages than non-porous ones. This study suggests that porous DPPs have significant advantages for effective drug delivery of curcumin, minimizing phagocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2021.1909605DOI Listing
December 2021

Development of HER2-Specific Aptamer-Drug Conjugate for Breast Cancer Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 21;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Biois Co., Ltd., Seoul 08390, Korea.

In this study, HER2 RNA aptamers were conjugated to mertansine (DM1) and the anti-cancer effectiveness of the conjugate was evaluated in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer models. The conjugate of HER2 aptamer and anticancer drug DM1 (aptamer-drug conjugate, ApDC) was prepared and analyzed using HPLC and mass spectrometry. The cell-binding affinity and cytotoxicity of the conjugate were determined using confocal microscopy and WST-1 assay. The in vivo anti-tumoral efficacy of ApDC was also evaluated in mice carrying BT-474 breast tumors overexpressing HER2. The synthesized HER2-specific RNA aptamers were able to specifically and efficiently bind to HER-positive BT-474 breast cancer cells, but not to HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Also, the HER2-specific ApDC showed strong toxicity to the target cells, BT-474, but not to MDA-MB-231 cells. According to the in vivo analyses drawn from the mouse xenografts of BT-747 tumor, the ApDC was able to more effectively inhibit the tumor growth. Compared to the control group, the mice treated with the ApDC showed a significant reduction of tumor growth. Besides, any significant body weight losses or hepatic toxicities were monitored in the ApDC-treated mice. This research suggests the HER2 aptamer-DM1 conjugate as a target-specific anti-cancer modality and provides experimental evidence supporting its enhanced effectiveness for HER2-overexpressing target tumors. This type of aptamer-conjugated anticancer drug would be utilized as a platform structure for the development of versatile targeted high-performance anticancer drugs by adopting the easy deformability and high affinity of aptamers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767363PMC
December 2020

Liver X Receptor β Related to Tumor Progression and Ribosome Gene Expression in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2020 09 20;35(3):656-668. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Intracellular lipid deposition has been reported in thyroid glands in obese animal and human. To understand the regulatory mechanism of lipid metabolism in thyroid cancer, we investigated the expression status of liver X receptor (LXR) and analyzed its clinicopathological characteristics and molecular biological features.

Methods: Expression status of LXR and its transcriptional targets in human cancers were analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The gene-sets related to high LXRβ expression was investigated by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathways and gene ontology biologic process. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed in thyroid cancer samples using our validation cohort.

Results: In contrast to low expression of LXRα, LXRβ was highly expressed in thyroid cancer compared to the other types of human cancers. High LXRβ expression was correlated with the expression of LXRβ transcriptional targets genes, such as apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1), APOC2, apolipoprotein E (APOE), ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 8 (ABCG8), sterol regulatory elementbinding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and SPOT14. Furthermore, High LXRβ expression group indicated poor clinicopathological characteristics and aggressive molecular biological features independently from the drive mutation status. Mechanistically, high LXRβ expression was coordinately related to ribosome-related gene sets.

Conclusion: The mechanistic link between LXRβ and ribosomal activity will be addressed to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in thyroid cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520597PMC
September 2020

Detailed characterization of metastatic lymph nodes improves the prediction accuracy of currently used risk stratification systems in N1 stage papillary thyroid cancer.

Eur J Endocrinol 2020 Jul;183(1):83-93

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Objective: The characteristics of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) have been investigated as important predictors of recurrence and progression in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, clinically applicable risk stratification systems are limited to the assessment of size and number of MLNs. This study investigated the predictive value of detailed characteristics of MLNs in combination with currently used risk stratification systems.

Design And Methods: We retrospectively characterized 2811 MLNs from 9014 harvested LNs of 286 patients with N1 PTC according to the maximum diameter of MLN (MDLN), maximum diameter of metastatic focus (MDMF), ratio of both diameters (MDMFR), lymph node ratio (LNR, number of MLNs/number of total harvested LNs), presence of extranodal extension (ENE), desmoplastic reaction (DR), cystic component, and psammoma body.

Results: Factors related to the size and number of MLNs were associated with increased risk of recurrence and progression. Extensive presence of ENE (>40%) and DR (≥50%) increased the risk of recurrence/progression. The combination of MDLN, LNR, ENE, and DR had the highest predictive value among MLN characteristics. Combination of these parameters with ATA risk stratification or 1-year response to therapy improved the predictive power for recurrence/progression from a Harrell's C-index of 0.781 to 0.936 and 0.867 to 0.960, respectively.

Conclusions: The combination of currently used risk stratification systems with detailed characterization of MLNs may improve the predictive accuracy for recurrence/progression in N1 PTC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-0131DOI Listing
July 2020

Induction of DEAD Box helicase 5 in early adipogenesis is regulated by Ten-eleven translocation 2.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2020 07 10;1865(7):158684. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, College of Science and Industry Convergence, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Dead box helicase 5 (DDX5) is an RNA helicase that is has cellular function on RNA splicing and transcriptional regulation. It has been reported to be involved in cell differentiation including adipogenesis. However, it is not clear how DDX5 is regulated during adipogenesis. Our previous report demonstrated that the Ten-eleven translocation methyl-cytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) is required for adipogenesis. This study was aimed to investigate DDX5 as a direct target of TET2 upon adipogenic induction of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. Microarray-based screening of differentially expressed genes upon TET2 knockdown identified genes involved in cell cycle, DNA replication, and ribosome biology as major targets of TET2 in the initial step of adipogenic induction. The Ddx5 gene was identified and validated as the target. TET2-mediated epigenetic regulation of the Ddx5 gene was measured by two independent methods including immunoprecipitation against 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-methylcytosine (5mC) as well as EpiMark 5hmC and 5mC analysis. Ddx5 expression was downregulated upon TET2 knockdown, coincided with a significant decrease of 5hmC at the Ddx5 locus. DDX5 knockdown significantly suppressed adipogenesis, while DDX5 overexpression promoted it. Importantly, DDX5 overexpression, when co-transfected, rescued the process of adipogenesis, which was hindered by TET2 siRNA treatment. The findings suggest TET2-mediated regulation of the Ddx5 gene is required for an initial step of adipogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2020.158684DOI Listing
July 2020

Anti-EGF Receptor Aptamer-Guided Co-Delivery of Anti-Cancer siRNAs and Quantum Dots for Theranostics of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Theranostics 2019 25;9(3):837-852. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea.

Many aptamers have been evaluated for their ability as drug delivery vehicles to target ligands, and a variety of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been tested for their anti-cancer properties. However, since these two types of molecules have similar physicochemical properties, it has so far been difficult to formulate siRNA-encapsulating carriers guided by aptamers. Here, we propose aptamer-coupled lipid nanocarriers encapsulating quantum dots (QDs) and siRNAs for theragnosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Hydrophobic QDs were effectively incorporated into lipid bilayers, and then therapeutic siRNAs were complexed with QD-lipid nanocarriers (QLs). Finally, anti-EGFR aptamer-lipid conjugates were inserted into the QLs for TNBC targeting (aptamo-QLs). TNBC-targeting aptamo-QLs were directly compared to anti-EGFR antibody-coupled immuno-QLs. The delivery of therapeutic siRNAs and QDs to target cells was assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The targeting of siRNAs to tumors and their therapeutic efficacy were evaluated in mice carrying MDA-MB-231 tumors. Both types of EGFR-targeting QLs showed enhanced delivery to target cancer cells, resulting in more effective gene silencing and enhanced tumor imaging compared to non-targeting control QLs. Moreover, combinatorial therapy with Bcl-2 and PKC-ι siRNAs loaded into the anti-EGFR QLs was remarkably effective in inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis. In general, the aptamo-QLs showed competitive delivery and therapeutic efficacy compared to immuno-QLs under the same experimental conditions. Our results show that the anti-EGFR aptamer-guided lipid carriers may be a potential theranostic delivery vehicle for RNA interference and fluorescence imaging of TNBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.30228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376474PMC
December 2019

Anti-EGFR lipid micellar nanoparticles co-encapsulating quantum dots and paclitaxel for tumor-targeted theranosis.

Nanoscale 2018 Nov 11;10(41):19338-19350. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea.

Cancer theranosis is an emerging field of personalized medicine which enables individual anti-cancer treatment by monitoring the therapeutic responses of cancer patients. Based on a consideration of the nano-bio interactions related to the blood circulation of systemically administered nanoparticles in humans, as well as extravasation and active targeting, lipid micellar nanoparticles were co-loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) and quantum dots (QDs) to generate a theranostic delivery vehicle. To provide with a tumor-targeting capability, either an antibody or an aptamer against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was conjugated to the micelle surface. The QD-containing micelles (QDMs), antibody-coupled QDMs (immuno-QDMs), and aptamer-coupled QDMs (aptamo-QDMs) were able to effectively circulate in blood for at least 8 h when administered intravenously into mice bearing EGFR-positive LS174T tumor xenografts. In vivo fluorescence imaging and a bio-distribution study showed that both the immuno-QDMs and aptamo-QDMs were largely localized in the tumor tissue. The tumor targeting capability enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of PTX for the target cancer cells. Both the immuno-PTX-QDMs and the aptamo-PTX-QDMs caused a stronger inhibition of LS174T tumor growth in mice, compared to the non-targeted PTX-QDMs. These results suggest that the anti-EGFR immuno-PTX-QDMs and anti-EGFR aptamo-PTX-QDMs could be utilized as a tumor-targeted theranostic delivery system for cancer treatment in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr05099fDOI Listing
November 2018

Cancer-targeted Nucleic Acid Delivery and Quantum Dot Imaging Using EGF Receptor Aptamer-conjugated Lipid Nanoparticles.

Sci Rep 2017 08 25;7(1):9474. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea.

Co-application of fluorescent quantum dot nanocrystals and therapeutics has recently become a promising theranostic methodology for cancer treatment. We developed a tumor-targeted lipid nanocarrier that demonstrates notable efficacy in gene delivery as well as tumor bio-imaging. Coupling of aptamer molecules against the EGF receptor (EGFR) to the distal termini of lipid nanoparticles provided the carrier with tumor-specific recognition capability. The cationic lipid component, referred to as O,O'-dimyristyl-N-lysyl glutamate (DMKE), was able to effectively complex with anionic small-interfering RNA (siRNA). The hydrophobic quantum dots (Q-dots) were effectively incorporated in hydrophobic lipid bilayers at an appropriate Q-dot to lipid ratio. In this study, we optimized the liposomal formula of aptamer-conjugated liposomes containing Q-dots and siRNA molecules (Apt-QLs). The anti-EGFR Apt-QLs exhibited remarkable EGFR-dependent siRNA delivery as well as fluorescence imaging, which were analyzed in cultured cancer cells and tumor xenografts in mice. These results imply that the formulation of Apt-QLs could be widely utilized as a carrier for tumor-directed gene delivery and bio-imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09555-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573382PMC
August 2017

Conditionally Immortal Slc4a11-/- Mouse Corneal Endothelial Cell Line Recapitulates Disrupted Glutaminolysis Seen in Slc4a11-/- Mouse Model.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 07;58(9):3723-3731

School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

Purpose: To establish conditionally immortal mouse corneal endothelial cell lines with genetically matched Slc4a11+/+ and Slc4a11-/- mice as a model for investigating pathology and therapies for SLC4A11 associated congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy.

Methods: We intercrossed H-2Kb-tsA58 mice (Immortomouse) expressing an IFN-γ dependent and temperature-sensitive mutant of the SV40 large T antigen (tsTAg) with Slc4a11+/+ and Slc4a11-/- C57BL/6 mice. The growth characteristics of the cell lines was assessed by doubling time. Ion transport activities (Na+/H+ exchange, bicarbonate, lactate, and Slc4a11 ammonia transport) were analyzed by intracellular pH measurement. The metabolic status of the cell lines was assessed by analyzing TCA cycle intermediates via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The immortalized Slc4a11+/+ and Slc4a11-/- mouse corneal endothelial cells (MCECs) remained proliferative through passage 49 and maintained similar active ion transport activity. As expected, proliferation was temperature sensitive and IFN-γ dependent. Slc4a11-/- MCECs exhibited decreased proliferative capacity, reduced NH3:H+ transport, altered expression of glutaminolysis enzymes similar to the Slc4a11-/- mouse, and reduced proportion of TCA cycle intermediates derived from glutamine with compensatory increases in glucose flux compared with Slc4a11+/+ MCECs.

Conclusions: This is the first report of the immortalization of MCECs. Ion transport of the immortalized endothelial cells remains active, except for NH3:H+ transporter activity in Slc4a11-/- MCECs. Furthermore, Slc4a11-/- MCECs recapitulate the glutaminolysis defects observed in Slc4a11-/- mouse corneal endothelium, providing an excellent tool to study the pathogenesis of SLC4A11 mutations associated with corneal endothelial dystrophies and to screen potential therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-21781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525555PMC
July 2017

Surgical outcomes of 23-gauge vitrectomy for the management of lens fragments dropped into the vitreous cavity during cataract surgery.

Saudi J Ophthalmol 2014 Oct 3;28(4):253-6. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kim's Eye Hospital, Myung-Gok Eye Research Institute, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To assess the clinical features and surgical outcomes of 23-Gauge (G) vitrectomy for lens fragments dropped into the vitreous during cataract surgery.

Methods: A retrospective, non-comparative, interventional case series at a single medical center. The medical records of 45 eyes from 45 consecutive patients who were referred to our hospital for surgical retrieval of phacoemulsification dropped lens fragments and who underwent 23-G vitrectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Data pertaining to patient demographics, pre- and post-operative Snellen visual acuity, and postoperative complications were recorded. Factors associated with dropped lens fragments were also examined.

Results: Mean patient age was 68.18 ± 11.47 years. The preoperative and postoperative mean logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity was 1.91 ± 0.59 (Snellen equivalent 0.06 ± 0.15) and 0.42 ± 0.51 (Snellen equivalent 0.54 ± 0.31), respectively. Forty-two eyes (93.3%) had dislocated lens fragments <50% of the total lens size. Two eyes (4.4%) had a large and hard lens nucleus, which necessitated the use of a 20-G fragmatome to efficiently and completely remove the lens material. At the final examination, 30 eyes (66.6%) had a visual acuity better than 20/40. Post-vitrectomy complications included elevated IOP for at least 3 months (n = 5 eyes, 11.1%), intraocular lens dislocation (n = 2 eyes, 4.4%), and cystoid macular edema (n = 1 eye, 2.2%). No cases of postoperative endophthalmitis or retinal detachment were observed.

Conclusions: A 23-G vitrectomy is safe and efficient for the surgical management of dropped lens fragments following cataract surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjopt.2014.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4250484PMC
October 2014

A ROS/STAT3/HIF-1α signaling cascade mediates EGF-induced TWIST1 expression and prostate cancer cell invasion.

Prostate 2014 May 16;74(5):528-36. Epub 2014 Jan 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Myunggok Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been known to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and prostate cancer cell progression. However, a detailed underlying mechanism by which EGF induces EMT and prostate cancer cell progression remained to be answered. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and TWIST1 are transcription factors implicated in EMT and cancer metastasis. The purpose of this study is to determine the underlying mechanism of EGF-induced TWIST1 expression and prostate cancer invasion.

Methods: siRNAs were used to silence genes. Immunoblotting, quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis were used to examine protein or mRNA expression. Modified Boyden chamber and invasion assay kit with Matrigel-coated inserts were used to determine prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, respectively.

Results: We observed that EGF induced HIF-1α expression and morphological change of prostate cancer epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells. Silencing HIF-1α expression dramatically reduced EGF-induced TWIST1 expression and prostate cancer cell EMT. Conversely, transfection of the cells with HIF-1α siRNA reversed the reduced E-cadherin expression by EGF. Pretreatment of the cells with pharmacological inhibitors of reactive oxygen species [ROS, N-acetylcysteine (NAC)] and STAT3 (WP1066) but not p38 MAPK (SB203580) significantly reduced EGF-induced HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression. Further, pretreatment of the cells with NAC attenuated EGF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, we showed that TWIST1 mediated EGF-induced N-cadherin expression, leading to prostate cancer invasion.

Conclusions: We demonstrate a mechanism by which EGF promotes prostate cancer cell progression through a ROS/STAT3/HIF-1α/TWIST1/N-cadherin signaling cascade, providing novel biomarkers and promising therapeutic targets for prostate cancer cell progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.22776DOI Listing
May 2014

Inhibitory effects of Hoelen extract on melanogenesis in B16/F1 melanoma cells.

Phytother Res 2010 Sep;24(9):1359-64

Department of Prescriptionology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

Melanin synthesis is regulated by melanogenic proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2. The effects of Hoelen extract on melanogenesis were investigated in B16Fl murine melanoma cells. Specifically, tyrosinase activity, cell viability and melanin content were assayed, and western blotting and RT-PCR for tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 conducted. The results show that Hoelen significantly inhibited melanin synthesis through inhibition of TRP-2 expression, while it did not affect tyrosinase activity or its expression. Taken together, RT-PCR results showed that the depigmentation effect of Hoelen may be due to inhibition of TRP-2 gene transcription. These results suggest that Hoelen may be a useful inhibitor for the attenuation of melanogenesis and hyperpigmentation in skin cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3123DOI Listing
September 2010

Efficacy of the fractional photothermolysis system with dynamic operating mode on acne scars and enlarged facial pores.

Dermatol Surg 2009 Jan 4;35(1):108-14. Epub 2008 Dec 4.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Current treatments for acne scars and enlarged facial pores have shown limited efficacy.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the fractional photothermolysis system (FPS) with dynamic operating mode on acne scars and enlarged pores.

Materials And Methods: Twelve patients with mild to moderate atrophic acne scars and enlarged pores were included in this study. Three sessions of FPS treatment were performed for acne scars and facial pores monthly. Two blinded dermatologists who compared before and after photos based on a quartile grading scale conducted objective clinical assessments of acne scar- and facial pore-treated areas. We took a biopsy immediately after one treatment with the laser from one of the authors to assess the histologic effects of the laser on facial pores.

Results: Follow-up results at 4 months after the last treatment revealed that, of the 12 patients, for acne scars, five demonstrated clinical improvements of 51% to 75% and three demonstrated improvements of 76% to 100%, and for facial pores, five demonstrated moderate clinical improvements of 26% to 50% and three demonstrated improvements of 76% to 100%. Side effects, including pain, post-treatment erythema, and edema, were resolved within 1 week.

Conclusion: We suggest that the FPS may provide a new treatment algorithm in some cases with acne scars and enlarged pores. Considering the lack of placebo-controlled, split-face design of our study, optimized, prospective studies should be conducted to fully assess the efficacy of FPS with dynamic operating mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2008.34399.xDOI Listing
January 2009

Novel effects of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on memory and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus.

Neurosci Lett 2008 Oct 11;443(2):104-7. Epub 2008 Jul 11.

Department of Prescriptionology, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

Memory enhancement is a matter of concern in general, and in particular to people suffering from cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on learning and memory function. A step-through passive avoidance test was performed with Wistar rats. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate cell proliferation and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The methanol extract of N. nucifera rhizome (MNR) resulted in significant improvements of memory functions and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. In the passive avoidance test, the retention time of MNR-treated rats was significantly longer than that of controls. Immunohistochemical analyses using BrdU, Ki-67, and DCX showed significantly increased cell proliferation and cell differentiation in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that N. nucifera rhizome extract may improve learning and memory with enhancing neurogenesis in the DG of the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.020DOI Listing
October 2008