Publications by authors named "Monique Fontaine"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fluxomic assay-assisted diagnosis orientation in a cohort of 11 patients with myopathic form of CPT2 deficiency.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 04 12;123(4):441-448. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Metabolism-Nutrition, Oncology, Biology Pathology Center, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille, France; Univ. Lille, RADEME - Maladies RAres du Développement et du Métabolisme: du phénotype au génotype et à la Fonction, Lille, EA 7364, France; Inserm, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase type 2 (CPT2) deficiency, a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder (MFAOD), is a cause of myopathy in its late clinical presentation. As for other MFAODs, its diagnosis may be evocated when blood acylcarnitine profile is abnormal. However, a lack of abnormalities or specificity in this profile is not exclusive of CPT2 deficiency. Our retrospective study reports clinical and biological data in a cohort of 11 patients with circulating acylcarnitine profile unconclusive enough for a specific diagnosis orientation. In these patients, CPT2 gene studies was prompted by prior fluxomic explorations of mitochondrial β-oxidation on intact whole blood cells incubated with pentadeuterated ([16-H, 15-H])-palmitate. Clinical indication for fluxomic explorations was at least one acute rhabdomyolysis episode complicated, in 5 of 11 patients, by acute renal failure. Major trigger of rhabdomyolysis was febrile infection. In all patients, fluxomic data indicated deficient CPT2 function showing normal deuterated palmitoylcarnitine (C16-Cn) formation rates associated with increased ratios between generated C16-Cn and downstream deuterated metabolites (Σ deuterated C2-Cn to C14-Cn). Subsequent gene studies showed in all patients pathogenic gene variants in either homozygous or compound heterozygous forms. Consistent with literature data, allelic frequency of the c.338C > T[p.Ser113Leu] mutation amounted to 68.2% in our cohort. Other missense mutations included c.149C > A[p.Pro50His] (9%), c.200C > G[p.Ala200Gly] (4.5%) and previously unreported c.1171A > G[p.ser391Gly] (4.5%) and c.1420G > C[p.Ala474Pro] (4.5%) mutations. Frameshift c.1666-1667delTT[p.Leu556val*16] mutation (9%) was observed in two patients unknown to be related.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.02.005DOI Listing
April 2018

Functional assessment of creatine transporter in control and X-linked SLC6A8-deficient fibroblasts.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 04 16;123(4):463-471. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Hormonology, Metabolism-Nutrition & Oncology (HMNO), Center of Biology and Pathology (CBP) Pierre-Marie Degand, CHRU, Lille, France; Inserm, Lille, France; Université de Lyon, INSERM U1060 CarMeN, Lyon, France.; Univ. Lille, RADEME - Maladies RAres du Développement et du Métabolisme : du phénotype au génotype et à la Fonction, Lille, EA 7364, France. Electronic address:

Creatine transporter is currently the focus of renewed interest with emerging roles in brain neurotransmission and physiology, and the bioenergetics of cancer metastases. We here report on amendments of a standard creatine uptake assay which might help clinical chemistry laboratories to extend their current range of measurements of creatine and metabolites in body fluids to functional enzyme explorations. In this respect, short incubation times and the use of a stable-isotope-labeled substrate (D-creatine) preceded by a creatine wash-out step from cultured fibroblast cells by removal of fetal bovine serum (rich in creatine) from the incubation medium are recommended. Together, these measures decreased, by a first order of magnitude, creatine concentrations in the incubation medium at the start of creatine-uptake studies and allowed to functionally discriminate between 4 hemizygous male and 4 heterozygous female patients with X-linked SLC6A8 deficiency, and between this cohort of eight patients and controls. The functional assay corroborated genetic diagnosis of SLC6A8 deficiency. Gene anomalies in our small cohort included splicing site (c.912G > A [p.Ile260_Gln304del], c.778-2A > G and c.1495 + 2 T > G), substitution (c.407C > T) [p.Ala136Val] and deletion (c.635_636delAG [p.Glu212Valfs*84] and c.1324delC [p.Gln442Lysfs*21]) variants with reduced creatine transporter function validating their pathogenicity, including that of a previously unreported c.1324delC variant. The present assay adaptations provide an easy, reliable and discriminative manner for exploring creatine transporter activity and disease variations. It might apply to drug testing or other evaluations in the genetic and metabolic horizons covered by the emerging functions of creatine and its transporter, in a way, however, requiring and completed by additional studies on female patients and blood-brain barrier permeability properties of selected compounds. As a whole, the proposed assay of creatine transporter positively adds to currently existing measurements of this transporter activity, and determining on a large scale the extent of its exact suitability to detect female patients should condition in the future its transfer in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.02.010DOI Listing
April 2018

Fluxomic evidence for impaired contribution of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase to mitochondrial palmitate β-oxidation in symptomatic patients with ACADS gene susceptibility variants.

Clin Chim Acta 2017 Aug 19;471:101-106. Epub 2017 May 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Hormonology, Metabolism-Nutrition & Oncology (HMNO), Center of Biology and Pathology (CBP) Pierre-Marie Degand, CHRU Lille, France; Univ. Lille, EA 7364 - RADEME - Maladies RAres du Développement et du Métabolisme: du phénotype au génotype et à la Fonction, Lille, France; Inserm, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Background: Despite ACADS (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short-chain) gene susceptibility variants (c.511C>T and c.625G>A) are considered to be non-pathogenic, encoded proteins are known to exhibit altered kinetics. Whether or not, they might affect overall fatty acid β-oxidation still remains, however, unclear.

Methods: De novo biosynthesis of acylcarnitines by whole blood samples incubated with deuterated palmitate (16-H,15-H-palmitate) is suitable as a fluxomic exploration to distinguish between normal and disrupted β-oxidation, abnormal profiles and ratios of acylcarnitines with different chain-lengths being indicative of the site for enzymatic blockade. Determinations in 301 control subjects of ratios between deuterated butyrylcarnitine and sum of deuterated C2 to C14 acylcarnitines served here as reference values to state specifically functional SCAD impairment in patients addressed for clinical and/or biological suspicion of a β-oxidation disorder.

Results: Functional SCAD impairment was found in 39 patients. The 27 patients accepting subsequent gene studies were all positive for ACADS mutations. Twenty-six of 27 patients were positive for c.625G>A variant. Twenty-three of 27 patients harbored susceptibility variants as sole ACADS alterations (18 homozygous and 3 heterozygous for c.625G>A, 2 compound heterozygous for c.625G>A/c.511C>T).

Conclusion: Our present fluxomic assessment of SCAD suggests a link between ACADS susceptibility variants and abnormal β-oxidation consistent with known altered kinetics of these variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2017.05.026DOI Listing
August 2017

A fast method for high resolution oxymetry study of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes.

Anal Biochem 2017 07 26;528:57-62. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Hormonology, Metabolism-Nutrition & Oncology (HMNO), Center of Biology and Pathology (CBP) Pierre-Marie Degand, CHRU Lille, France; Univ. Lille, EA 7364 - RADEME - Maladies RAres du Développement et du Métabolisme: du phénotype au génotype et à la Fonction, Lille, France; Inserm, Lille, France. Electronic address:

High resolution oxymetry study (HROS) of skeletal muscle usually requires 90-120 min preparative phase (dissection, permeabilization and washing). This work reports on the suitability of a rapid muscle preparation which by-passes this long preparation. For a few seconds only, muscle biopsy from pigs is submitted to gentle homogenization at 8000 rotations per minute using an ultra-dispersor apparatus. Subsequent HROS is performed using FCCP instead of ADP, compounds crossing and not plasma membrane, respectively. This simplified procedure compares favorably with classical (permeabilized fibers) HROS in terms of respiratory chain complex activities. Mitochondria from cells undergoing ultradispersion were functionally preserved as attested by relative inefficacy of added cytochrome C (not crossing intact mitochondrial outer membrane) to stimulate mitochondrial respiration. Responsiveness of respiration to ADP (in the absence of FCCP) suggested that these intact mitochondria were outside cells disrupted by ultradispersion or within cells permeated by this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2017.04.015DOI Listing
July 2017

Coupled brain and urine spectroscopy - in vivo metabolomic characterization of HMG-CoA lyase deficiency in 5 patients.

Mol Genet Metab 2017 06 30;121(2):111-118. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Centre de Référence Maladies Héréditaires du Métabolisme de l'Enfant et de l'Adulte, Jeanne de Flandre Hospital, CHRU Lille, and RADEME EA 7364, Faculty of Medicine, University Lille 2, Lille 59037, France. Electronic address:

Background: 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency is a rare inborn error of leucine metabolism and ketogenesis. Despite recurrent hypoglycemia and metabolic decompensations, most patients have a good clinical and neurological outcome contrasting with abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals and consistent abnormal brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) metabolite peaks. Identifying these metabolites could provide surrogate markers of the disease and improve understanding of MRI-clinical discrepancy and follow-up of affected patients.

Methods: Urine samples, brain MRI and H-MRS in 5 patients with HMG-CoA lyase deficiency (4 boys and 1 girl aged from 25days to 10years) were, for each patient, obtained on the same day. Brain and urine spectroscopy were performed at the same pH by studying urine at pH 7.4. Due to pH-induced modifications in chemical shifts and because reference H NMR spectra are obtained at pH 2.5, spectroscopy of normal urine added with the suspected metabolite was further performed at this pH to validate the correct identification of compounds.

Results: Mild to extended abnormal white matter MRI signals were observed in all cases. Brain spectroscopy abnormal peaks at 0.8-1.1ppm, 1.2-1.4ppm and 2.4ppm were also detected by urine spectroscopy at pH 7.4. Taking into account pH-induced changes in chemical shifts, brain abnormal peaks in patients were formally identified to be those of 3-hydroxyisovaleric, 3-methylglutaconic, 3-methylglutaric and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acids.

Conclusion: 3-Methylglutaric, 3-hydroxyisovaleric and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acids identified on urine H-NMR spectra of 5 patients with HMG-CoA lyase deficiency are responsible for the cerebral spectroscopy signature seen in these patients, validating their local involvement in brain and putative contribution to brain neuropathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.03.006DOI Listing
June 2017

1471 delTTCT a Common Mutation of Tunisian Patients with Lysinuric Protein Intolerance.

Clin Lab 2015 ;61(12):1973-7

Background: Lysinuric protein intolerance is an inherited aminoaciduria caused by defective cationic amino acid transport. It is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the SLC7A 7 gene. The objective of this study was to identify the mutations of Tunisians patients in order to offer the genetic counseling and the prenatal diagnosis to families.

Methods: Five affected Tunisian children (4 girls and 1 boy) belonging to four consanguineous families were considered. The diagnosis was made based on the plasma for amino acids quantification by Ion Exchange chromatography, the DNA for mutational analysis by DHPLC and sequencing, and the amniotic fluid for prenatal diagnosis.

Results: For the 5 patients, clinical features were dominated by failure to thrive, bone marrow abnormalities, hepatosplenomegaly, and mental retardation. The diagnosis for all patients was confirmed by biochemical analysis with hyperammonemia, hyperexcretion of urinary dibasic amino acids, and a high amount of orotic acid in the urine. The 1471 delTTCT mutation was identified in exon 9 in the homozygous state for all Tunisian patients. Genetic counseling was performed for three out of four families, four heterozygous and two homozygous healthy siblings were identified. The result of prenatal diagnosis showed the presence of the 1471 de1TTCT mutation in the homozygous state for the third pregnancy and heterozygous state for the fourth.

Conclusions: The 1471 deITTCT mutation seems to be a common mutation of Tunisian population. The identification of this specific mutation provides a tool for confirmatory diagnosis, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/clin.lab.2015.150519DOI Listing
March 2016

Creatine biosynthesis and transport in health and disease.

Biochimie 2015 Dec 2;119:146-65. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hormonology-Metabolism-Nutrition & Oncology (HMNO), Center of Biology & Pathology (CBP) Pierre-Marie Degand, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille, France; RADEME Research Team for Rare Metabolic and Developmental Diseases, EA 7364, Université Lille 2, Lille, France; Inserm, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Creatine is physiologically provided equally by diet and by endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine with successive involvements of arginine glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT] and guanidinoacetate methyl transferase [GAMT]. A specific plasma membrane transporter, creatine transporter [CRTR] (SLC6A8), further enables cells to incorporate creatine and through uptake of its precursor, guanidinoacetate, also directly contributes to creatine biosynthesis. Breakthrough in the role of creatine has arisen from studies on creatine deficiency disorders. Primary creatine disorders are inherited as autosomal recessive (mutations affecting GATM [for glycine-amidinotransferase, mitochondrial]) and GAMT genes) or X-linked (SLC6A8 gene) traits. They have highlighted the role of creatine in brain functions altered in patients (global developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral disorders). Creatine modulates GABAergic and glutamatergic cerebral pathways, presynaptic CRTR (SLC6A8) ensuring re-uptake of synaptic creatine. Secondary creatine disorders, addressing other genes, have stressed the extraordinary imbrication of creatine metabolism with many other cellular pathways. This high dependence on multiple pathways supports creatine as a cellular sensor, to cell methylation and energy status. Creatine biosynthesis consumes 40% of methyl groups produced as S-adenosylmethionine, and creatine uptake is controlled by AMP activated protein kinase, a ubiquitous sensor of energy depletion. Today, creatine is considered as a potential sensor of cell methylation and energy status, a neurotransmitter influencing key (GABAergic and glutamatergic) CNS neurotransmission, therapeutic agent with anaplerotic properties (towards creatine kinases [creatine-creatine phosphate cycle] and creatine neurotransmission), energetic and antioxidant compound (benefits in degenerative diseases through protection against energy depletion and oxidant species) with osmolyte behavior (retention of water by muscle). This review encompasses all these aspects by providing an illustrated metabolic account for brain and body creatine in health and disease, an algorithm to diagnose metabolic and gene bases of primary and secondary creatine deficiencies, and a metabolic exploration by (1)H-MRS assessment of cerebral creatine levels and response to therapeutic measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2015.10.022DOI Listing
December 2015

Combination of lipid metabolism alterations and their sensitivity to inflammatory cytokines in human lipin-1-deficient myoblasts.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Dec 6;1832(12):2103-14. Epub 2013 Aug 6.

Inserm U781, Imagine Institut des Maladies Génétiques, Université Paris Descartes et Centre de Référence des Maladies Héréditaires du Métabolisme, Hôpital Necker, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Lipin-1 deficiency is associated with massive rhabdomyolysis episodes in humans, precipitated by febrile illnesses. Despite well-known roles of lipin-1 in lipid biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to rhabdomyolysis remain unknown. Here we show that primary myoblasts from lipin-1-deficient patients exhibit a dramatic decrease in LPIN1 expression and phosphatidic acid phosphatase 1 activity, and a significant accumulation of lipid droplets (LD). The expression levels of LPIN1-target genes [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors delta and alpha (PPARδ, PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long (ACADVL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB and 2 (CPT1B and CPT2)] were not affected while lipin-2 protein level, a closely related member of the family, was increased. Microarray analysis of patients' myotubes identified 19 down-regulated and 51 up-regulated genes, indicating pleiotropic effects of lipin-1 deficiency. Special attention was paid to the up-regulated ACACB (acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta), a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis/oxidation balance. We demonstrated that overexpression of ACACB was associated with free fatty acid accumulation in patients' myoblasts whereas malonyl-carnitine (as a measure of malonyl-CoA) and CPT1 activity were in the normal range in basal conditions accordingly to the normal daily activity reported by the patients. Remarkably ACACB invalidation in patients' myoblasts decreased LD number and size while LPIN1 invalidation in controls induced LD accumulation. Further, pro-inflammatory treatments tumor necrosis factor alpha+Interleukin-1beta(TNF1α+IL-1ß) designed to mimic febrile illness, resulted in increased malonyl-carnitine levels, reduced CPT1 activity and enhanced LD accumulation, a phenomenon reversed by dexamethasone and TNFα or IL-1ß inhibitors. Our data suggest that the pathogenic mechanism of rhabdomyolysis in lipin-1-deficient patients combines the predisposing constitutive impairment of lipid metabolism and its exacerbation by pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.07.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4007099PMC
December 2013

A Novel Mutation in CPT1A Resulting in Hepatic CPT Deficiency.

JIMD Rep 2012 31;6:7-14. Epub 2012 Jan 31.

Laboratory of Hormonology, Metabolism-Nutrition & Oncology (HMNO), Center of Biology and Pathology, CHRU Lille, 59037, Lille, France.

The present work presents a "from gene defect to clinics" pathogenesis study of a patient with a hitherto unreported mutation in the CPT1A gene. In early childhood, the patient developed a life-threatening episode (hypoketotic hypoglycemia, liver cytolysis, and hepatomegaly) evocative of a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder, and presented deficient fibroblast carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity and homozygosity for the c.1783 C > T nucleotide substitution on exon 15 of CPT1A (p.R595W mutant). While confirming CPT1A deficiency, whole blood de novo acylcarnitine synthesis and the levels of carnitine and its esters formally linked intracellular free-carnitine depletion to intracellular carnitine esterification. Sequence alignment and modeling of wild-type and p.*R595W CPT1A proteins indicated that the Arg595 targeted by the mutated codon is phylogenetically well conversed. It contributes to a hydrogen bond network with neighboring residues Cys304 and Met593 but does not participate in the catalysis and carnitine pocket. Its replacement by tryptophan induces steric hindrance with the side chain of Ile480 located in α-helix 12, affecting protein architecture and function. This hindrance with Ile480 is also originally described with tryptophan 304 in the known mutant p.C304W CPT1A, suggesting that the mechanisms that invalidate CPT1A activity and underlie pathogenesis could be common in both the new (p.R595W) and previously described (p.C304W) mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/8904_2011_94DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3565650PMC
February 2013

Mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid homeostasis.

Curr Drug Metab 2012 Dec;13(10):1388-400

Inserm Lab Ext, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille, France.

This review is aimed at illustrating that mitochondrial dysfunction and altered lipid homeostasis may concur in a variety of pathogenesis states, being either contributive or consecutive to primary disease events. Underlying mechanisms for this concurrence are far from being the exhaustive elements taking place in disease development. They may however complicate, contribute or cause the disease. In the first part of the review, physiological roles of mitochondria in coordinating lipid metabolism and in controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP and calcium levels are briefly presented. In a second part, clues for how mitochondria-driven alterations in lipid metabolism may induce toxicity are discussed. In the third part, it is illustrated how mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid homeostasis disruption may be associated (i) to complicate type 1 diabetes (pancreatic β-cell mitochondrial dysfunction in ATP yield induces reduced insulin secretion and hence disruption of glucose and lipid metabolism), (ii) to contribute to type 2 diabetes and other insulin resistant states (mitochondrial impairment may induce adipocyte dysfunction with subsequent increase in circulating free fatty acids and their abnormal deposit in non adipose tissues (pancreatic β-cells, skeletal muscle and liver) which results in lipotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction), (iii) to offer new clues in our understanding of how the brain controls feeding supply and energy expenditure, (iv) to promote cancer development notably via fatty acid oxidation/synthesis imbalance (in favor of synthesis) further strengthened in some cancers by a lipogenetic benefit induced by a HER2/fatty acid synthase cross-talk, and (v) to favor cardiovascular disorders by impacting heart function and arterial wall integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920012803762792DOI Listing
December 2012

First report of a molecular prenatal diagnosis in a tunisian family with lysinuric protein intolerance.

JIMD Rep 2011 22;1:37-8. Epub 2011 Jun 22.

Biochemistry Laboratory, Rabta University Hospital, 1007 Jebbari, Tunis, Tunisia.

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI, MIM# 222700) is an inherited aminoaciduria caused by defective transport of cationic amino acids (CAAs; arginine, lysine, ornithine) at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the intestine and kidney. We report the first prenatal diagnosis by direct mutational analysis of LPI performed in a Tunisian family. An amniotic fluid sample was carried out at 16 weeks of gestation in a 32-year-old Tunisian woman who consulted for prenatal diagnosis. The 1471 delTTCT mutation at homozygous state was identified indicating that the fetus was affected by LPI. The identification of this specific mutation provides a tool, which can be easily applied in Tunisia for molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis of LPI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/8904_2011_13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509814PMC
February 2013

A novel mutation of the ACADM gene (c.145C>G) associated with the common c.985A>G mutation on the other ACADM allele causes mild MCAD deficiency: a case report.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Oct 5;5:26. Epub 2010 Oct 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Hormonology, Metabolism-Nutrition & Oncology, Center of Biology and Pathology Pierre-Marie Degand, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille, France.

A female patient, with normal familial history, developed at the age of 30 months an episode of diarrhoea, vomiting and lethargy which resolved spontaneously. At the age of 3 years, the patient re-iterated vomiting, was sub-febrile and hypoglycemic, fell into coma, developed seizures and sequels involving right hemi-body. Urinary excretion of hexanoylglycine and suberylglycine was low during this metabolic decompensation. A study of pre- and post-prandial blood glucose and ketones over a period of 24 hours showed a normal glycaemic cycle but a failure to form ketones after 12 hours fasting, suggesting a mitochondrial β-oxidation defect. Total blood carnitine was lowered with unesterified carnitine being half of the lowest control value. A diagnosis of mild MCAD deficiency (MCADD) was based on rates of 1-14C-octanoate and 9, 10-3H-myristate oxidation and of octanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase being reduced to 25% of control values. Other mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation proteins were functionally normal. De novo acylcarnitine synthesis in whole blood samples incubated with deuterated palmitate was also typical of MCADD. Genetic studies showed that the patient was compound heterozygous with a sequence variation in both of the two ACADM alleles; one had the common c.985A>G mutation and the other had a novel c.145C>G mutation. This is the first report for the ACADM gene c.145C>G mutation: it is located in exon 3 and causes a replacement of glutamine to glutamate at position 24 of the mature protein (Q24E). Associated with heterozygosity for c.985A>G mutation, this mutation is responsible for a mild MCADD phenotype along with a clinical story corroborating the emerging literature view that patients with genotypes representing mild MCADD (high residual enzyme activity and low urinary levels of glycine conjugates), similar to some of the mild MCADDs detected by MS/MS newborn screening, may be at risk for disease presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-5-26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967532PMC
October 2010

Deuterated palmitate-driven acylcarnitine formation by whole-blood samples for a rapid diagnostic exploration of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders.

Clin Chim Acta 2009 Aug 5;406(1-2):23-6. Epub 2009 May 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Laboratory of Endocrinology, Metabolism-Nutrition, Oncology - Biology Pathology Center, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille cedex, France.

Background: The biochemical diagnosis of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects (FAOD) currently rests on enzyme assays. A dynamic ex vivo exploration consisting of incubations of whole-blood samples with stable-labeled palmitate and determining leukocyte capacities to produce deuterated acylcarnitines was developed on healthy controls (n=52) and patients with very-long- (VLCADD) (n=2), medium- (MCADD) (n=6), or short- (SCADD) (n=1) chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies.

Methods: Incubations were optimized with L-carnitine and [16-(2)H(3), 15-(2)H(2)]-palmitate at 37 degrees C for various time periods on MCADD and control whole-blood samples. Labeled acylcarnitines were quantified by electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry after thawing, extraction and derivatization to their butyl esters and the method was applied to patients with defects mentioned above.

Results: The production of acylcarnitines was linear until 6 h of incubation and optimal on 50 to 200 nmol deuterated substrate. A good discrimination between MCADD patient and control data was found, with median C8/C4 acylcarnitine production rate ratios of 81.0 (5th-95th percentile range: 16.6-209.9) and 0.21 (5th-95th percentile range: 0.06-0.79), respectively. The method also discriminated from controls the VLCADD and SCADD patients. Preliminary studies on a healthy control indicated that the storage at 4 degrees C does little or not alter capacities of whole-blood samples to generate labeled acylcarnitines over a period of 48 h.

Conclusion: The rapid management afforded by the method, its abilities to characterize patients and to work on whole-blood samples after a stay of 24-48 h at 4 degrees C make it promising for the diagnostic exploration of FAOD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2009.04.026DOI Listing
August 2009

Comparison of seizure reduction and serum fatty acid levels after receiving the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet.

Seizure 2009 Jun 4;18(5):359-64. Epub 2009 Feb 4.

Pediatric Neurology Department, Lille University Hospital, Lille, France.

The ketogenic diet (KD) and the modified Atkins diet are effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. We compared retrospectively the KD and modified Atkins diet in 27 children and also assessed serum long chain fatty acid profiles. After 3 months, using an intent-to-treat analysis, the KD was more successful, with >50% seizure reduction in 11/17 (65%) vs. 2/10 (20%) with the modified Atkins diet, p=0.03. After 6 months, however, the difference was no longer significant: 7/17 (41%) vs. 2/10 (20%) (p=0.24). We observed a preventive effect of both diets on the occurrence of status epilepticus. After 1 and 3 months of either diet, responders experienced a significant decrease in serum arachidonic acid concentration compared to non-responders. The KD and modified Atkins diet led to seizure reduction in this small pilot series, with slightly better results after 3 months with the KD, but not after 6 months. The decrease of serum arachidonic acid levels might be involved in the anticonvulsive effects of KD or modified Atkins diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2009.01.004DOI Listing
June 2009

Relationship between posttrauma GABA plasma levels and PTSD at 1-year follow-up.

Am J Psychiatry 2006 Aug;163(8):1446-8

Hôpital Michel Fontan-CHRU de Lille, rue André Verhaeghe, 59037 Lille Cedex, France.

Objective: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) exerts a prominent effect on central adrenergic stress responses in times of high stress and has been associated with acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined the association between low posttrauma plasma GABA levels and long-term PTSD.

Method: Plasma GABA levels were measured in 78 victims of road traffic accidents who met criteria for trauma exposure on arrival at a trauma department and were admitted for at least 3 days. Patients were assessed for PTSD and major depressive disorder at 6-week and 1-year follow-ups.

Results: At 6 weeks and at 1 year, mean posttrauma GABA levels were significantly lower among subjects who met all or nearly all criteria for PTSD than among those who did not. Among patients who met all or nearly all criteria for PTSD at 6 weeks, 75% of those with posttrauma GABA levels above 0.20 mmol/ml no longer met criteria at 1 year. By contrast, among patients whose GABA levels were below 0.20 mmol/ml, 80% met all or nearly all criteria for PTSD at 1 year. Two-thirds of patients who met all or nearly all criteria for PTSD at 1 year also met criteria for major depressive disorder.

Conclusions: A plasma GABA level above 0.20 mmol/ml may protect against chronic PTSD and may represent a marker of recovery from trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.8.1446DOI Listing
August 2006

Low posttrauma GABA plasma levels as a predictive factor in the development of acute posttraumatic stress disorder.

Biol Psychiatry 2004 Feb;55(3):250-4

Department of Psychiatry, Clinique Michel Fontan, University of Lille II, 6 rue du Professeur Laguesse, 59037 Lille Cedex, France.

Background: Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) regulates the intensity and the duration of the central hyperadrenergic response in times of high stress and has been negatively associated with anxiety, depression, and sleep problems. We hypothesized that individuals with low plasma GABA levels may be more prone to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of trauma exposure.

Methods: To test this hypothesis, we measured plasma GABA levels in a population of 108 road traffic accident victims on arrival at a traumatology department and assessed them for PTSD 6 weeks later.

Results: The mean GABA level (nmol/mL) in the PTSD group (n = 55; M =.20; SD =.08) was significantly lower compared with members of the trauma-exposed group who did not develop PTSD [n = 17; M =.30; SD =.09), t(70) = 3.94, p =.0002].

Conclusions: Provided that GABA levels in the brain are genetically predetermined, our results would suggest that individuals with low plasma GABA levels are premorbidly more vulnerable to stress-related disorders such as acute PTSD. If replicated, plasma GABA levels measured in the aftermath of trauma exposure might help to identify individuals at high risk for developing PTSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.08.009DOI Listing
February 2004