Publications by authors named "Monika Tarnawska"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Autophagy: a necessary defense against extreme cadmium intoxication in a multigenerational 2D experiment.

Sci Rep 2020 12 3;10(1):21141. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, Bankowa 9, 40-007, Katowice, Poland.

Autophagy is a natural process that aims to eliminate malfunctioning cell parts, organelles or molecules under physiological conditions. It is also induced in response to infection, starvation or oxidative stress to provide energy in case of an energy deficit. The aim of this 2-dimensional study was to test if, and if so, how, this process depends on the concentration of cadmium in food (with Cd concentrations from 0 to 352 μg of Cd per g of food (dry weight)-D1 dimension) and the history of selection pressure (160 vs 20 generations of exposure to Cd-D2 dimension). For the study, the 5th instar larvae of a unique strain of the moth Spodoptera exigua that was selected for cadmium tolerance for 160 generations (44 μg of Cd per g of food (dry weight)), as well as 20-generation (11, 22 and 44 μg of Cd per g of food (dry weight)) and control strains, were used. Autophagy intensity was measured by means of flow cytometry and compared with life history parameters: survivability and duration of the 3rd larval stage. The highest values of autophagy markers were found in the groups exposed to the highest Cd concentration and corresponded (with a significant correlation coefficient) to an increased development duration or decreased survivorship in the respective groups. In conclusion, autophagy is probably initiated only if any other defense mechanisms, e.g., antioxidative mechanisms, are not efficient. Moreover, in individuals from pre-exposed populations, the intensity of autophagy is lower.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78316-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712871PMC
December 2020

Energy reserves, oxidative stress and development traits of Spodoptera exigua Hübner individuals from cadmium strain.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 23;268(Pt A):115366. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

University of Silesia in Katowice, Department of Natural Sciences, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice, Poland.

Cadmium as a common environmental stressor may exert highly toxic effects on herbivorous insects. The question was whether possible elevation of an oxidative stress and imbalance of energetic reserves in insects may depend on developmental stage, sex and insect population's multigenerational history of exposure to cadmium. So, the aim of this study was to compare of the development traits, total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, RSSR to RSH ratio and the concentration of carbohydrates, glycogen, lipids and proteins in whole individuals (larvae or pupae) of Spodoptera exigua originating from two strains: control and selected over 120 generations with sublethal metal concentration (44 Cd mg per dry weight of diet). Generally, the increase of the protein, carbohydrates, glycogen concentration and lipid peroxidation decrease with age of the larvae were found. Revealed cases of a higher mobilisation of carbohydrates and proteins, and changes in total antioxidant capacity or lipid peroxidation, in individuals being under metal exposure, occurred in strain-depended mode. Short-term Cd exposure effect was connected with possible higher engagement of proteins and glycogen in detoxification processes, but also higher concentration of lipid peroxidation. In turn, for long-term Cd exposure effect lower lipids concentration and higher thiols usage seemed to be more specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115366DOI Listing
January 2021

Vitellogenin expression, DNA damage, health status of cells and catalase activity in Acheta domesticus selected according to their longevity after graphene oxide treatment.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 16;737:140274. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

University of Silesia in Katowice, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice, Poland.

The increased use of graphene oxide (GO) raises worrisome questions regarding its possible threat to various ecosystems. Invertebrates represent valuable organisms for environmental studies. The lifespan can influence the ability to cope with toxins, especially those that act via oxidative stress. Two strains of Acheta domesticus, which are selected for longevity, were tested. The main aim was to investigate how GO, when administrated in food, affects: the condition of cells, DNA stability, ROS generation and the reproduction potential (the Vitellogenin (Vg) protein expression). The "recovery effect" - after removing GO from the diet for 15 days - was also measured. The results revealed different responses to GO in the wild (H) and long-living (D) strains. The D strain had a higher catalase activity compared to the H strain on the 25th day of the imago stage. Removing GO from the food resulted in a decrease in the catalase activity to the level of the control. On the 5th day of the imago stage, the H strain had a higher cell mortality than the D strain in the GO-intoxicated groups. There was more DNA damage in the H strain compared to the long-living strain. A remedial effect was seen after the GO was removed from the diet. The total Vg protein expression was higher in the H strain and lower in the D strain. The results indicated a GO concentration-dependent outcome. In both strains, removing the GO from the food led to a high Vg expression. The Vg expression after GO treatment, particularly translation and post-translational processing, should be studied in detail in the future. The D strain of crickets had more specialized mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis than the H strain. Organisms can fight off negative effects of GO, especially when they have systems that are well developed against oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140274DOI Listing
October 2020

DNA damage in Spodoptera exigua after multigenerational cadmium exposure - A trade-off between genome stability and adaptation.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 23;745:141048. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice, Poland.

Human activity is a serious cause of extensive changes in the environment and a constant reason for the emergence of new stress factors. Thus, to survive and reproduce, organisms must constantly implement a program of adaptation to continuously changing conditions. The research presented here is focused on tracking slow changes occurring in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caused by multigenerational exposure to sub-lethal cadmium doses. The insects received food containing cadmium at concentrations of 5, 11, 22 and 44 μg per g of dry mass of food. The level of DNA stability was monitored by a comet assay in subsequent generations up to the 36th generation. In the first three generations, the level of DNA damage was high, especially in the groups receiving higher doses of cadmium in the diet. In the fourth generation, a significant reduction in the level of DNA damage was observed, which could indicate that the desired stability of the genome was achieved. Surprisingly, however, in subsequent generations, an alternating increase and decrease was found in DNA stability. The observed cycles of changing DNA stability were longer lasting in insects consuming food with a lower Cd content. Thus, a transient reduction in genome stability can be perceived as an opportunity to increase the number of genotypes that undergo selection. This phenomenon occurs faster if the severity of the stress factor is high but is low enough to allow the population to survive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141048DOI Listing
November 2020

Relationship between ROS production, MnSOD activation and periods of fasting and re-feeding in freshwater shrimp (Crustacea, Malacostraca).

PeerJ 2019 11;7:e7399. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Animal Histology and Embryology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland.

The middle region of the digestive system, the midgut of freshwater shrimp is composed of a tube-shaped intestine and the hepatopancreas formed by numerous caeca. Two types of cells have been distinguished in the intestine, the digestive cells (D-cells) and regenerative cells (R-cells). The hepatopancreatic tubules have three distinct zones distinguished along the length of each tubule-the distal zone with R-cells, the medial zone with differentiating cells, and the proximal zone with F-cells (fibrillar cells) and B-cells (storage cells). Fasting causes activation of cell death, a reduction in the amount of reserve material, and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential. However, here we present how the concentration of ROS changes according to different periods of fasting and whether re-feeding causes their decrease. In addition, the activation/deactivation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was analyzed. The freshwater shrimps (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda) were divided into experimental groups: animals starved for 14 days, animals re-fed for 4, 7, and 14 days. The material was examined using the confocal microscope and the flow cytometry. Our studies have shown that long-term starvation increases the concentration of free radicals and MnSOD concentration in the intestine and hepatopancreas, while return to feeding causes their decrease in both organs examined. Therefore, we concluded that a distinct relationship between MnSOD concentration, ROS activation, cell death activation and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential occurred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6744934PMC
September 2019

Protective role of zinc in Spodoptera exigua larvae under 135-generational cadmium exposure.

Chemosphere 2019 Nov 28;235:785-793. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Bankowa 9, 40-007, Katowice, Poland. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate whether zinc supplementation modulates cadmium toxicity in the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua selected for 135 generations towards cadmium tolerance. To achieve this, larvae originating from three laboratory populations of S. exigua (control strain - C; cadmium-intoxicated for 135 generations strain - Cd, and control strain intoxicated with Cd for 1 generation - CCd) were additionally exposed to zinc in three concentrations (Zn1, 400 μg Zn·g dry mass of food; Zn2; 200 μg Zn·g dry mass of food; Zn3, 100 μg Zn·g dry mass of food). As the markers of toxicity, a life history traits (the duration of L4 and L5 stages), cellular (DNA damage indices) and biochemical parameters (ADP/ATP ratio and ATP and HSP70 concentrations) were chosen. The duration of larval stages of Zn supplemented larvae was prolonged, while cellular and biochemical indicators, in general, appeared to be lower in comparison to the insects from respective reference groups in each laboratory populations. Moreover, the range of the differences depended on zinc concentration in food. We can suspect that zinc supplementation contributed to the protection of S. exigua individuals against negative effects of cadmium intoxication, probably at the cost of growth rate. Significant differences in the response pattern between insects from different laboratory populations indicate that the influence of additional stress factors is dependent on the overall condition of animals and their previous adaptation to other stressors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.06.209DOI Listing
November 2019

Microevolution or wide tolerance? Level of stress proteins in the beet armyworm Spodoptera eqigua hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) exposed to cadmium for over 150 generations.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Aug 10;178:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40007, Katowice, Poland. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cadmium tolerance developed in the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua selected for over 150 generations may be related to synthesis of the stress proteins metallothioneins (Mts) and 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70). To achieve this, six S. exigua strains (control, k), 150-generation Cd exposure strain (cd), and four 18-generation Cd exposure strains differing in Cd concentration (cd44, cd22, cd11, cd5) were reared. Stress protein level was measured in the midgut of the 5th larval stage after 1-6, 12 and 18 generations. Cd contents was measured in the pupae. Unlike Cd concentration, which depended on metal contents in food but was not generation-dependent, the pattern of Mts and HSP70 concentrations changed in experimental strains from generation to generation. Stress protein levels in the insects exposed to the highest Cd concentration (the same as in the 150-generation Cd exposure strain), initially higher than in the control strain, after the 12th generation did not differ from the level measured in the control strains. It seems therefore that stress proteins play a protective role in insects of lower tolerance to cadmium. The tolerance developed during multigenerational exposure probably relies on mechanisms other than Mt and HSP70 synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.017DOI Listing
August 2019

Cross tolerance in beet armyworm: long-term selection by cadmium broadens tolerance to other stressors.

Ecotoxicology 2017 Dec 23;26(10):1408-1418. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Bankowa 9, Katowice, PL, 40-007, Poland.

Long lasting exposure of animals to stressing factor may lead to the selection of population able to cope with the stressor at lower cost than unexposed individuals. The aim of this study was to assess whether 130-generational selection of a beet armyworm to cadmium in food might have induced tolerance also to other stressors. The potential tolerance was assessed by means of unspecific stress markers: HSP70 concentration, DNA damage level, and energy budget indices in L5 larval instars of beet armyworm. The animals originated from Cd-exposed and control strains exposed additionally in a short-term experiment to high/low temperature or pesticide-spinosad. The application of the additional stressors caused, in general, an increase in the levels of studied parameters, in a strain-dependent manner. The most significant increase was found in HSP70 level in the individuals from the Cd-strain exposed to various spinosad concentration. Therefore, multigenerational contact with cadmium caused several changes that enable the insect to survive under a chronic stress, preparing the organism to the contact with an additional, new stressor. This relationship may be described as a sort of cross tolerance. This may, possibly, increase the probability of population survivorship and, at the same time, decrease the efficiency of pesticide-based plant protection efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-017-1865-5DOI Listing
December 2017

Phenotypic Plasticity, Epigenetic or Genetic Modifications in Relation to the Duration of Cd-Exposure within a Microevolution Time Range in the Beet Armyworm.

PLoS One 2016 1;11(12):e0167371. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

In the case of the pests inhabiting metal polluted or fields where the use of pesticides is common, a natural selection of resistant individuals can occur. This may pose serious problems for humans, agriculture, as well as the economies of many countries. In this study, the hypothesis that multigenerational (120 generations) exposure to cadmium of a beet armyworm population could be a selecting factor toward a more efficient DNA protection was verified. The hemocytes of individuals from two culture strains (control and Cd-exposed) were treated with H2O2 (a DNA-damaging agent) or PBS (reference). The level of DNA damage was assessed using the Comet assay immediately and 5, 15 and 30 min. after the treatment. The immediate result of the contact with H2O2 was that the level of DNA damage in the hemocytes of the insects from both strains increased significantly. However, in the cells of the Cd-exposed individuals, the level of DNA damage decreased over time, while in the cells from the control insects it remained at the same level with no evidence of repair. These results suggest that efficient defense mechanisms may exist in the cells of insects that have prolonged contact with cadmium. Some evolutionary and trade-off aspects of the phenomenon are discussed. In a wider context, comparing the results obtained in the laboratory with field studies may be beneficial for understanding basic mechanisms of the resistance of an organism. To summarize, the high potential for the repair of DNA damage that was observed in the insects from the cadmium strain may confirm the hypothesis that multigenerational exposure to that metal may possibly contribute to the selection of insects that have a wider tolerance to oxidative stress. However, our investigations of polymorphism using AFLP did not reveal differences between the two main insect strains.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167371PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5131940PMC
July 2017

Elemental distribution in reproductive and neural organs of the Epilachna nylanderi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a phytophage of nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asterales: Asteraceae) by micro-PIXE.

J Insect Sci 2014 1;14:152. Epub 2014 Jan 1.

Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, Katowice 40-007, Poland

The phenomenon of metal hyperaccumulation by plants is often explained by a pathogen or herbivore defense hypothesis. However, some insects feeding on metal hyperaccumulating plants are adapted to the high level of metals in plant tissues. Former studies on species that feed on the leaves of Berkheya coddii Roessler 1958 (Asteraceae), a nickel-hyperaccumulating plant, demonstrated several protective mechanisms involved in internal distribution, immobilization, and elimination of Ni from the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These species are mainly coleopterans, including the lady beetle, Epilachna nylanderi (Mulsant 1850) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), collected from the ultramafic ecosystem near Barberton in South Africa. By performing particle-induced X-ray emission microanalysis elemental microanalysis (PIXE), this study examined whether Ni may be harmful to internal body systems that decide on insect reactivity (central nervous system [CNS]), their reproduction, and the relationships between Ni and other micronutrients. Data on elemental distribution of nine selected elements in target organs of E. nylanderi were compared with the existing data for other insect species adapted to the excess of metals. Micro-PIXE maps of seven regions of the CNS showed Ni mainly in the neural connectives, while cerebral ganglia were better protected. Concentrations of other bivalent metals were lower than those of Ni. Testis, compared with other reproductive organs, showed low amounts of Ni. Zn was effectively regulated at physiological dietary levels. In insects exposed to excess dietary Zn, it was also accumulated in the reproductive organs. Comparison of E. nylanderii with other insects that ingest hyperaccumulating plants, especially chrysomelid Chrysolina clathrata (Clark) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), showed lower protection of the CNS and reproductive organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/ieu014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634060PMC
July 2015

Hsp70 level in progeny of aging grasshoppers from variously polluted habitats and additionally exposed to zinc during diapause.

J Insect Physiol 2009 Aug 18;55(8):735-41. Epub 2009 May 18.

Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

The hsp70 level in the bodies of 1st instars of grasshoppers Chorthippus brunneus from unpolluted (Pilica) and polluted (Olkusz, Szopienice) sites and additionally exposed to various doses of zinc during diapause and embryonic development prior to hatching were measured by Western blotting. The main aim of our work was to assess the relationship between the age of female grasshoppers originating from variously polluted habitat and the hsp70 level in their progeny. Possible reasons for population variation in hsp70 levels were discussed. The hsp70 level in the offspring's body depended on the place of origin. The strongest expression of hsp70 was found in the bodies of larvae hatching from the eggs laid by young females from Pilica (reference site). In contrast, a low initial level of hsp70 in larvae from polluted sites, especially in young females' progeny, was observed. The application of zinc during diapause influenced the hsp70 level in grasshopper larvae; however, the direction of the changes depended on the insects' place of origin. In larvae from the reference site, and also (but to a lesser degree) from Olkusz, the increase in the hsp70 level after zinc treatment was most pronounced. Whereas in grasshoppers from Szopienice, zinc (in 100microg g(-1) dry weight of sand) did not change the hsp70 level, or (in 500microg g(-1) dry weight of sand) caused a reduction in hsp70. The differences may result from maternal effects; however, possible adaptation also cannot be excluded. To confirm this statement further studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2009.04.009DOI Listing
August 2009