Publications by authors named "Monzr Al Malki"

53 Publications

HLA-haploidentical vs matched unrelated donor transplants with posttransplant cyclophosphamide-based prophylaxis.

Blood 2021 Jul;138(3):273-282

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has enabled haploidentical (Haplo) transplantation to be performed with results similar to those after matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation with traditional prophylaxis. The relative value of transplantation with MUD vs Haplo donors when both groups receive PTCy/calcineurin inhibitor/mycophenolate GVHD prophylaxis is not known. We compared outcomes after 2036 Haplo and 284 MUD transplantations with PTCy GVHD prophylaxis for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome in adults from 2011 through 2018. Cox regression models were built to compare outcomes between donor types. Recipients of myeloablative and reduced-intensity regimens were analyzed separately. Among recipients of reduced-intensity regimens, 2-year graft failure (3% vs 11%), acute grades 2 to 4 GVHD (hazards ratio [HR], 0.70; P = .022), acute grades 3 and 4 GVHD (HR, 0.41; P = .016), and nonrelapse mortality (HR, 0.43; P = .0008) were lower after MUD than with Haplo donor transplantation. Consequently, disease-free (HR, 0.74; P = .008; 55% vs 41%) and overall (HR, 0.65; P = .001; 67% vs 54%) survival were higher with MUD than with Haplo transplants. Among recipients of myeloablative regimens, day-100 platelet recovery (95% vs 88%) was higher and grades 3 and 4 acute (HR, 0.39; P = .07) and chronic GVHD (HR, 0.66; P = .05) were lower after MUD than with Haplo donor transplantation. There were no differences in graft failure, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and disease-free and overall survival between donor types with myeloablative conditioning regimens. These data extend and confirm the importance of donor-recipient HLA matching for allogeneic transplantation. A MUD is the preferred donor, especially for transplantations with reduced-intensity conditioning regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011281DOI Listing
July 2021

Posttransplant cyclophosphamide as GVHD prophylaxis for peripheral blood stem cell HLA-mismatched unrelated donor transplant.

Blood Adv 2021 06;5(12):2650-2659

Department of Hematology and HCT.

Efficacy of PTCy after mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) HCT is unknown. In this pilot clinical trial, we enrolled 38 patients with hematologic malignancies scheduled to undergo MMUD-HCT (≥6/8 HLA-matched donors) onto 1 of 2 conditioning strata: myeloablative using fludarabine and fractionated total body irradiation (n = 19) or reduced intensity with fludarabine/melphalan (n = 19). Graft source was peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), and GVHD prophylaxis was PTCy, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Patients' median age was 53 years (range, 21-72 years). Median number of HLA mismatches was 2 (range, 1-4) of 12 loci. Twenty-three patients (61%) were considered racial (n = 12) or ethnic (n = 11) minorities. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 16 days (range, 13-35 days). With a median follow-up of 18.3 months (range, 4.3-25.0 months) for surviving patients, 1-year overall survival (OS) and GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 87% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71-94) and 68% (95% CI: 51-81), respectively. Cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 100 days and 1 year were 0% and 11% (95% CI: 4-27), respectively, whereas relapse/progression was 11% (95% CI: 4-27). Cumulative incidence of 100-day acute GVHD grades 2-4 and 3-4 and 1-year chronic GVHD were 50% (95% CI: 36-69), 18% (95% CI: 9-36), and 48% (95% CI: 34-68), respectively. The rate of moderate/severe chronic GVHD was 3% in the entire cohort. We showed highly promising OS/GRFS rates with an acceptable risk profile after PBSC-MMUD-HCT with PTCy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03128359.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270662PMC
June 2021

First Multimodal, Three-Dimensional, Image-Guided Total Marrow Irradiation Model for Preclinical Bone Marrow Transplantation Studies.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, California; Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Purpose: Total marrow irradiation (TMI) has significantly advanced radiation conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation in hematologic malignancies by reducing conditioning-induced toxicities and improving survival outcomes in relapsed/refractory patients. However, the relapse rate remains high, and the lack of a preclinical TMI model has hindered scientific advancements. To accelerate TMI translation to the clinic, we developed a TMI delivery system in preclinical models.

Methods And Materials: A Precision X-RAD SmART irradiator was used for TMI model development. Images acquired with whole-body contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) were used to reconstruct and delineate targets and vital organs for each mouse. Multiple beam and CT-guided Monte Carlo-based plans were performed to optimize doses to the targets and to vary doses to the vital organs. Long-term engraftment and reconstitution potential were evaluated by a congenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model and serial secondary BMT, respectively. Donor cell engraftment was measured using noninvasive bioluminescence imaging and flow cytometry.

Results: Multimodal imaging enabled identification of targets (skeleton and spleen) and vital organs (eg, lungs, gut, liver). In contrast to total body irradiation (TBI), TMI treatment allowed variation of radiation dose exposure to organs relative to the target dose. Dose reduction mirrored that in clinical TMI studies. Similar to TBI, mice treated with different TMI regimens showed full long-term donor engraftment in primary BMT and second serial BMT. The TBI-treated mice showed acute gut damage, which was minimized in mice treated with TMI.

Conclusions: A novel multimodal image guided preclinical TMI model is reported here. TMI conditioning maintained long-term engraftment with reconstitution potential and reduced organ damage. Therefore, this TMI model provides a unique opportunity to study the therapeutic benefit of reduced organ damage and BM dose escalation to optimize treatment regimens in BMT and hematologic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.06.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Use of high-dose mesna and hyperhydration leads to lower incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis after posttransplant cyclophosphamide-based allogeneic transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

Currently, there is no consensus on best practices to prevent hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in patients receiving posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). We retrospectively reviewed 194 patients undergoing their first hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) who received PTCy from 2014 to 2018 to describe the incidence and severity of HC, identify potential risk factors, and impact of HC on HCT outcomes. Standard HC prophylaxis was hyperhydration with forced diuresis and mesna at 320% the daily dose of PTCy. Incidence of HC was 31.4% at day +100 of HCT. Median onset of HC was 12 days with 11.5% grade 3 HC and no Grade 4 HC. Patients with chemical HC experienced earlier onset (7 days vs. 34 days, p < 0.001) with a shorter median resolution time (5 days vs. 14 days, p = 0.001) when compared to BK-associated HC. In multivariate analysis, age above 60 years (HR 4.16, p = 0.006) and myeloablative conditioning (HR 2.44, p = 0.054) were associated with higher risk for HC, but overall, HC did not affect nonrelapse mortality or overall survival. In conclusion, hyperhydration with forced diuresis combined with aggressive mesna dosing is an effective strategy in preventing severe PTCy-associated HC, subsequently preventing any negative impact on transplant outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01364-0DOI Listing
June 2021

HLA Haploidentical versus Matched Unrelated Donor Transplants with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide based prophylaxis.

Blood 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.

Post transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has allowed haploidentical (Haplo) transplantation to be performed with results similar to that after matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation with traditional prophylaxis. The relative value of transplantation with MUD versus Haplo donors when both groups receive PTCy/calcineurin inhibitor/mycophenolate containing GVHD prophylaxis is not known. We compared outcomes after 2036 Haplo and 284 MUD transplantations with PTCy GVHD prophylaxis for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome in adults between 2011 and 2018. Cox regression models were built to compare outcomes between donor types. Recipients of myeloablative and reduced intensity regimens were analyzed separately. Among recipients of reduced intensity regimens, 2-year graft failure (3% versus 11%), acute grade II-IV GVHD (HR 0.70, p=0.022), acute grade III-IV GVHD (HR 0.41, p=0.016) and non-relapse mortality (HR 0.43, p=0.0008) were lower after MUD compared to Haplo transplantation. Consequently, disease-free (HR 0.74, p=0.008; 55% versus 41%) and overall survival (HR 0.65, p=0.001; 67% versus 54%) were higher after MUD compared to Haplo transplants. Among recipients of myeloablative regimens, day-100 platelet recovery (95% versus 88%) was higher and grade III-IV acute (HR 0.39, p=0.07) and chronic GVHD (HR 0.66, p=0.05) were lower after MUD compared to Haplo transplantation. There were no differences in graft failure, relapse, non-relapse mortality, disease-free and overall survival between donor types with myeloablative conditioning regimens. These data extend and confirm the importance of donor-recipient HLA matching for allogeneic transplantation. A MUD is the preferred donor, especially for transplantations with reduced intensity conditioning regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011281DOI Listing
April 2021

Outcome of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation after Venetoclax and Hypomethylating Agent Therapy for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 12 29;26(12):e322-e327. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Gehr Family Center for Leukemia Research, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, California. Electronic address:

The combination of hypomethylating agents with the selective Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax (HMA-VEN) has emerged as a highly active regimen in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in both the upfront and relapsed/refractory (r/r) settings. We report our early experience with a cohort of patients who were able to proceed to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) after HMA-VEN therapy. Thirty-two patients with AML (19 r/r and 13 de novo) with a median age of 62 years underwent alloHCT after HMA-VEN therapy. Twenty-two (68.8%) were in complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete count recovery at time of HCT. With a median follow up of 14.4 months, the 1-year overall survival (OS) was 62.5%, and disease-free survival was 43.8%. The 1-year nonrelapse mortality rate was 18.8%, and the cumulative incidence of relapse was 37.5%. Among patients who underwent alloHCT in CR, the 1-year OS was 77.3%, and the cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 9.1%. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was 43.8%. We conclude that alloHCT after HMA-VEN is therapy associated with favorable allogeneic HCT outcomes in newly diagnosed older patients with AML, as well as those with r/r AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.027DOI Listing
December 2020

Red blood cell and platelet transfusion support in the first 30 and 100 days after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

Transfusion 2020 10 3;60(10):2225-2242. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Division of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, USA.

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients often require substantial but variable transfusion support.

Study Design And Methods: This single-center, retrospective study evaluated the red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) transfusion data of first-time allo-HSCT recipients transplanted in 2011 to 2017. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess the associations between patient and transplant-related factors and transfusion requirements.

Results: The study included 1762 patients who received peripheral blood stem cells (88.2%), marrow (7.0%), or umbilical cord (4.8%) from matched related (38.3%), unrelated (49.2%), or haploidentical (7.8%) donors. Almost all patients required RBCs (88.3%) or PLTs (97.4%) during the first 30 days, with medians of 3 (range, 1-37) RBC and 6 (range, 1-144) PLT units transfused. Fewer patients required RBC (43.8%) or PLT (27.3%) transfusions during Days 31 to 100, but the median (range) numbers of RBC and PLT units remained high at 3 (1-36) and 6 (1-116) among transfused patients. RBC and PLT transfusion independence was reached in medians of 24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-26) and 12 (95% CI, 11-12) days, respectively. Haploidentical donor, cord graft, and requiring RBC transfusions in the 10 days before HSCT were the most significant independent factors predictive of increased transfusion requirements. Advanced disease, diagnosis, ABO incompatibility, conditioning intensity, CD34+ cell dose, presence of severe acute graft-vs-host disease, and changes in recommended transfusion triggers were also shown to independently impact transfusion requirements.

Conclusions: This study provided for the first time quantitative and comparative transfusion data on a large contemporary cohort of HSCT recipients, including haploidentical and cord graft recipients, and identified factors predictive of increased transfusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15961DOI Listing
October 2020

Venetoclax and hypomethylating agents in FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia.

Am J Hematol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope Medical Center, Gehr Family Center for Leukemia Research, Duarte, California, USA.

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations are prevalent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and their presence confers adverse risk. FLT3-mutated (FLT3m) AML is a challenging leukemia to manage, particularly in older and unfit patients as well as patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) disease. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 50 FLT3m AML patients (17 treatment-naïve, 33 r/r) treated with venetoclax (VEN) and hypomethylating agents (HMA). The overall CR/CRi rate with VEN-HMA was 60% (94% in treatment-naïve AML and 42% in r/r AML). Early (60-days) treatment related mortality was 2%. The r/r AML setting was an independent predictor of lower complete response (OR: 0.08; 95%CI: 0.00-0.60, P = .03). Cytogenetics-molecular risk, concurrent mutations, the type of FLT3 mutation (ITD vs TKD), the ITD allelic ratio, the type of HMA, age, prior exposure to HMA and receipt of prior allogeneic transplant did not independently impact response or leukemia-free survival (LFS). Concurrent IDH mutations were associated with lower CR/CRi (P = .01), while ASXL1 or TET2 mutations showed a non-significant association toward higher CR/CRi (P = .07, for both). However, none of the concurrent mutations were an independent predictor for response when adjusted to AML setting. In conclusion, VEN-HMA is associated with encouraging efficacy in FLT3m AML among both newly diagnosed unfit and r/r patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25929DOI Listing
July 2020

Long-Term Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant with Fludarabine and Melphalan Conditioning and Tacrolimus/Sirolimus as Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 08 19;26(8):1425-1432. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Hematology and HCT, City of Hope, Duarte, California; Department of Computational Quantitative Medicine/BRI, City of Hope, Duarte, California. Electronic address:

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with poor survival in older adults, and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) has been an increasingly used strategy in this population. At City of Hope we conducted a retrospective analysis of 72 patients who underwent allogeneic HCT with fludarabine and melphalan (FluMel) as the conditioning regimen between 2005 and 2018, from either a matched sibling or fully matched unrelated donor while in complete remission. Tacrolimus and sirolimus (T/S) were used as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Overall survival and progression-free survival at 4 years post-HCT were 58% and 44%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of relapse/progression and nonrelapse mortality at 4 years were 34% and 22%, respectively. Patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) ALL had a significantly lower cumulative incidence of relapse/progression (20% versus 48% for patients with Ph-negative status, P = .007). In conclusion, RIC HCT with FluMel conditioning and T/S GVHD prophylaxis was associated with favorable outcomes in patients with Ph+ ALL and should be considered as a viable consolidative therapy for adult patients with ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.04.015DOI Listing
August 2020

Comparing transplant outcomes in ALL patients after haploidentical with PTCy or matched unrelated donor transplantation.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):2073-2083

Department of Hematology, European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Paris Study Office/Centros de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador, Hôpital Saint Antoine, INSERM, Paris, France.

We compared outcomes of 1461 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a haploidentical (n = 487) or matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 974) between January 2005 and June 2018. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for haploidentical, and CNI with MMF or methotrexate with/without antithymoglobulin for MUDs. Haploidentical recipients were matched (1:2 ratio) with MUD controls for sex, conditioning intensity, disease stage, Philadelphia-chromosome status, and cytogenetic risk. In the myeloablative setting, day +28 neutrophil recovery was similar between haploidentical (87%) and MUD (88%) (P = .11). Corresponding rates after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) were 84% and 88% (P = .47). The 3-month incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) and 3-year chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was similar after haploidentical compared with MUD: myeloablative conditioning, 33% vs 34% (P = .46) for aGVHD and 29% vs 31% for cGVHD (P = .58); RIC, 31% vs 30% (P = .06) for aGVHD and 24% vs 29% for cGVHD (P = .86). Among patients receiving myeloablative regimens, 3-year probabilities of overall survival were 44% and 51% with haploidentical and MUD (P = .56). Corresponding rates after RIC were 43% and 42% (P = .6). In this large multicenter case-matched retrospective analysis, despite the limitations of a registry-based study (ie, unavailability of key elements such as minimal residual disease testing), our analysis indicated that outcomes of patients with ALL undergoing HCT from a haploidentical donor were comparable with 8 of 8 MUD transplantations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218425PMC
May 2020

Poxvirus Vectored Cytomegalovirus Vaccine to Prevent Cytomegalovirus Viremia in Transplant Recipients: A Phase 2, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Ann Intern Med 2020 03 11;172(5):306-316. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California (C.L., J.L., C.R.L., Q.Z., J.M., T.K., A.D., N.H., S.F., D.J.D.).

Background: Triplex vaccine was developed to enhance cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells and prevent CMV reactivation early after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT).

Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of Triplex.

Design: First-in-patient, phase 2 trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02506933).

Setting: 3 U.S. HCT centers.

Participants: 102 CMV-seropositive HCT recipients at high risk for CMV reactivation.

Intervention: Intramuscular injections of Triplex or placebo were given on days 28 and 56 after HCT. Triplex is a recombinant attenuated poxvirus (modified vaccinia Ankara) expressing immunodominant CMV antigens.

Measurements: The primary outcomes were CMV events (CMV DNA level ≥1250 IU/mL, CMV viremia requiring antiviral treatment, or end-organ disease), nonrelapse mortality, and severe (grade 3 or 4) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), all evaluated through 100 days after HCT, and grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs) within 2 weeks after vaccination that were probably or definitely attributable to injection.

Results: A total of 102 patients (51 per group) received the first vaccination, and 91 (89.2%) received both vaccinations (46 Triplex and 45 placebo). Reactivation of CMV occurred in 5 Triplex (9.8%) and 10 placebo (19.6%) recipients (hazard ratio, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.16 to 1.4]; P = 0.075). No Triplex recipient died of nonrelapse causes during the first 100 days or had serious AEs, and no grade 3 or 4 AEs related to vaccination were observed within 2 weeks after vaccination. Incidence of severe acute GVHD after injection was similar between groups (hazard ratio, 1.1 [CI, 0.53 to 2.4]; P = 0.23). Levels of long-lasting, pp65-specific T cells with effector memory phenotype were significantly higher in Triplex than placebo recipients.

Limitation: The lower-than-expected incidence of CMV events in the placebo group reduced the power of the trial.

Conclusion: No vaccine-associated safety concerns were identified. Triplex elicited and amplified CMV-specific immune responses, and fewer Triplex-vaccinated patients had CMV viremia.

Primary Funding Source: National Cancer Institute and Helocyte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M19-2511DOI Listing
March 2020

Cost analysis of ganciclovir and foscarnet in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant with cytomegalovirus viremia.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Apr 30;22(2):e13233. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, City of Hope, Duarte, California.

Background: Ganciclovir (GCV) and foscarnet (FOS) are the most commonly used antivirals for preemptive treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). The current literature indicates similar efficacy between these agents. Thus, the primary consideration for choice of initial anti-CMV treatment is the safety profile, time period after alloHCT, and concern of myelosuppression or renal dysfunction.

Methods: Herein, we retrospectively reviewed medical records of 124 alloHCT recipients who received GCV or FOS between April 27, 2014, and December 31, 2015, during the first year post-transplant. Healthcare resource use included drug, hospitalization, home health, dialysis, and growth factor costs.

Results: Total duration of therapy was longer in the GCV group (37 days vs 28 days, P = .21) but hospitalization days were similar (9 days) in both groups. The total treatment cost was significantly lower in the GCV group ($38 100 vs $59 400, P < .05).

Conclusion: Preemptive anti-CMV therapy is associated with major healthcare resource costs, which were greater in patients who required FOS than those who were treated with GCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162712PMC
April 2020

Invasive fungal infections in acute myeloid leukemia treated with venetoclax and hypomethylating agents.

Blood Adv 2019 12;3(23):4043-4049

Gehr Family Center for Leukemia Research, Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

The combination of venetoclax with hypomethylating agents (VEN-HMAs) showed promising activity in newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (r/r) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Treatment with VEN-HMAs results in prolonged cytopenia, thereby exposing patients to invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Here, we retrospectively studied a cohort of 119 AML patients treated with VEN-HMAs and analyzed the occurrence of IFIs, as well as our practice of antifungal prophylaxis, with the aim to identify the nature and risk factors for IFIs and their association with the type of antifungal prophylaxis used. The intended antifungal prophylaxis was micafungin in 38% of patients, azoles in 41% of patients, and none in 21% of patients. Older age was associated with no antifungal prophylaxis or micafungin use and lesser use of azoles (P = .043). We recorded 15 (12.6%) patients who developed probable or proven IFIs, with a median onset of 72 days (range, 35-281) after starting therapy. IFIs were more common among nonresponders compared with responders to VEN-HMA therapy (22% vs 6%, P = .0132) and in r/r compared with newly diagnosed AML (19% vs 5%, P = .0498); however, the antifungal prophylaxis used, patient age, hypomethylating agent schedule, history of prior allogeneic transplant, and initial neutropenia duration did not influence the development of IFIs during therapy. We conclude that the overall risk of IFIs during VEN-HMA therapy is low. The risk of IFIs is higher in nonresponders and in those who were treated in the r/r setting; these patients need reevaluation of their antifungal prophylaxis to minimize the risk of IFIs during therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963254PMC
December 2019

Pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased nonrelapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 05 6;55(5):877-883. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is the only curative therapy for primary myelofibrosis (MF) as well as myelofibrosis secondary to other myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a known complication of MF and may occur in up to 50% of such patients. PH (defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest) can eventually lead to right heart failure and may be associated with complications after alloHCT. We examined the association of PH with alloHCT outcome in patients with MF associated with MPN. Pre- and post-HCT echocardiograms were reviewed to estimate the peak pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). Median PASP was 37.0 mmHg (range: 16.0-57.9) prior to HCT with 37 of 65 patients (57%) studied. With median follow-up of 35.0 months (range: 3.3-119.4) PH was significantly associated with inferior OS (58.9% vs. 88.8%, P = 0.025), primarily due to increased NRM (21.6% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.007). The majority of the deaths (8 of 14) in patients with PH occurred within 100 days after HCT. In patients with an available post-HCT echocardiogram (n = 33), the median PASP was 30 mmHg (range: 5.0-56.2); eight patients (24%) had persistent PH. Compared with pre-HCT values, PASP was significantly reduced after HCT (p < 0.001). We conclude that PH is associated with inferior survival due to the increased NRM in patients with MF undergoing alloHCT. PH appears at least partially reversible after successful alloHCT. PH should be considered a risk factor for early mortality after alloHCT and surveillance of pulmonary artery pressure in MF patients being considered for alloHCT may be useful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0741-8DOI Listing
May 2020

RBC and platelet transfusion support in the first 30 and 100 days after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Transfusion 2019 11 10;59(11):3371-3385. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Division of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California.

Background: The volume of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (haplo-HSCT) has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the associated higher risk of delayed engraftment may increase patient transfusion requirements.

Study Design And Methods: The post-HSCT RBC and platelet transfusions of 195 haplo-HSCT recipients were evaluated. Patient and transplant-related factors potentially impacting the number of products transfused and time to transfusion independence were assessed.

Results: Nearly all (98.4%) patients were transfused in the first 30 days, and 59.2% were transfused between days 31 and 100. Among the transfused patients, medians of 5 units (interquartile range [IQR] = 3-8) of RBCs and 11 units (6-20) platelets were given in the first 30 days, and medians of 3 units (IQR = 1-7) of RBCs and 6 units (2-18) of platelets were transfused between days 31 and 100. Median times for achieving RBC and platelet transfusion independence were 34 (95% CI: 28-40) and 25 (95% CI: 23-27) days, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that RBC transfusions in the 10 days before HSCT were associated with significantly increased and sustained RBC and platelet transfusion requirements. Major ABO incompatibility led to increased RBC transfusions. Advanced disease was associated with increased transfusions during the first 30 days, whereas GVHD increased platelet transfusions between days 31 and 100. Effects of age, sex, CD34+ cell dose, stem cell source, and conditioning regimen were limited or insignificant.

Conclusions: This study for the first time provided quantitative transfusion data on a large cohort of haplo-HSCT recipients and identified factors predictive of increased transfusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15531DOI Listing
November 2019

Myeloablative vs reduced intensity T-cell-replete haploidentical transplantation for hematologic malignancy.

Blood Adv 2019 10;3(19):2836-2844

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and.

In the absence of prospective studies that examine the effect of conditioning regimen intensity after T-cell-replete haploidentical transplant for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a retrospective cohort analysis was performed. Of the 1325 eligible patients (AML, n = 818; ALL, n = 286; and MDS, n = 221), 526 patients received a myeloablative regimen and 799 received a reduced-intensity regimen. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was uniform with posttransplant cyclophosphamide, a calcineurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate mofetil. The primary end point was disease-free survival. Cox regression models were built to study the effect of conditioning regimen intensity on transplant outcomes. For patients aged 18 to 54 years, disease-free survival was lower (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 42% vs 51%; = .007) and relapse was higher (HR, 1.51; 44% vs 33%; = .001) with a reduced-intensity regimen compared with a myeloablative regimen. Nonrelapse mortality did not differ according to regimen intensity. For patients aged 55 to 70 years, disease-free survival (HR, 0.97; 37% vs 43%; = .83) and relapse (HR, 1.32; 42% vs 31%; = .11) did not differ according to regimen intensity. Nonrelapse mortality was lower with reduced-intensity regimens (HR, 0.64; 20% vs 31%; = .02). Myeloablative regimens are preferred for AML, ALL, and MDS; reduced-intensity regimens should be reserved for those unable to tolerate myeloablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6784523PMC
October 2019

Impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on outcomes of adult Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a study by the Acute Leukemia Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

Haematologica 2020 05 26;105(5):1329-1338. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Cytogenetic risk stratification at diagnosis has long been one of the most useful tools to assess prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To examine the prognostic impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, we studied 1731 adults with Philadelphia-negative ALL in complete remission who underwent myeloablative or reduced intensity/non-myeloablative conditioning transplant from unrelated or matched sibling donors reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. A total of 632 patients had abnormal conventional metaphase cytogenetics. The leukemia-free survival and overall survival rates at 5 years after transplantation in patients with abnormal cytogenetics were 40% and 42%, respectively, which were similar to those in patients with a normal karyotype. Of the previously established cytogenetic risk classifications, modified Medical Research Council-Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score was the only independent prognosticator of leukemia-free survival (=0.03). In the multivariable analysis, monosomy 7 predicted post-transplant relapse [hazard ratio (HR)=2.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.04-4.27] and treatment failure (HR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.20-3.24). Complex karyotype was prognostic for relapse (HR=1.69; 95% CI: 1.06-2.69), whereas t(8;14) predicted treatment failure (HR=2.85; 95% CI: 1.35-6.02) and overall mortality (HR=3.03; 95% CI: 1.44-6.41). This large study suggested a novel transplant-specific cytogenetic scheme with adverse [monosomy 7, complex karyotype, del(7q), t(8;14), t(11;19), del(11q), tetraploidy/near triploidy], intermediate (normal karyotype and all other abnormalities), and favorable (high hyperdiploidy) risks to prognosticate leukemia-free survival (=0.02). Although some previously established high-risk Philadelphia-negative cytogenetic abnormalities in ALL can be overcome by transplantation, monosomy 7, complex karyotype, and t(8;14) continue to pose significant risks and yield inferior outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.220756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193485PMC
May 2020

Clinical applications of donor lymphocyte infusion from an HLA-haploidentical donor: consensus recommendations from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Haematologica 2020 01 19;105(1):47-58. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Dept. of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Onco-Hematology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.

Donor lymphocyte infusion has been used in the management of relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. It can eradicate minimal residual disease or be used to rescue a hematologic relapse, being able to induce durable remissions in a subset of patients. With the increased use of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation, there is renewed interest in the use of donor lymphocytes to either treat or prevent disease relapse post transplant. Published retrospective and small prospective studies have shown encouraging results with therapeutic donor lymphocyte infusion in different haploidentical transplantation platforms. In this consensus paper, finalized on behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we summarize the available evidence on the use of donor lymphocyte infusion from haploidentical donor, and provide recommendations on its therapeutic, pre-emptive and prophylactic use in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.219790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939532PMC
January 2020

Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Treated with Myeloablative Fractionated Total Body Irradiation TBI-Based Conditioning with a Tacrolimus- and Sirolimus-Based Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis Regimen: 6-Year Follow-Up from a Single Center.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 02 16;26(2):292-299. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Hematology and HCT, City of Hope, Duarte, California.

Cyclophosphamide (Cy)/etoposide combined with fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) or i.v. busulfan (Bu) has been the main conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for young patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) eligible for a myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen. Recent data has suggested that i.v. Bu could be the preferred myeloablative regimen in patients with myeloid malignancies. However, Bu-based regimens are associated with higher rates of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Here we report long-term survival outcomes of patients with AML receiving FTBI combined with Cy or etoposide before undergoing alloHCT at City of Hope (COH). We obtained a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained institutional registry of clinical outcomes in 167 patients (median age, 41 years; range, 18 to 57 years) with AML in first or second complete remission who underwent alloHCT at COH between 2005 and 2015. Eligible patients received a MAC regimen with FTBI (1320 cGy) and Cy (120 mg/kg) for unrelated donor transplantation or etoposide (60 mg/kg) for related donor transplantation. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was provided with tacrolimus and sirolimus. In this retrospective study, 6-year overall survival was 60% and nonrelapse mortality was 15%. The GRFS rate was 45% at 1 year and 39% at 2 years. We also describe late metabolic effects and report the cumulative incidence of secondary malignancies (9.5%). Overall, in this young adult patient population, our results compare favorably to chemotherapy-based (i.v. Bu) conditioning regimens without significant long-term toxicity arising from TBI-based regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.09.017DOI Listing
February 2020

Long-term Outcome of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation From Unrelated Donor Using Tacrolimus/Sirolimus-based GvHD Prophylaxis: Impact of HLA Mismatch.

Transplantation 2020 05;104(5):1070-1080

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, CA.

Background: While tacrolimus and sirolimus (T/S)-based graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis has been effective in preventing acute GvHD post hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), its efficacy and long-term outcome in matched (MUD) and mismatched unrelated donor (mMUD) setting is not well defined.

Methods: Herein, we evaluated a consecutive case-series of 482 patients who underwent unrelated donor HCT (2005-2013) with T/S-based GvHD prophylaxis.

Results: With a median follow-up of 6.2 years (range = 2.4-11.3), the 5-year overall survival (OS) and relapse/progression-free survival were 47.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.0-52.0) and 43.6% (95% CI: 39.1-48.1), respectively; and the 5-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were 24.9%, and 31.5%, respectively. In this cohort, mMUD was associated with worse OS (39.0% versus 50.7% at 5 y; P = 0.034), primarily due to greater risk of NRM (33.5% versus 21.7%; P = 0.038). While rates of relapse, acute (II-IV or III-IV) or chronic GvHD (limited or extensive) were not different, death caused by chronic GvHD (20.8% versus 12.8%; P = 0.022) and infection (33.0% versus 18.1%; P < 0.01) were significantly greater in mMUD. In multivariable analysis, high-risk disease (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.16-4.23; P < 0.01) and mMUD (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15-2.08; P = 0.004) were independent predictive factors for OS.

Conclusions: T/S-based GvHD prophylaxis is an effective and acceptable GvHD prophylactic regimen. However, survival after mMUD remained poor, possibly related to the severity of chronic GvHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002932DOI Listing
May 2020

Targeting cell membrane HDM2: A novel therapeutic approach for acute myeloid leukemia.

Leukemia 2020 01 23;34(1):75-86. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Hematologic Malignancies Translational Science, Gehr Family Center for Leukemia Research, City of Hope Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA, USA.

The E3 ligase human double minute 2 (HDM2) regulates the activity of the tumor suppressor protein p53. A p53-independent HDM2 expression has been reported on the membrane of cancer cells but not on that of normal cells. Herein, we first showed that membrane HDM2 (mHDM2) is exclusively expressed on human and mouse AML blasts, including leukemia stem cell (LSC)-enriched subpopulations, but not on normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Higher mHDM2 levels in AML blasts were associated with leukemia-initiating capacity, quiescence, and chemoresistance. We also showed that a synthetic peptide PNC-27 binds to mHDM2 and enhances the interaction of mHDM2 and E-cadherin on the cell membrane; in turn, E-cadherin ubiquitination and degradation lead to membrane damage and cell death of AML blasts by necrobiosis. PNC-27 treatment in vivo resulted in a significant killing of both AML "bulk" blasts and LSCs, as demonstrated respectively in primary and secondary transplant experiments, using both human and murine AML models. Notably, PNC-27 spares normal HSC activity, as demonstrated in primary and secondary BM transplant experiments of wild-type mice. We concluded that mHDM2 represents a novel and unique therapeutic target, and targeting mHDM2 using PNC-27 selectively kills AML cells, including LSCs, with minimal off-target hematopoietic toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0522-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951797PMC
January 2020

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Outcomes in Patients Carrying Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutations.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 07 26;19(7):e400-e405. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Hematology and HCT, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA.

Background: Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1/2 genes result in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent reduction of α-ketoglutarate and formation of 2-hydroxyglutarate, which blocks normal cellular differentiation and promotes leukemogenesis. Nearly 20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients carry IDH1/2 mutations. Although multiple investigators have described the prognostic implications of IDH mutations in AML patients receiving chemotherapy, the effect of these mutations on outcomes after allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is unknown.

Patients And Methods: We report on the clinical outcome of a cohort of AML patients, who were tested for IDH mutations and underwent alloHCT at City of Hope (2015-2017). Of a total of 317 screened patients, 99 (31%) underwent alloHCT, of whom 23 carried and 76 did not carry IDH mutations (control).

Results: No statistical significance was detected in patient's overall survival (P = .84). With a median follow-up of 7.8 months, 1-year relapse rate of 29% and 13% was seen in the IDH-mutated and control group, respectively (P = .033). IDH1/2 mutation status remained significantly associated with relapse (hazard ratio, 2.8; P = .046) after inclusion of pre-HCT disease status in a multivariable model.

Conclusion: Our results, despite low patient numbers, indicate that IDH mutations are associated with higher relapse rate after alloHCT. Further prospective studies on post transplantation IDH inhibition is required to improve outcomes in AML patients who carry IDH mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.04.007DOI Listing
July 2019

The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) consensus recommendations for donor selection in haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 01 4;55(1):12-24. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT, Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France.

The number of HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplants continues to increase worldwide due to recent improvements in outcomes, allowing more patients with hematological malignancies and non-malignant disorders to benefit from this procedure and have a chance to cure their disease. Despite these encouraging results, questions remain as multiple donors are usually available for transplantation, and choosing the best HLA-haploidentical donor for transplantation remains a challenge. Several approaches to haploidentical transplantation have been developed over time and, based on the graft received, can be grouped as follows: T-cell depleted haploidentical transplants, either complete or partial, or with T-cell replete grafts, performed with post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, or G-CSF-primed bone marrow graft and enhanced GVHD prophylaxis. Carefully selecting the donor can help optimize transplant outcomes for recipients of haploidentical donor transplants. Variables usually considered in the donor selection include presence of donor-specific antibodies in the recipient, donor age, donor/recipient gender and ABO combinations, and immunogenic variables, such as natural killer cell alloreactivity or KIR haplotype. Here we provide a comprehensive review of available evidence for selecting haploidentical donors for transplantation, and summarize the recommendations from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) on donor selection for different transplant platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0499-zDOI Listing
January 2020

PTCy-based haploidentical vs matched related or unrelated donor reduced-intensity conditioning transplant for DLBCL.

Blood Adv 2019 02;3(3):360-369

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

This study retrospectively compared long-term outcomes of nonmyeloablative/reduced intensity conditioning (NMC/RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) from a haploidentical family donor (haplo-HCT) using posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) with those of matched sibling donor (MSD) and matched unrelated donor (MUD) with or without T-cell depletion (TCD+/TCD-) in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Adult patients with DLBCL who had undergone their first NMC/RIC allo-HCT between 2008 and 2015 were included. Recipients of haplo-HCT were limited to those receiving graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with PTCy. GVHD prophylaxis in MSD was limited to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based approaches without in vivo TCD, while MUD recipients received CNI-based prophylaxis with or without TCD. Outcome analyses for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and disease relapse/progression were calculated. A total of 1438 patients (haplo, 132; MSD, 525; MUD TCD+, 403; and MUD TCD-, 378) were included. Patients with haplo donors were significantly older, had a better performance status and had more frequently received total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens and bone marrow grafts than MSD and MUD TCD+ or TCD-. 3-year OS, PFS, NRM and relapse/progression incidence after haplo-HCT was 46%, 38%, 22%, and 41%, respectively, and not significantly different from outcomes of matched donor transplants on multivariate analyses. Haplo-HCT was associated with a lower cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD compared with MSD, MUD TCD+/TCD-. NMC/RIC haplo-HCT with PTCy seems to be a valuable alternative for patients with DLBCL considered for allo-HCT but lacking a matched donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018027748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373757PMC
February 2019

Post-Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Eculizumab as Prophylaxis Against Hemolysis and Thrombosis for Patients with Hematologic Disorders Associated with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Clones.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 05 29;25(5):e183-e185. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, California; Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Gehr Family Center for Leukemia Research, City of Hope, Duarte, California.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is frequently seen in the context of other aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes and is associated with hemolysis and increased thromboembolic events. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) is the sole curative treatment but is associated with significant morbidity. The terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab reduces hemolysis and thromboembolic events and is the sole Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for PNH. Prophylactic administration of this agent in the early post-transplantation setting to prevent hemolysis and thrombosis has not been described in the literature. We describe our institutional experience of 8 patients with PNH who underwent alloHCT and who received at least 1 dose of eculizumab within 30 days of alloHCT for prevention of thrombosis and hemolysis. One patient with underlying aplastic anemia who received bone marrow stem cells failed to engraft. Another patient experienced steroid-refractory grade IV acute graft-versus-host disease and died of a fungal infection. The other patients engrafted well; no hemolysis, thrombotic events, or infections associated with encapsulated bacteria occurred in any of the 8 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.01.025DOI Listing
May 2019

MIPSS70+ v2.0 predicts long-term survival in myelofibrosis after allogeneic HCT with the Flu/Mel conditioning regimen.

Blood Adv 2019 01;3(1):83-95

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Although allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is the only curative treatment for myelofibrosis (MF), data are limited on how molecular markers predict transplantation outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated transplantation outcomes of 110 consecutive MF patients who underwent allo-HCT with a fludarabine/melphalan (Flu/Mel) conditioning regimen at our center and assessed the impact of molecular markers on outcomes based on a 72-gene next-generation sequencing panel and Mutation-Enhanced International Prognostic Scoring System 70+ v2.0 (MIPSS70+ v2.0). With a median follow-up of 63.7 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 65% and the nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate was 17%. In mutational analysis, JAK2 V617F and ASXL1 mutations were the most common. By univariable analysis, higher Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System scores, unrelated donor type, and very-high-risk cytogenetics were significantly associated with lower OS. Only CBL mutations were significantly associated with lower OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.64; = .032) and increased NRM (HR, 3.68; = .004) after allo-HCT, but CALR, ASXL1, and IDH mutations did not have an impact on transplantation outcomes. Patient classification per MIPSS70 showed worse OS for high-risk (HR, 0.49; = .039) compared with intermediate-risk patients. Classification per MIPSS70+ v2.0 demonstrated better OS when intermediate-risk patients were compared with high-risk patients (HR, 0.291) and much lower OS when very-high-risk patients were compared with high-risk patients (HR, 5.05; ≤ .001). In summary, we present one of the largest single-center experiences of Flu/Mel-based allo-HCT, demonstrating that revised cytogenetic changes and MIPSS70+ v2.0 score predict transplantation outcomes, and thus can better inform physicians and patients in making decisions about allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018026658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325305PMC
January 2019

Correction: The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Consensus Guidelines for the Detection and Treatment of Donor-specific Anti-HLA Antibodies (DSA) in Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 May;54(5):784

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

The original version of this Article contained a typographical error in the spelling of the author Marcelo Fernandez-Vina, which was incorrectly given as Marcelo Fernadez-Vina. This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0332-0DOI Listing
May 2019

Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia has distinct clinical and cytogenetic features compared to acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but outcomes are comparable in transplanted patients.

Haematologica 2018 10 14;103(10):1662-1668. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Gehr Family Center for Leukemia Research, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains poorly defined due to a lack of large data sets recognizing the defining characteristics of this entity. We reviewed all consecutive cases of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated at our institution between 2000 and 2017 and identified therapy-related cases - defined as acute lymphoblastic leukemia preceded by prior exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation. Of 1022 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 93 (9.1%) were classified as therapy-related. The median latency for therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia onset was 6.8 years from original diagnosis, and this was shorter for patients carrying the gene rearrangement compared to those with other cytogenetics. When compared to acute lymphoblastic leukemia, therapy-related patients were older (<0.01), more often female (<0.01), and had more gene rearrangement (<0.0001) and chromosomes 5/7 aberrations (=0.02). Although therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia was associated with inferior 2-year overall survival compared to cases (46.0% 68.1%, =0.001), prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy (therapy-related) did not independently impact survival in multivariate analysis (HR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.97-1.80, =0.08). There was no survival difference (2-year = 53.4% 58.9%, =0.68) between the two groups in patients who received allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation. In conclusion, therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia represents a significant proportion of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnoses, and a subset of cases carry clinical and cytogenetic abnormalities similar to therapy-related myeloid neoplasms. Although survival of therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia was inferior to cases, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes were comparable for the two entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.193599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165794PMC
October 2018