Publications by authors named "Monique Berwaer"

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The antiepileptic drug topiramate preserves metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin secreting cells chronically exposed to the fatty acid oleate.

Biochem Pharmacol 2006 Oct 28;72(8):965-73. Epub 2006 Aug 28.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University Medical Centre, 1 rue Michel-Servet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Topiramate (Topamax), primarily prescribed against epilepsy, was reported to reduce body weight and to ameliorate glycemic control in obese patients with diabetes. In rodent models of obesity and diabetes, topiramate treatment counteracts hyperglycemia and increases insulin levels upon glucose tolerance test. These observations suggest that topiramate might exert direct action on insulin secreting cells, in particular regarding obesity associated beta-cell dysfunction. In this study, INS-1E beta-cells were exposed for 3 days to the fatty acid oleate (0.4mM) and concomitantly treated with therapeutic concentrations of topiramate before measurements of insulin secretion and metabolic parameters. In healthy cells, topiramate had no acute or chronic effects on insulin release. Exposure of INS-1E cells to oleate for 3 days increased insulin release at basal 2.5mM glucose and blunted the response to stimulatory glucose concentration (15mM). Such lipotoxic effects were associated with impaired mitochondrial function, as evidenced by partial loss of resting mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced hyperpolarization in response to glucose. Oil-red-O staining and triglyceride measurements revealed lipid accumulation in oleate treated cells. Topiramate treatment counteracted oleate-induced lipid load and partially protected against mitochondrial membrane dysfunction. In particular, topiramate restored glucose stimulated insulin secretion, essentially by maintaining low insulin release at basal glucose. Topiramate increased expression of the nutrient sensor PPARalpha and of the mitochondrial fatty acid carrier CPT-1, correlating with enhancement of beta-oxidation rate. The data demonstrate that a drug originally used as mood stabilizer exerts a direct action on beta-cells, protecting against lipid-induced dysfunction.
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October 2006