Publications by authors named "Monique Mitchell Turner"

12 Publications

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Too stringent or too Lenient: Antecedents and consequences of perceived stringency of COVID-19 policies in the United States.

Health Policy Open 2021 Dec 10;2:100047. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Communication, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

In the United States, federal and local governments have attempted to contain the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by implementing a variety of policies such as stay-at-home orders and mask mandates. Perceptions can influence behaviors; therefore, it is important to understand how people perceive the stringency of COVID-19 policies, what factors shape perceived policy stringency, and whether and how policy perceptions impact the practice of prevention behaviors. With rolling-cross sectional survey data collected in the US from June to October 2020 and other external sources of data, the study examines the impact of objective risk of the pandemic, information seeking, and political ideology at the individual and the state levels on perceived policy stringency, and the impact of perceived policy stringency on prevention behaviors such as mask wearing and social distancing. The findings reveal that objective risk and political ideology are significantly associated with perceived policy stringency. The perceived policy stringency has negative associations with prevention behaviors. The findings provide important implications for the development process of compulsory public health policies during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpopen.2021.100047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270729PMC
December 2021

Predicting Breastfeeding Intentions: A Test and Extension of the Theory of Normative Social Behavior with African American Social Identity.

Health Commun 2021 Jun 9:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Education, Wayne State University.

Breastfeeding is a health promoting social behavior but statistics suggest a persistent disparity of lower rates among African American mothers. The Theory of Normative Social Behavior (TNSB) explains when and how norms influence behaviors, but has produced inconsistent results with respect to proposed moderators group identity and injunctive norms (IN), limiting its predictive value in diverse cultural groups. Cultural norms are one of many influences on breastfeeding behaviors, yet little is known about their mechanisms of influence. The TNSB has not been tested in the breastfeeding context or within an exclusively African American cultural group. Given this knowledge gap, a survey of 528 African American mothers in the Washington, D.C. area was conducted to test the moderating effects of IN and subjective norms (SN) and social identity on the descriptive norms (DN) to intentions relationship as predicted by the TNSB. Structural equation modeling was used to show that when controlling for education and breastfeeding history, norms significantly predicted 26.4% of the variance in breastfeeding intentions. SN and DN interacted negatively to enhance breastfeeding intentions. Latent profile analysis using ethnic pride, collectivism, and religiosity scales detected four profiles of African American social identity. Social identity profile membership was a significant moderator on the DN to intentions pathway in the structural equation model. Profiles with the highest ethnic pride were significantly influenced by DN to intend to breastfeed. Implications from this study for public health intervention and communication messaging are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2021.1936750DOI Listing
June 2021

Breastfeeding in Context: African American Women's Normative Referents, Salient Identities, and Perceived Social Norms.

Health Educ Behav 2021 Aug 24;48(4):496-506. Epub 2021 May 24.

Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

The purpose of this study was to describe social norms and salient social identities related to breastfeeding intentions among African American mothers in Washington, D.C. Five focus groups were held with 30 mothers who gave birth to a child between 2016 and 2019. Two coders conducted pragmatic thematic analysis. This study demonstrated that women hold different identities relevant to making infant feeding decisions, with mother being primary and race/ethnicity, age, and relationship status factoring into how they define themselves. Mothers drew their perceptions of what is common and accepted from family, friends, the "Black community," and what they perceived visually in their geographic area and heard from their health care providers. Mothers believed breastfeeding to be increasing in popularity and acceptability in African American communities in Washington, D.C., but not yet the most common or accepted mode of feeding, with some variability by socioeconomic status group. Implications for public health communication and social marketing are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10901981211014445DOI Listing
August 2021

Racism and Resistance: A Qualitative Study of Bias As a Barrier to Breastfeeding.

Breastfeed Med 2021 Jun 30;16(6):471-480. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Communication and Michigan AgBio Research, College of Communication Arts and Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Nearly 75% of Black non-Hispanic babies born in 2016 ever breastfed. However, Black mothers still experience barriers to breastfeeding, perpetuating disparities in exclusivity and duration. Using data collected from five focus groups with Black mothers ( = 30) in Washington, District of Columbia during summer 2019, we critically examine the influence of institutionalized and personally mediated racism on breastfeeding. We also explore the counter-narratives Black women use to resist oppression and deal with these barriers. Themes surrounding institutionalized racism included historic exploitation, institutions pushing formula, and lack of economic and employment supports. Themes regarding how personally mediated racism manifested included health care interactions and shaming/stigma while feeding in public. At each level examined, themes of resistance were also identified. Themes of resistance to institutionalized racism were economic empowerment and institutions protecting breastfeeding. Themes of resistance to personally mediated biases were rejecting health provider bias and building community. There are opportunities for health providers and systems to break down barriers to breastfeeding for Black women. These include changes in clinical training and practice as well as clinicians leveraging their position and lending their voices in advocacy efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2020.0307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215417PMC
June 2021

Speaking of Values: Value-Expressive Communication and Exercise Intentions.

Health Commun 2021 Feb 16:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Psychology Department, University of Konstanz.

This study introduces the concept of value-expressive communication and examines its relationship with behavioral intent. Value-expressive communication is conceptualized as the verbal output of a value-expressive attitude. Value-expressive communication about exercise is examined in relationship to strength of religious faith, exercise attitudes, communication frequency, and intentions to exercise among a sample of self-identified Christians. The data indicate a significant interaction between value-expressive communication and communication frequency explains significant variance in exercise intentions. Interact to and exercise attitudes is significantly associated with intentions to exercise. Suggestions for using value-expressive communication in health communication research and practice are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2021.1886398DOI Listing
February 2021

Overlooking the Obvious: Communication of Efficacy by the Mass Media During the Ebola Crisis in Liberia.

Prev Sci 2021 02 21;22(2):259-268. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Milken Institute School of Public Health, Department of Global Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

The role of mass media during a public health crisis is an ineluctable part of providing the public with critical information rapidly, particularly messages about self- and response efficacy. However, little is known about the role local news media play in disseminating efficacy information during infectious disease outbreaks. Here, we use the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Liberia as a case to explore this question. We content analyzed newspaper and radio messages disseminated between March 2014 and March 2015, during the midst of the outbreak. Results show that both radio programs and newspaper articles mentioned over 21 prevention steps at some point, with noticeable differences within which disease prevention messages were communicated most frequently to the public. At least 1 mention of self-efficacy was identified in 31.5% of radio content (n = 127), 23.6% of radio programming (n = 55), and 10.6% of newspaper content (n = 745). Response efficacy, signifying effectiveness of preventive methods, was detected in 25.2% of radio (n = 127), 16.4% of radio programming (n = 55), and 15% of newspaper content (n = 745). This is important as efficacy reporting can impact public readiness to adopt preventative measures and affect beliefs about self- and response efficacy, ultimately decreasing chances of spreading the infection and poorer health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-020-01189-1DOI Listing
February 2021

The Relationship Between Advertising-Induced Anger and Self-efficacy on Persuasive Outcomes: A Test of the Anger Activism Model Using the Truth Campaign.

Fam Community Health 2017 Jan/Mar;40(1):72-80

Evaluation Science and Research, Truth Initiative, Washington, District of Columbia (Ms Ilakkuvan and Drs Cantrell, Hair, and Vallone); Department of Prevention and Community Health, The George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, Washington, District of Columbia (Ms Ilakkuvan and Dr Turner); Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland (Drs Cantrell and Hair); and Global Institute of Public Health, New York University, New York (Dr Vallone).

Turner's Anger Activism Model (AAM) contends anger and efficacy interact in a unique way to determine message responses to campaign materials. This study tested the AAM using responses to 2 truth antismoking advertisements collected in August-October 2014 via an online, cross-sectional survey of 15- to 21-year-olds. Those aware of each of the truth advertisements (n = 319 for each) were organized into 4 anger/efficacy groups. Analysis of variance and regressions were conducted to understand group differences in message-related cognitions (persuasiveness, receptivity, conversation). Message cognitions were highest among the high anger/high efficacy group and lowest among the low anger/low efficacy group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FCH.0000000000000126DOI Listing
September 2017

Raising a Red Flag on Dating Violence: Evaluation of a Low-Resource, College-Based Bystander Behavior Intervention Program.

J Interpers Violence 2018 11 9;33(22):3480-3501. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

2 George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Encouraging bystanders to intervene safely and effectively in situations that could escalate to violence-known as bystander behavior programs-is a growing yet largely untested strategy to prevent dating violence. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluate a low-resource, low-intensity intervention aimed at preventing dating violence among college students. The integrated behavioral model (IBM) was used to guide the evaluation. We also assess which IBM variables were most strongly associated with bystander behaviors. Participants were drawn from two Virginia colleges that predominantly train females in the health profession sciences. The intervention group ( n = 329) participated in a university-wide bystander behavior intervention consisting of a 30-min presentation on dating violence at new-student orientation and a week-long "red flag" social marketing campaign on campus to raise awareness of dating violence. Controlling for changes at the comparison university, results showed an increase in bystander behaviors, such as encouraging a friend who may be in an abusive relationship to get help, after the intervention and adjusting for potential confounders (increase of 1.41 bystander behaviors, p = .04). However, no significant changes were found for bystander intentions, self-efficacy, social norms, or attitudes related to dating violence from pre- to post-intervention. Self-efficacy had a direct relationship with bystander behaviors. Results suggest that low-resource interventions have a modest effect on increasing bystander behaviors. However, higher resource interventions likely are needed for a larger impact, especially among students who already demonstrate strong baseline intentions to intervene and prevent dating violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260516635322DOI Listing
November 2018

Do Sexual Assault Bystander Interventions Change Men's Intentions? Applying the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Predicting Bystander Outcomes.

J Health Commun 2016 30;21(3):276-92. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

b Department of Prevention and Community Health , George Washington University , Washington , DC , USA.

The high prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses has led to the implementation of health communication programs to prevent sexual assault. A few novel programs focus on primary prevention by targeting social norms related to gender and masculinity among men through bystander intervention. Guided by the theory of normative social behavior, this study sought to examine the relative effect of campaigns communicating positive versus negative injunctive norms and the interaction between exposure to such campaign messages and perceived descriptive norms and relevant cognitive moderators (e.g., outcome expectations, injunctive norms, group identity, ego involvement) among men. A 2 (high/low descriptive norms) × 2 (high/low moderator) × 3 (public service announcement) independent groups quasi-experimental design (N = 332) was used. Results indicated that messages communicating positive injunctive norms were most effective among men who were least likely to engage in bystander intervention. Furthermore, descriptive norms played a significant role in behavioral intentions, such that those with stronger norms were more likely to report intentions to engage in bystander behaviors in the future. Similarly, the moderators of aspiration, injunctive norms, social approval, and ego involvement had a significant positive effect on behavioral intentions. These findings have important implications for future message design strategy and audience segmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2015.1058437DOI Listing
July 2016

Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.

J Health Commun 2014 Sep 20;19(9):1017-29. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

a Department of Prevention and Community Health , George Washington University , Washington , District of Columbia , USA.

Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2013.864726DOI Listing
September 2014

Predicting psychological ripple effects: the role of cultural identity, in-group/out-group identification, and attributions of blame in crisis communication.

Risk Anal 2012 Apr 2;32(4):695-712. Epub 2011 Nov 2.

University of Maryland, College Park, USA.

Incidents of intentional food contamination can produce ripple effects in consumers such as reduced trust and increased anxiety. In their postcrisis communication, food companies often direct the blame at the perpetrator in an effort to mitigate potential losses and regain consumer trust. The attempt to placate consumers may, in itself, potentially create psychological ripple effects in message readers. This study examined the interacting influence of two message characteristics: identity of the perpetrator of the crime (in-group/out-group membership), and the attribution of blame (reason why the perpetrator committed the crime), with message receiver characteristic (cultural identity) on psychological ripple effects such as blame, trust, anxiety, and future purchase intention. Results indicated that although group membership of the perpetrator was not significant in predicting outcomes for the organization, the attribution communicated in the message was. American message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when personal dispositional attributions were made about the perpetrator. Asian message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when situational attributions were made about the perpetrator. Lowered trust in the company and increased anxiety correlated with lower purchase intent for both American and Asian message receivers. Implications for crisis message design are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01727.xDOI Listing
April 2012
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