Publications by authors named "Montserrat Solé"

71 Publications

Effects of triclosan exposure on the energy budget of Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus under climate change scenarios.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 26;777:146068. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Psg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

We built a simulation model based on Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB) to assess the growth and reproductive potential of the native European clam Ruditapes decussatus and the introduced Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum under current temperature and pH conditions in a Portuguese estuary and under those forecasted for the end of the 21st c. The climate change scenario RCP8.5 predicts temperature increase of 3 °C and a pH decrease of 0.4 units. The model was run under additional conditions of exposure to the emerging contaminant triclosan (TCS) and in the absence of this compound. The parameters of the DEB model were calibrated with the results of laboratory experiments complemented with data from the literature available for these two important commercial shellfish resources. For each species and experimental condition (eight combinations), we used data from the experiments to produce estimates for the key parameters controlling food intake flux, assimilation flux, somatic maintenance flux and energy at the initial simulation time. The results showed that the growth and reproductive potential of both species would be compromised under future climate conditions, but the effect of TCS exposure had a higher impact on the energy budget than forecasted temperature and pH variations. The egg production of R. philippinarum was projected to suffer a more marked reduction with exposure to TCS, regardless of the climatic factor, while the native R. decussatus appeared more resilient to environmental causes of stress. The results suggest a likely decrease in the rates of expansion of the introduced R. philippinarum in European waters, and negative effects on fisheries and aquaculture production of exposure to emerging contaminants (e.g., TCS) and climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146068DOI Listing
February 2021

Ecotoxicological impact of the antihypertensive valsartan on earthworms, extracellular enzymes and soil bacterial communities.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 3;275:116647. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

AgroSup Dijon, INRAE, Univ. Bourgogne, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Agroécologie Dijon, France. Electronic address:

The use of reclaimed water in agriculture represents a promising alternative to relieve pressure on freshwater supplies, especially in arid or semiarid regions facing water scarcity. However, this implies introducing micropollutants such as pharmaceutical residues into the environment. The fate and the ecotoxicological impact of valsartan, an antihypertensive drug frequently detected in wastewater effluents, were evaluated in soil-earthworm microcosms. Valsartan dissipation in the soil was concomitant with valsartan acid formation. Although both valsartan and valsartan acid accumulated in earthworms, no effect was observed on biomarkers of exposure (acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities). The geometric mean index of soil enzyme activity increased in the soils containing earthworms, regardless of the presence of valsartan. Therefore, earthworms increased soil carboxylesterase, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase, urease and protease activities. Although bacterial richness significantly decreased following valsartan exposure, this trend was enhanced in the presence of earthworms with a significant impact on both alpha and beta microbial diversity. The operational taxonomic units involved in these changes were related to four (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes) of the eight most abundant phyla. Their relative abundances significantly increased in the valsartan-treated soils containing earthworms, suggesting the presence of potential valsartan degraders. The ecotoxicological effect of valsartan on microbes was strongly altered in the earthworm-added soils, hence the importance of considering synergistic effects of different soil organisms in the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical active compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116647DOI Listing
April 2021

The use of an in vitro approach to assess marine invertebrate carboxylesterase responses to chemicals of environmental concern.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Feb 8;82:103561. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Laboratorio de Fisiología y Genética Marina, Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo, 1281, Coquimbo, Chile.

Carboxylesterases (CEs) are key enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis reactions of multiple xenobiotics and endogenous ester moieties. Given their growing interest in the context of marine pollution and biomonitoring, this study focused on the in vitro sensitivity of marine invertebrate CEs to some pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products and plastic additives to assess their potential interaction on this enzymatic system and its suitability as biomarkers. Three bivalves, one gastropod and two crustaceans were used and CEs were quantified following current protocols set for mammalian models. Four substrates were screened for CEs determination and to test their adequacy in the hepatic fraction measures of the selected invertebrates. Two commercial recombinant human isoforms (hCE1 and hCE2) were also included for methodological validation. Among the invertebrates, mussels were revealed as the most sensitive to xenobiotic exposures while gastropods were the least as well as with particular substrate-specific preferences. Among chemicals of environmental concern, the plastic additive tetrabromobisphenol A displayed the highest CE-inhibitory capacity in all species. Since plastic additives easily breakdown from the polymer and may accumulate and metabolise in marine biota, their interaction with the CE key metabolic/detoxification processes may have consequences in invertebrate's physiology, affect bioaccumulation and therefore trophic web transfer and, ultimately, human health as shellfish consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2020.103561DOI Listing
February 2021

Are we neglecting earth while conquering space? Effects of aluminized solid rocket fuel combustion on the physiology of a tropical freshwater invertebrate.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 2;268:128820. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Departmento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Space launchers often use aluminized-solid fuel ("propergol") as propellant and its combustion releases tons of AlO and HCl that sink in terrestrial and aquatic environments, polluting and decreasing water pH. We studied the impact of these events on the biochemical/physiological performance of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii, with wild specimens collected from a non-impacted site in French Guiana. In the laboratory, shrimps were exposed for one week to: i) undisturbed conditions; ii) AlO exposure (0.5 mg L) at normal pH (6.6); iii) decreased pH (4.5) (mimicking HCl release in the environment) with no AlO; or iv) AlO 0.5 mg L and pH 4.5, representing the average conditions found in the water bodies around the Ariane 5 launch pad. Results showed that shrimps bioaccumulated aluminium (Al) regardless of water pH. The combined effect of AlO and low pH caused the most impact: acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities decreased, indicating neurotoxicity and reduced detoxification capacity, respectively. Animal respiration was enhanced with AlO and pH variations alone, but the synergic interaction of both stressors caused respiration to decrease, suggesting metabolic depression. Oxidative damage followed a similar pattern to respiration rates across conditions, suggesting free radical-mediation in Al toxicity. Antioxidant activities varied among enzymes, with glutathione reductase being the most impacted by AlO exposure. This study shows the importance of addressing space ports' impact on the environment, setting the bases for selecting the most appropriate biomarkers for future monitoring programs using a widespread and sensitive crustacean in the context of an increasing space-oriented activity across the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128820DOI Listing
April 2021

Biochemical aspects of susceptibility to stressors in two small cyprinids Squalius laietanus and Barbus meridionalis from the NW Mediterranean.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7;242:108940. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal, 643, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Specimens of two endemic cyprinids, Squalius laietanus (Catalan chub) and Barbus meridionalis (Mediterranean barbel), were sampled from a reference site in a small stream of the Ripoll River (NW Mediterranean) outside of their reproductive season. Biomarkers involved in xenobiotic-mediated responses were individually contrasted in fish of both species and 17 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) analysed in muscle to reveal bioaccumulation trends. The parameters were in muscle: cholinesterases, metabolic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS); and in liver: cytochrome P450 dependent activities (EROD and BFCOD), carboxylesterase (CE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT). All markers are considered adaptive defence mechanism to face stress. Sensitivity to a model pesticide: dichlorvos was also contrasted in vitro in muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and hepatic CE to reveal species sensitivity to neurotoxic chemicals. Enzymatic activities related to protective mechanisms such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), CE and CAT were higher in chub whereas the antioxidant defences GR and GPX were higher in barbel. Aerobic CS was also higher in barbel while anaerobic LDH was so in chub. EROD activity did not differ between the two species but BFCOD activity was higher in barbel. Levels of PFAS were higher in barbel likely due to its benthic habitat. The in vitro tests revealed higher sensitivity to dichlorvos of muscular AChE in chub (lower IC50) which was probably compensated by a higher catalytic efficiency of CE. All these former biochemical particularities are discussed in terms of fish ecological performance in front of anthropogenic stressors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2020.108940DOI Listing
April 2021

How do life-history traits influence the fate of intertidal and subtidal Mytilus galloprovincialis in a changing climate?

Environ Res 2020 Oct 31:110381. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Coastal organisms (i.e. intertidal or upper subtidal species) live in between the terrestrial and aquatic realms, making them particularly vulnerable to climate change. In this context, intertidal organisms may suffer from the predicted sea level rise (increasing their submerged time) while subtidal organisms may suffer from anthropically-induced hypoxia and its consequences. Although there is some knowledge on how coastal organisms adapt to environmental changes, the biochemical and physiological consequences of prolonged submergence periods have not yet been well characterized. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the biochemical alterations experienced by intertidal organisms maintained always under tidal exposure (IT); intertidal organisms maintained submersed (IS); subtidal organisms maintained always submersed (SS); subtidal organisms under tidal exposure (ST). For this, Mytilus galloprovincialis specimens from contiguous intertidal and subtidal populations were exposed to the above mentioned conditions for twenty-eight days. Results indicated that both intertidal and subtidal mussels are adapted to the oxidative stress pressure caused by tidal and submerged conditions tested. Intertidal mussels did not seem to be negatively affected by submergence while ST specimens were energetically challenged by tidal exposure. Both IT and ST mussels consumed glycogen to fuel up mechanisms aiming to maintain redox homeostasis. Overall, both intertidal and subtidal populations were capable of coping with tidal exposure, although the strategies employed differed between them. These findings indicate that although IT mussels may not significantly suffer from the longer-term submergence, hypoxic events occurring in the context of global warming and other anthropogenic impacts may have consequences on both IT and ST populations. Altogether, it is important to highlight that tides may act as a confounding factor in experiments concerning coastal organisms, as it causes additional physiological and biochemical perturbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110381DOI Listing
October 2020

Multi-organ characterisation of B-esterases in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Effects of the insecticide fipronil at two temperatures.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Nov 5;228:105617. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC), Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

In fish, the study of cholinesterases (ChEs) and carboxylesterases (CEs), apart from their involvement in neural activity and xenobiotic metabolism, respectively, requires to be further explored. The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was the fish model used to characterise B-esterases in several matrices and organs, as well as to assess the impacts of the insecticide fipronil at two temperatures: the natural temperature at the time of sampling (13 °C) and at 16 °C (based on climate change-related predictions for the Mediterranean region). Fipronil exerts harmful effects in non-target species; however, some countries are reluctant to implement regulations without additional evidence on their toxicity. A comprehensive study was performed in fish pre-acclimated to the two targeted temperatures for 15 days. B-esterases were evaluated in multiple samples after 7 and 14 day exposures to fipronil in feed (dose of 10 mg/kg) and after a 7-day depurative period. Based on hydrolysis rates, results showed that CEs were measurable in all matrices while ChEs were more abundant in muscle and, particularly, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain. A + 3 °C increase in temperature had little influence on B-esterase activity; however, fipronil caused a significant increase in brain AChE (1.5-fold) and CE (3-fold) activities. Other matrices and organs also experienced alterations in their B-esterase activities that could compromise their physiological functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105617DOI Listing
November 2020

Biomarker considerations in monitoring petrogenic pollution using the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Sep 5;27(25):31854-31862. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Laboratorio de Fisiología y Genética Marina (FIGEMA), Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile.

Mussels are worldwide bioindicators in pollution monitoring since they fulfil the requirements for being good sentinels. However, some methodological concerns arise in the use of particular biomarkers, particularly those displaying low enzymatic rates and/or limited responsiveness to chemicals and biological-related variability. In the present study, the suitability of oxidative stress and detoxification parameters when using mussels as sentinels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution is addressed. Present results show that the S9 subcellular fraction of the digestive gland in mussels is an adequate and convenient matrix where to measure most pollution-related biomarkers. Furthermore, this work constitutes the first evidence of the potential suitability of using particular carboxylesterase (CE) activities in determining PAHs exposure in mussels. This fact could imply the replacement of more controversial cytochrome P450 components (phase I oxidation), which are only measurable in microsomal fractions, by CEs (measured in S9 fractions) as good alternatives for phase I reactions in PAH-exposed mussels. Some methodological considerations, such as the need of including commercial purified proteins in biomarker determinations for quality assurance, are evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09427-3DOI Listing
September 2020

Biochemical and physiological responses of two clam species to Triclosan combined with climate change scenario.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 23;724:138143. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Ocean acidification and warming are among the man-induced factors that most likely impact aquatic wildlife worldwide. Besides effects caused by temperature rise and lowered pH conditions, chemicals of current use can also adversely affect aquatic organisms. Both climate change and emerging pollutants, including toxic impacts in marine invertebrates, have been investigated in recent years. However, less information is available on the combined effects of these physical and chemical stressors that, in nature, occur simultaneously. Thus, this study contrasts the effects caused by the antimicrobial agent and plastic additive, Triclosan (TCS) in the related clams Ruditapes philippinarum (invasive) and Ruditapes decussatus (native) and evaluates if the impacts are influenced by combined temperature and pH modifications. Organisms were acclimated for 30 days at two conditions (control: 17 °C; pH 8.1 and climate change scenario: 21 °C, pH 7.7) in the absence of the drug (experimental period I) followed by a 7 days exposure under the same water physical parameters but either in absence (unexposed) or presence of TCS at 1 μg/L (experimental period II). Biochemical responses covering metabolic, oxidative defences and damage-related biomarkers were contrasted in clams at the end of experimental period II. The overall picture showed a well-marked antioxidant activation and higher TCS bioaccumulation of the drug under the forecasted climate scenario despite a reduction on respiration rate and unaltered metabolism in the exposed clams. Since clams are highly consumed shellfish, the consequences for higher tissue bioaccumulation of anthropogenic chemicals to final consumers should be alerted not only at present conditions but more significantly under predicted climatic conditions for humans but also for other components of the marine trophic chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138143DOI Listing
July 2020

Anti-inflammatory drugs in the marine environment: Bioconcentration, metabolism and sub-lethal effects in marine bivalves.

Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 28;263(Pt A):114442. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Biology Department & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Pharmaceuticals such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been found in the marine environment. Although there is a large body of evidence that pharmaceutical drugs exert negative impacts on aquatic organisms, especially in the freshwater compartment, only limited studies are available on bioconcentration and the effects of NSAIDs on marine organisms. Bivalves have a high ecological and socio-economic value and are considered good bioindicator species in ecotoxicology and risk assessment programs. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the bioconcentration and the effects of three widely used NSAIDs, diclofenac, ibuprofen and paracetamol, in marine bivalves exposed under laboratory conditions. These pharmaceutical drugs were chosen based on their environmental occurrence both in frequency and concentration that may warrant their inclusion in the European Union Watch List. It has been highlighted that ambient concentrations may result in negative effects on wild bivalves after long-term exposures. Also, higher trophic level organisms may be more impacted due to food-chain transfer (e.g., humans are shellfish consumers). Overall, the three selected NSAIDs were reported to bioconcentrate in marine bivalves, with recognized effects at different life-stages. Immune responses were the main target of a long-term exposure to the drugs. The studies selected support the inclusion of diclofenac on the European Union Watch List and highlight the importance of extending research for ibuprofen and paracetamol due to their demonstrated negative effects on marine bivalves exposed to environmental realistic concentrations, under laboratory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114442DOI Listing
August 2020

Multibiomarker approach to fipronil exposure in the fish Dicentrarchus labrax under two temperature regimes.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Feb 4;219:105378. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC), Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used to control pests in agriculture even though evidence of harmful side effects in non-target species has been reported. A comprehensive study on the effects of dietary administration of Regent®800WG (80 % fipronil) in European sea bass juveniles was carried out under two temperature regimes: a) natural conditions, and b) 3 °C above the natural temperature (an increase predicted for the NW Mediterranean by the end of this century). Fipronil was added to the fish food (10 mg fipronil /Kg feed) and the effects were studied at several time points including right before administration, 7 and 14 days after daily fipronil feed and one-week after the insecticide withdrawal from the diet (depuration period). A wide array of physiological and metabolic biomarkers including feeding rate, general condition indices, plasma and epidermal mucus metabolites, immune response, osmoregulation, detoxification and oxidative-stress markers and digestive enzymes were assessed. General linear models and principal component analyses indicated that regardless of water temperature, fipronil resulted in a significant alteration of several of the above listed biomarkers. Among them, glucose and lactate levels increased in plasma and decreased in epidermal mucus as indicators of a stress response. Similarly, a depletion in catalase activity and higher lipid peroxidation in liver of fipronil-exposed fish were also indicative of an oxidative-stress condition. Fipronil induced a time dependent inhibition of Cytochrome P450-related activities and an increase of phase II glutathione-S-transferase. Moreover, fipronil administration was able to reduce the hypo-osmoregulatory capability as shown by the increase of plasmatic osmolality and altered several digestive enzymes including trypsin, lipase, alpha amylase and maltase. Finally, analyses in bile and muscle confirmed the rapid clearance of fipronil but the persistence of the metabolite fipronil-sulfone in bile even after the 7-day depuration period. Altogether, the results reveal a notable impact of this compound on the physiological condition of the European sea bass. The results should be considered in future environmental risk assessment studies since fipronil could be hazardous to fish species, particularly those inhabiting estuarine ecosystems exposed to the discharge of agriculture runoffs where this pesticide is mainly used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105378DOI Listing
February 2020

The influence of climate change related factors on the response of two clam species to diclofenac.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Feb 23;189:109899. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar ICM-CSIC, E-08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Diclofenac (DIC) is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) with higher consumption rates, used in both human and veterinary medicine. Previous studies already demonstrated the presence of this drug in aquatic environments and adverse effects towards inhabiting organisms. However, with the predictions of ocean acidification and warming, the impacts induced by DIC may differ from what is presently known and can be species-dependent. Thus, the present study aimed to comparatively assess the effects caused by DIC in the clams Ruditapes philippinarum and Ruditapes decussatus and evaluate if these impacts were influenced by pH and temperature. For this, organisms were acclimated for 30 days at two different temperature and pH (control conditions: pH 8.1, 17 °C; climate change forecasted scenario: pH 7.7, 20 °C) in the absence of drugs (experimental period I) followed by 7 days exposure under the same water physical parameters but in absence or presence of the pharmaceutical drug (at 1 μg/L, experimental period II). Biochemical responses covering metabolic capacity, oxidative stress and damage-related biomarkers were contrasted in clams at the end of the second experimental period. The results showed that under actual conditions, R. philippinarum individuals exposed to DIC presented enhanced antioxidant activities and reduced their respiration rate compared with non-contaminated clams. When exposed to the predicted climate change conditions, a similar response was observed in contaminated clams, but in this case clams increased their metabolic activities probably to fight the stress caused by the combination of both stressors. When R. decussatus was exposed to DIC, even at actual pH and temperature conditions, their antioxidant defences were also elevated but their baseline enzymatic activities were also naturally higher in respect to R. philippinarum. Although clams may use different strategies to prevent DIC damage, both clam species showed under low pH and high temperature limited oxidative stress impacts in line with a lower DIC bioaccumulation. The present findings reveal that predicted climate change related factors may not enhance the impacts of DIC in Ruditapes clams in a species-dependent manner although both displayed particular mechanisms to face stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109899DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of industrial pollution on the reproductive biology of Squalius laietanus (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) in a Mediterranean stream (NE Iberian Peninsula).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2020 Feb 17;46(1):247-264. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, University of Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Mediterranean rivers are severely affected by pollutants from industry, agriculture and urban activities. In this study, we examined how industrial pollutants, many of them known to act as endocrine disruptors (EDCs), could disturb the reproduction of the Catalan chub (Squalius laietanus). The survey was conducted throughout the reproductive period of S. laietanus (from March to July 2014) downstream an industrial WWTP located in the River Ripoll (NE Iberian Peninsula). Eighty fish (28 females and 52 males) were caught by electrofishing upstream and 77 fish (33 females and 44 males) downstream a WWTP. For both sexes, the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonadal histology were examined and related to water chemical analysis and fish biomarkers. Female fecundity was assessed using the gravimetric method. Fish from the polluted site showed enhanced biomarker responses involved in detoxification. Also, in the polluted site, lower GSI values were attained in both sexes and females displayed lower numbers of vitellogenic oocytes. Gonadal histology showed that all maturation stages of testicles and ovaries were present at the two study sites but fish males from the polluted site had smaller diameter seminiferous tubules. Water chemical analysis confirmed greater presence of EDCs in the river downstream the industrial WWTP. The chemicals benzotriazole and benzothiazole could be partially responsible for the observed alterations in the reproductive biology of S. laietanus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-019-00713-7DOI Listing
February 2020

Tetrabromobisphenol A inhibits carboxylesterase activity of marine organisms from different trophic levels.

Chemosphere 2020 Jan 14;238:124592. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant used in synthetic polymers and electronics, is present in the aquatic environment and recent evidence suggests it can be potentially biomagnified in the marine ecosystem. However, the toxicity of TBBPA in the marine biota has not been investigated in detail. In this study we aimed to understand the role of carboxylesterases (CEs) in xenobiotic metabolism under the exposure of marine organisms to a chemical of environmental concern, TBBPA. Specifically, we tested for in vitro inhibition of CE activity in a range of marine organisms covering different ecological niches, from species from low (mussels and copepods), medium (sardines and anchovies) and high trophic levels (tuna). The results revealed that the highest inhibition of CE activity to 100 μM TBBPA was recorded in mussels (66.5% inhibition) and tunids (36.3-76.4%), whereas copepods and small pelagic fish showed comparatively lower effects (respectively, 30% and 36.5-55.6%). Our results suggest that CE-mediated detoxification and physiological processes could be compromised in TBBPA-exposed organisms and could ultimately affect humans as many of them are market species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124592DOI Listing
January 2020

The influence of temperature and salinity on the impacts of lead in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Chemosphere 2019 Nov 28;235:403-412. Epub 2019 May 28.

Departamento de Química & CESAM & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal.

Mussels, such as the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis are sentinels for marine pollution but they are also excellent bioindicators under laboratory conditions. For that, in this study we tested the modulation of biochemical responses under realistic concentrations of the toxic metal Lead (Pb) in water for 28 days under different conditions of salinity and temperature, including control condition (temperature 17 ± 1.0 °C and salinity 30 ± 1.0) as well as those within the range expected to occur due to climate change predictions (± 5 in salinity and + 4 °C in temperature). A comprehensive set of biomarkers was applied to search on modulation of biochemical responses in terms of energy metabolism, energy reserves, oxidative stress and damage occurrence in lipids, proteins as well as neurotoxicity signs. The application of an integrative Principal Coordinates Ordination (PCO) tool was successful and demonstrated that Pb caused an increase in the detoxification activity mainly evidenced by glutathione S-transferases and that the salinities 25 and 35 were, even in un-exposed mussels, responsible for cell damage seen as increased levels of lipid peroxidation (at salinity 25) and oxidised proteins (at salinity 35).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.221DOI Listing
November 2019

Does salinity modulates the response of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to triclosan and diclofenac?

Environ Pollut 2019 Aug 6;251:756-765. Epub 2019 May 6.

Instituto de Ciencias del Mar ICM-CSIC, E-08003, Barcelona, Spain.

In the present study Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed for 28 days to three salinities: 30 (control), 25 and 35. Simultaneously, organisms at each salinity were exposed to either the antimicrobial agent Triclosan (TCS) or the pharmaceutical drug Diclofenac (DIC) at 1 μg/L. Salinity alone and exposure to PPCPs changed mussel's metabolic capacity and oxidative status, but no additive or synergetic effects resulting from the combined exposures were observed. Overall, the metabolic capacity of mussels was decreased when exposed to TCS and DIC under control salinity, which was less pronounced at salinities out of the control level. TCS had a notorious effect over glutathione peroxidase activity while DIC exposure enhanced catalase response. Such defence mechanisms were able to prevent cellular damage but still a clear reduction in GSH/GSSG ratio after PPCPs exposures indicates oxidative stress which could compromise bivalve's performance to further stressing events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.115DOI Listing
August 2019

Comprehensive study of sulfamethoxazole effects in marine mussels: Bioconcentration, enzymatic activities and metabolomics.

Environ Res 2019 06 8;173:12-22. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

ICRA-Catalan Institute for Water Research, H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain. Electronic address:

Antibiotics accumulation in aquatic organisms may be of great concern from an ecological point of view but also from a human perspective, especially when they are accumulated in edible animals like marine mussels. In this work, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to sulfamethoxazole antibiotic (SMX) at 10 µg/L during 96 h, followed by 24 h of depuration. The experiment was carried out at summer and winter conditions. SMX showed a bioconcentration factor in mussel of 1.5 L/kg (dry weight) and 69% of the compound was eliminated from the organism in 24 h. The metabolomics approach revealed alterations in amino acids levels (aspartate, phenylalanine, valine and tryptophan) pinpointing disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism. Besides, the levels of some nucleotides (guanosine and inosine) and a carboxylic acid were also affected. However, SMX exposed mussels did not show any significant alteration in the enzymatic activities related to the xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress. Moreover, some of the changes observed in mussel's metabolites suggested alterations in mussel's organoleptic characteristics that can affect its quality as seafood commodity. Overall, our results showed that SMX exposure to marine mussels may have ecological implications by provoking sub-lethal effects to exposed organisms. Nevertheless, no risk for consumers derived from mussel ingestion is expected due to the low bioconcentration capacity of SMX and fast depuration in this seafood type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.03.021DOI Listing
June 2019

The effect of temperature on Triclosan and Lead exposed mussels.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Jun 23;232:42-50. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Interest on the effects of emerging contaminants over aquatic organisms has increased in the last years. Nonetheless, the toxic action of classical natural and anthropogenically-driven metals has also to be monitored, especially because they reflect real environmental situations. For that, in the present study we focused on the effects on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis of the personal care product Triclosan (TCS) and Lead (Pb), as toxic metal, under separate and co-exposure situations at environmentally relevant concentrations: TCS (1 μg/L) and Pb (50 μg/L). The consideration of an additional factor such as an increase in ambient temperature was also included to provide a forecasted scenario of climate change: from the ambient temperature at actual conditions (17 °C) to a predicted warming situation (22 °C). Water chemical characterization and some physical properties and bioaccumulation of TCS and Pb in mussels at the end of the experiment (28 days) was considered. The parameters followed up comprise the energy related system production (electron transport system) and glycogen and protein reserves. Antioxidant enzymatic defences towards reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the consequences of ROS damage over endogenous lipids (LPO) and proteins (PC). Overall the results suggested only particular responses to chemical exposures at 17 °C whereas at 22 °C the detoxification machinery was set up and this prevented the occurrence of LPO. Nonetheless, PC formation occurred under Pb and TCS + Pb co-exposure at the highest temperature. Due to the complexity of the study: 4 chemical conditions, 2 temperatures and 10 biomarkers considered, a principal component ordination (PCO) analysis was included. The results of this integrative analysis confirmed a clear effect of the temperature, more responsiveness to drugs at 22 °C and in all likelihood due to Pb presence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2019.02.007DOI Listing
June 2019

The influence of temperature on the effects induced by Triclosan and Diclofenac in mussels.

Sci Total Environ 2019 May 16;663:992-999. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Instituto de Ciencias del Mar ICM-CSIC, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Little is known about the consequences of exposure to pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in elevated temperatures associated with climate change. To increase the knowledge on this topic, Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed to 1.0 μg/L of either the antimicrobial Triclosan (TCS) or the anti-inflammatory drug Diclofenac (DIC), at control (17 °C) and 4 °C raised (21 °C) temperatures for 28 days. Triclosan and DIC concentrations in the water and tissues were subsequently measured and related to biomarker responses including: energy metabolism (electron transport system (ETS) activity, glycogen and protein reserves), oxidative stress markers, glutathione balance between the reduced and the oxidised form (GSH/GSSG), and damage to proteins and lipids. Mussels responded to the increase in temperature and drug exposure by lowering their metabolic rate (decreased ETS), increasing their endogenous reserves and antioxidant defences, thus preventing oxidative stress damage, with the exception of DIC exposure at the higher temperature. In all cases, GSH/GSSG ratio was reduced in detriment of the antioxidant form at both PPCPs exposures and elevated temperature with no additive effect due to combined stressors. Overall, either drug exposure or increased temperature could compromise the ability of mussels to withstand further insults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.189DOI Listing
May 2019

Preliminary results on the uptake and biochemical response to water-exposure of Tamiflu® (oseltamivir phosphate) in two marine bivalves.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2019 22;82(2):75-85. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

a Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC) , Barcelona , Spain.

Tamiflu® (oseltamivir phosphate, OST) is an antiviral drug used for the pandemic treatment of avian influenza but few data are available regarding its toxicity. It should be noted that acute adverse responses are not likely to occur due to low environmental presence of this drug. Nonetheless, water concentration levels of this compound may reach the µg/L range under influenza episodes. Bivalves are reliable sentinels of chemical exposure due to their low metabolism; however, biotransformation of drugs does occur in these aquatic invertebrates. Two species of bivalves, namely mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and clams Ruditapes philippinarum, were exposed for 48 h to 100 µg/L OST. Hemolymph from control and treated bivalves was withdrawn and the presence of OST and its metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OST-C) determined by LC-MS/MS. Gills and digestive gland were excised from control and exposed bivalves and carboxylesterase (CE) activities measured using different substrates. In addition, antioxidant defences and lipid peroxidation levels were determined. Higher metabolism of OST seemed to occur in mussels, since both OST and OST-C were found in hemolymph, whereas in clams only the parent compound was detected. In contrast, biomarker responses were more evident in exposed clams which indicate that this species may be considered as more sensitive to OST exposure. CE-related activities successfully reflected OST exposure, with substrates 1-naphthyl acetate (1NA) and 1-naphthyl butyrate (1NB) displaying the highest sensitivity in the two bivalve species. Data thus indicate the usefulness of CE-related activities as biomarkers for OST exposure in bivalves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2018.1562393DOI Listing
January 2020

Exploring alternative biomarkers of pesticide pollution in clams.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Nov 8;136:61-67. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a reliable biomarker of pesticide exposure although in clams this activity is often very low or undetectable. Carboxylesterases (CEs) exhort several physiological roles, but also respond to pesticides. Searching for an AChE alternative, baseline CE activities were characterised in Ruditapes decussatus gills and digestive glands using five substrates suggestive of different isozymes. The long chain p-nitrophenyl butyrate and 1-naphthyl butyrate were the most sensitive. In the digestive gland, their kinetic parameters (V and K) and in vitro sensitivity to the organophosphorus metabolite chlorpyrifos oxon (CPX) were calculated. IC50 values, in the pM-nM range, suggest a high protection efficiency of CE-related enzymes towards CPX neurotoxicity. Other targeted enzymes were: activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and lactate dehydrogenase in gills and digestive glands. The high GSTs activity and CE/AChE ratio suggests that R. decussatus has a great capacity for enduring pesticide exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.08.062DOI Listing
November 2018

Multibiomarker biomonitoring approach using three bivalve species in the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 31;25(36):36745-36758. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Institut of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC), Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Bivalves have proved to be useful bioindicators for environmental pollution. In the present study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), and razor shells (Solen marginatus) were collected in the Ebro Delta, an extensive area devoted to rice farming and affected by pesticide pollution, from April to July, the heaviest rice field treatment period. Possible effects of pollution were assessed through biochemical markers (carboxylesterase (CE), antioxidant and neurotoxicity-related enzymes, and lipid peroxidation levels). Data on environmental variables, bivalve reproductive condition, and presence of organic pollutants, marine phycotoxins, pathogens, or histopathological conditions in bivalve's tissues were also evaluated. Although the bioaccumulated pesticides did not explain the patterns observed for biochemical responses, the obtained results point to an effect of environmental pesticide pollution on enzymatic markers, with a prominent contribution of CE to such changes. Mussels and razor shells provided a more sensitive biochemical response to pollution than cockles. Environmental variables, bivalve reproductive condition, and marine phycotoxins did not seem to have a relevant effect on the biomarkers assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3614-6DOI Listing
December 2018

Type III secretion inhibitors for the management of bacterial plant diseases.

Mol Plant Pathol 2019 01 19;20(1):20-32. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Genetics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028, Catalonia, Spain.

The identification of chemical compounds that prevent and combat bacterial diseases is fundamental for crop production. Bacterial virulence inhibitors are a promising alternative to classical control treatments, because they have a low environmental impact and are less likely to generate bacterial resistance. The major virulence determinant of most animal and plant bacterial pathogens is the type III secretion system (T3SS). In this work, we screened nine plant extracts and 12 isolated compounds-including molecules effective against human pathogens-for their capacity to inhibit the T3SS of plant pathogens and for their applicability as virulence inhibitors for crop protection. The screen was performed using a luminescent reporter system developed in the model pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Five synthetic molecules, one natural product and two plant extracts were found to down-regulate T3SS transcription, most through the inhibition of the regulator hrpB. In addition, for three of the molecules, corresponding to salicylidene acylhydrazide derivatives, the inhibitory effect caused a dramatic decrease in the secretion capacity, which was translated into impaired plant responses. These candidate virulence inhibitors were then tested for their ability to protect plants. We demonstrated that salicylidene acylhydrazides can limit R. solanacearum multiplication in planta and protect tomato plants from bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Our work validates the efficiency of transcription reporters to discover compounds or natural product extracts that can be potentially applied to prevent bacterial plant diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430469PMC
January 2019

The use of carboxylesterases as biomarkers of pesticide exposure in bivalves: A methodological approach.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Oct 11;212:18-24. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Bivalves are worldwide sentinels of anthropogenic pollution. The inclusion of biomarker responses in chemical monitoring is a recommended practise that has to overcome some difficulties. One of them is the time frame between sample collection and sample processing in order to ensure the preservation of enzymatic activities. In the present study, three bivalve species of commercial interest (mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, razor shell, Solen marginatus, and cockle, Cerastoderma edule) were processed within <2 h after being retrieved from their natural habitat, and 24 h after being transported in air under cold conditions (6-8 °C) to laboratory facilities. The enzymatic activities were compared in the three species submitted to both conditions revealing no differences in terms of carboxylesterase dependent activities (CEs) using different substrates: p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA), p-nitrophenyl butyrate (pNPB), 1-naphthyl acetate (1-NA), 1-naphthyl butyrate (1-NB) and 2-naphthyl acetate (2-NA). In mussels, three tissues were selected (haemolymph, gills and digestive gland). For comparative purposes, in razor shell and cockle only digestive gland was considered as it is the main metabolic organ. Baseline enzymatic activities for CEs were characterised in the digestive gland of the three bivalves using four out of the five selected CE substrates as well as the kinetic parameters (V and K) and catalytic efficiency. The in vitro sensitivity to the organophosphorus metabolite chlorpyrifos oxon was also calculated. IC values (pM-nM range) were lower than those obtained for vertebrate groups which suggest that bivalves have high protection efficiency against this pesticide as well as species dependent particularities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2018.06.002DOI Listing
October 2018

Metabolite profiling of carbamazepine and ibuprofen in Solea senegalensis bile using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 Sep 29;409(23):5441-5450. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Water and Soil Quality Research Group, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain.

The widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on exposed wildlife. Very little is currently known on exposure levels and clearance mechanisms of drugs in marine fish. Within this context, our research was focused on the identification of main metabolic reactions, generated metabolites, and caused effects after exposure of fish to carbamazepine (CBZ) and ibuprofen (IBU). To this end, juveniles of Solea senegalensis acclimated to two temperature regimes of 15 and 20 °C for 60 days received a single intraperitoneal dose of these drugs. A control group was administered the vehicle (sunflower oil). Bile samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry on a Q Exactive (Orbitrap) system, allowing to propose plausible identities for 11 metabolites of CBZ and 13 metabolites of IBU in fish bile. In case of CBZ metabolites originated from aromatic and benzylic hydroxylation, epoxidation, and ensuing O-glucuronidation, O-methylation of a catechol-like metabolite was also postulated. Ibuprofen, in turn, formed multiple hydroxyl metabolites, O-glucuronides, and (hydroxyl)-acyl glucuronides, in addition to several taurine conjugates. Enzymatic responses after drug exposures revealed a water temperature-dependent induction of microsomal carboxylesterases. The metabolite profiling in fish bile provides an important tool for pharmaceutical exposure assessment. Graphical abstract Studies of metabolism of carbamazepine and ibuprofen in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0467-7DOI Listing
September 2017

Carboxylesterase activities in chondrichthyans of the western Mediterranean Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2017 06 25;119(1):332-335. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

Institut de Ciències del Mar CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.04.021DOI Listing
June 2017

Targeted promoter editing for rice resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae reveals differential activities for SWEET14-inducing TAL effectors.

Plant Biotechnol J 2017 03 17;15(3):306-317. Epub 2016 Dec 17.

UMR Interactions Plantes Microorganismes Environnement (IPME), IRD-CIRAD-Université, Montpellier, France.

As a key virulence strategy to cause bacterial leaf blight, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) injects into the plant cell DNA-binding proteins called transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) that bind to effector-binding elements (EBEs) in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in host gene induction. TALEs AvrXa7, PthXo3, TalC and Tal5, found in geographically distant Xoo strains, all target OsSWEET14, thus considered as a pivotal TALE target acting as major susceptibility factor during rice-Xoo interactions. Here, we report the generation of an allele library of the OsSWEET14 promoter through stable expression of TALE-nuclease (TALEN) constructs in rice. The susceptibility level of lines carrying mutations in AvrXa7, Tal5 or TalC EBEs was assessed. Plants edited in AvrXa7 or Tal5 EBEs were resistant to bacterial strains relying on the corresponding TALE. Surprisingly, although indels within TalC EBE prevented OsSWEET14 induction in response to BAI3 wild-type bacteria relying on TalC, loss of TalC responsiveness failed to confer resistance to this strain. The TalC EBE mutant line was, however, resistant to a strain expressing an artificial SWEET14-inducing TALE whose EBE was also edited in this line. This work offers the first set of alleles edited in TalC EBE and uncovers a distinct, broader range of activities for TalC compared to AvrXa7 or Tal5. We propose the existence of additional targets for TalC beyond SWEET14, suggesting that TALE-mediated plant susceptibility may result from induction of several, genetically redundant, host susceptibility genes by a single effector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316920PMC
March 2017

The use of juvenile Solea solea as sentinel in the marine platform of the Ebre Delta: in vitro interaction of emerging contaminants with the liver detoxification system.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Oct 29;23(19):19229-36. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Juveniles of Solea solea were sampled during the spring season in three consecutive years at a marine site by the mouth of the Ebre river. The aim was to assess if the extractive works from the toxic load upstream the river could be reflected on the health status of the fish living at the immediate sea. The biomarkers selected for the in vivo field study are commonly used as indicators of chemical exposures. They include activities of energy metabolism: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS); neurotoxicity: cholinesterases (ChE); xenobiotic metabolism: cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent: EROD and BFCOD, carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT); and oxidative stress parameters such as catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO). These biomarkers were mostly analysed in liver but also in gills and muscle depending on their particular tissue distribution and role. A complementary in vitro approach was also sought to see the capacity of common emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs) to interact with the liver microsomal detoxification system of the fish (EROD, BFCOD and CbE activities). The results indicated that in fish sampled in 2015 there was an enhancement in detoxification parameters (EROD, BFCOD and gill GR), muscular ChEs and gill CS, but a decrease in CbE activity and a marked oxidative stress situation (increased LPO and decreased CAT activity). Also, 4 out of the 10 PPCPs tested in vitro were able to interact with the CYP3A4 (BFCOD) enzymatic system while the lipid regulators simvastatin and fenofibrate inhibited CbE activity, as it occurs in higher vertebrates. The in vivo results support the use of a multibiomarker approach when assessing the disturbances due to chemical exposures, not only spatially but also over time, once the influence of other variables has been taken into consideration. The in vitro results highlight the importance of the CYP3A4 and CbE pathway in pharmaceutical metabolism, also in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7146-7DOI Listing
October 2016

An in vitro screening with emerging contaminants reveals inhibition of carboxylesterase activity in aquatic organisms.

Aquat Toxicol 2015 Dec 4;169:215-22. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

Ecotoxicology Lab., Fac. Environmental Science and Biochemistry, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo, Spain.

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) form part of the new generation of pollutants present in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although environmental concentrations of these bioactive substances are low, they cause sublethal effects (e.g., enzyme inhibition) in non-target organisms. However, little is known on metabolism of PPCPs by non-mammal species. Herein, an in vitro enzyme trial was performed to explore sensitivity of carboxylesterase (CE) activity of aquatic organisms to fourteen PPCPs. The esterase activity was determined in the liver of Mediterranean freshwater fish (Barbus meridionalis and Squalius laietanus), coastal marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Solea solea), middle-slope fish (Trachyrhynchus scabrus), deep-sea fish (Alepocephalus rostratus and Cataetix laticeps), and in the digestive gland of a decapod crustacean (Aristeus antennatus). Results showed that 100μM of the lipid regulators simvastatin and fenofibrate significantly inhibited (30-80% of controls) the CE activity of all target species. Among the personal care products, nonylphenol and triclosan were strong esterase inhibitors in most species (36-68% of controls). Comparison with literature data suggests that fish CE activity is as sensitive to inhibition by some PPCPs as that of mammals, although their basal activity levels are lower than in mammals. Pending further studies on the interaction between PPCPs and CE activity, we postulate that this enzyme may act as a molecular sink for certain PPCPs in a comparable way than that described for the organophosphorus pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.11.001DOI Listing
December 2015

Ageing and Caloric Restriction in a Marine Planktonic Copepod.

Sci Rep 2015 Oct 12;5:14962. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Institut de Ciències del Mar - CSIC, Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Planktonic copepods are a key group in the marine pelagic ecosystem, linking primary production with upper trophic levels. Their abundance and population dynamics are constrained by the life history tradeoffs associated with resource availability, reproduction and predation pressure. The tradeoffs associated with the ageing process and its underlying biological mechanisms are, however, poorly known. Our study shows that ageing in copepods involves a deterioration of their vital rates and a rise in mortality associated with an increase in oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation); the activity of the cell-repair enzymatic machinery also increases with age. This increase in oxidative damage is associated with an increase in the relative content of the fatty acid 22:6(n-3), an essential component of cell membranes that increases their susceptibility to peroxidation. Moreover, we show that caloric (food) restriction in marine copepods reduces their age-specific mortality rates, and extends the lifespan of females and their reproductive period. Given the overall low production of the oceans, this can be a strategy, at least in certain copepod species, to enhance their chances to reproduce in a nutritionally dilute, temporally and spatially patchy environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4601087PMC
October 2015