Publications by authors named "Monika M Safford"

451 Publications

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Adults With a History of Heart Failure Hospitalized for COVID-19.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Sep 14:CIRCHEARTFAILURE121008354. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY. (P.G., E.R., M.M., J.K., R.B.D., P.M.O., J.W.W., M.M.S.).

Background: It is important to understand the risk for in-hospital mortality of adults hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection with a history of heart failure (HF).

Methods: We examined patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to July 22, 2020, from 88 centers across the US participating in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease registry. The primary exposure was history of HF and the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. To examine the association between history of HF and in-hospital mortality, we conducted multivariable modified Poisson regression models that included sociodemographics and comorbid conditions. We also examined HF subtypes based on left ventricular ejection fraction in the prior year, when available.

Results: Among 8920 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, mean age was 61.4±17.5 years and 55.5% were men. History of HF was present in 979 (11%) patients. In-hospital mortality occurred in 31.6% of patients with history of HF, and 16.9% in patients without a history of HF. In a fully adjusted model, history of HF was associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality (relative risk: 1.16 [95% CI, 1.03-1.30]). Among 335 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in a fully adjusted model (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction relative risk: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.10-1.79]; heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction relative risk: 1.06 [95% CI, 0.65-1.73]; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction relative risk, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.84-1.33]).

Conclusions: Risk for in-hospital mortality was substantial among adults with history of HF, in large part due to age and comorbid conditions. History of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction may confer especially elevated risk. This population thus merits prioritization for the COVID-19 vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.121.008354DOI Listing
September 2021

Association Between Cervical Artery Dissection and Aortic Dissection.

Circulation 2021 Sep 7;144(10):840-842. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Unit, Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute and Department of Neurology (J.W., S.A.M., N.S.P., S.B.M., H.K., B.B.N., A.Z.S., M.E.F., S.B.R., C.Z., A.E.M.), Weill Cornell Medical College, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055274DOI Listing
September 2021

Social determinants of health and cancer mortality in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study.

Cancer 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Background: Social determinants of health (SDOHs) cluster together and can have deleterious impacts on health outcomes. Individually, SDOHs increase the risk of cancer mortality, but their cumulative burden is not well understood. The authors sought to determine the combined effect of SDOH on cancer mortality.

Methods: Using the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, the authors studied 29,766 participants aged 45+ years and followed them 10+ years. Eight potential SDOHs were considered, and retained SDOHs that were associated with cancer mortality (P < .10) were retained to create a count (0, 1, 2, 3+). Cox proportional hazard models estimated associations between the SDOH count and cancer mortality through December 31, 2017, adjusting for confounders. Models were age-stratified (45-64 vs 65+ years).

Results: Participants were followed for a median of 10.6 years (interquartile range [IQR], 6.5, 12.7 years). Low education, low income, zip code poverty, poor public health infrastructure, lack of health insurance, and social isolation were significantly associated with cancer mortality. In adjusted models, among those <65 years, compared to no SDOHs, having 1 SDOH (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.11-1.75), 2 SDOHs (aHR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.26-2.07), and 3+ SDOHs (aHR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.58-2.75) were associated with cancer mortality (P for trend <.0001). Among individuals 65+ years, compared to no SDOH, having 1 SDOH (aHR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and 3+ SDOHs (aHR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.52) was associated with cancer mortality (P for trend = .032).

Conclusions: A greater number of SDOHs were significantly associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality, which persisted after adjustment for confounders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33894DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of body mass index with morbidity in patients hospitalised with COVID-19.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 08;8(1)

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Critical Care, New York Presbyterian Hospital - Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes other than death in patients hospitalised and intubated with COVID-19.

Methods: This is a single-centre cohort study of adults with COVID-19 admitted to New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medicine from 3 March 2020 through 15 May 2020. Baseline and outcome variables, as well as lab and ventilatory parameters, were generated for the admitted and intubated cohorts after stratifying by BMI category. Linear regression models were used for continuous, and logistic regression models were used for categorical outcomes.

Results: The study included 1337 admitted patients with a subset of 407 intubated patients. Among admitted patients, hospital length of stay (LOS) and home discharge was not significantly different across BMI categories independent of demographic characteristics and comorbidities. In the intubated cohort, there was no difference in in-hospital events and treatments, including renal replacement therapy, neuromuscular blockade and prone positioning. Ventilatory ratio was higher with increasing BMI on days 1, 3 and 7. There was no significant difference in ventilator free days (VFD) at 28 or 60 days, need for tracheostomy, hospital LOS, and discharge disposition based on BMI in the intubated cohort after adjustment.

Conclusions: In our COVID-19 population, there was no association between obesity and morbidity outcomes, such as hospital LOS, home discharge or VFD. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the reported effects of BMI on outcomes, which may be population dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjresp-2021-000970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382668PMC
August 2021

Racial Disparities in Preventable Adverse Events Attributed to Poor Care Coordination Reported in a National Study of Older US Adults.

Med Care 2021 Oct;59(10):901-906

Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

Background: Previous work found that Black patients experience worse care coordination than White patients.

Objective: The aim was to determine if there are racial disparities in self-reported adverse events that could have been prevented with better communication.

Research Design: We used data from a cross-sectional survey that was administered to participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study in 2017-2018.

Subjects: REGARDS participants aged 65+ years of age who reported >1 ambulatory visits and >1 provider in the prior 12 months (thus at risk for gaps in care coordination).

Measures: Our primary outcome was any repeat test, drug-drug interaction, or emergency department visit or hospitalization that respondents thought could have been prevented with better communication. We used Poisson models with robust standard error to determine if there were differences in preventable events by race.

Results: Among 7568 REGARDS respondents, the mean age was 77 years (SD: 6.7), 55.4% were female, and 33.6% were Black. Black participants were significantly more likely to report any preventable adverse events compared with Whites [adjusted risk ratio (aRR): 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42-1.89]. Specifically, Blacks were more likely than Whites to report a repeat test (aRR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.38-2.29), a drug-drug interaction (aRR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.46-2.12), and an emergency department visit or hospitalization (aRR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01-2.08).

Conclusions: Black participants were significantly more likely to report a preventable adverse event attributable to poor care coordination than White participants, independent of demographic and clinical characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000001623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446307PMC
October 2021

Sex-Related Differences in Clinical Presentation and Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in New York City.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Aug 9;8(8):ofab370. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

We evaluated sex-related differences in symptoms and risk factors for mortality in 4798 patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York City. When adjusted for age and comorbidities, being male was an independent predictor of death with mortality significantly higher than females, even with low severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load at admission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8344509PMC
August 2021

Barriers to antigen detection and avoidance in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the United States.

Respir Res 2021 Aug 10;22(1):225. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is an interstitial lung disease (ILD) caused by long term exposure to an offending antigen. Antigen avoidance is associated with improved outcomes. We are unable to identify the antigen source in approximately half of patients. When an antigen is successfully identified, patients have difficulty with avoidance.

Methods: We conducted three structured group discussions with US based ILD specialists utilizing the nominal group technique (NGT). Participants listed barriers to antigen detection and avoidance in CHP. Each participant ranked what they perceived to be the top three barriers in the list in terms of importance. The master list of barriers was consolidated across the three groups into themes that were prioritized based on receiving the highest rankings by participants.

Results: Twenty-five physicians participated; 56% had experience caring for CHP patients for ≥ 16 years. Sixty barriers to antigen detection were categorized into seven themes of which the top three were: 1. unclear significance of identified exposures; 2. gaps in clinical knowledge and testing capabilities; 3. there are many unknown and undiscovered antigens. Twenty-eight barriers to antigen avoidance were categorized into five themes of which the top three were: 1. patient limitations, financial barriers and lack of resources; 2. individual patient beliefs, emotions and attachments to the antigen source; and 3. gaps in clinical knowledge and testing capabilities.

Conclusions: This study uncovered challenges at the individual patient, organizational, and societal levels and ranked them in terms of level of importance. These findings provide information to guide development and validation of multidisciplinary support and interventions geared towards antigen identification and avoidance in CHP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-021-01817-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353836PMC
August 2021

Identifying organ dysfunction trajectory-based subphenotypes in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 08 5;11(1):15872. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine, 1300 York Ave., Box 96, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

COVID-19-associated respiratory failure offers the unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the differential host response to a uniform pathogenic insult. Understanding whether there are distinct subphenotypes of severe COVID-19 may offer insight into its pathophysiology. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is an objective and comprehensive measurement that measures dysfunction severity of six organ systems, i.e., cardiovascular, central nervous system, coagulation, liver, renal, and respiration. Our aim was to identify and characterize distinct subphenotypes of COVID-19 critical illness defined by the post-intubation trajectory of SOFA score. Intubated COVID-19 patients at two hospitals in New York city were leveraged as development and validation cohorts. Patients were grouped into mild, intermediate, and severe strata by their baseline post-intubation SOFA. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed within each stratum to detect subphenotypes based on similarities amongst SOFA score trajectories evaluated by Dynamic Time Warping. Distinct worsening and recovering subphenotypes were identified within each stratum, which had distinct 7-day post-intubation SOFA progression trends. Patients in the worsening suphenotypes had a higher mortality than those in the recovering subphenotypes within each stratum (mild stratum, 29.7% vs. 10.3%, p = 0.033; intermediate stratum, 29.3% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.002; severe stratum, 53.7% vs. 22.2%, p < 0.001). Pathophysiologic biomarkers associated with progression were distinct at each stratum, including findings suggestive of inflammation in low baseline severity of illness versus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in higher baseline severity of illness. The findings suggest that there are clear worsening and recovering subphenotypes of COVID-19 respiratory failure after intubation, which are more predictive of outcomes than baseline severity of illness. Distinct progression biomarkers at differential baseline severity of illness suggests a heterogeneous pathobiology in the progression of COVID-19 respiratory failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95431-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342520PMC
August 2021

Higher Serum Urate Levels Are Associated With an Increased Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death.

J Rheumatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

This research project is supported by cooperative agreement U01 NS041588 co-funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Service. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NINDS or the NIA. Representatives of the NINDS were involved in the review of the manuscript but were not directly involved in the collection, management, analysis or interpretation of the data. Additional funding was provided by grants R01 HL080477 and K24 HL111154 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and grant P50AR060772 from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). Representatives from the NHLBI or the NIAMS did not have any role in the design and conduct of the study, the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or the preparation or approval of the manuscript. L.D. Colantonio, MD, PhD, N.S. Chaudhary, MBBS, MPH, N.D. Armstrong, PhD, P. Muntner, PhD, M.R. Irvin, PhD, Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; R.J. Reynolds, PhD, K.G. Saag, MD, MSc, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; T.R. Merriman, PhD, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA, and Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; A. Gaffo, MD, MSPH, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; J.A. Singh, MD, MPH, Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; T.B. Plante, MD, MHS, Department of Medicine, Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA; E.Z. Soliman, MD, MSc, MS, Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA; J.R. Curtis, MD, MS, MPH, Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; S.L. Bridges Jr., MD, PhD, Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Hospital for Special Surgery, and Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA; L. Lang, PhD, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA; G. Howard, DrPH, Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; M.M. Safford, MD, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA. LDC receives research support from Amgen. AG receives research support from Amgen and honoraria from UpToDate. JAS receives consultant fees from Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, UBM LLC, Medscape, WebMD, Clinical Care Options, Clearview Healthcare Partners, Putnam Associates, Spherix, Trio Health, Focus Forward, Navigant Consulting, Practice Point Communications, Simply Speaking, the National Institutes of Health, and the American College of Rheumatology; is a member of the Executive Committee of Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT), and is a stockholder of Amarin Pharmaceuticals and Viking Therapeutics. MMS receives research support from Amgen. PM receives research support from Amgen and serves as a consultant for Amgen. KGS receives research support from Horizon, Takeda, Sobi, and Shanton; and serves as a consultant/advisor for Arthrosi, Atom Bioscience, LG Pharma, Mallinkrodt, Sobi, Horizon, and Takeda. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article. Address correspondence to Dr. L.D. Colantonio, 1720 2nd Ave South, RPHB 527C, Birmingham, AL 35294-0013, USA. Email: Accepted for publication June 2, 2021.

Objective: To determine the association of serum urate (SU) levels with sudden cardiac death and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), separately, among adults without a history of CHD.

Methods: We conducted a case-cohort analysis of Black and White participants aged ≥ 45 years enrolled in the REason for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study without a history of CHD at baseline between 2003 and 2007. Participants were followed for sudden cardiac death or incident CHD (i.e., myocardial infarction [MI] or death from CHD excluding sudden cardiac death) through December 31, 2013. Baseline SU was measured in a random sample of participants (n = 840) and among participants who experienced sudden cardiac death (n = 235) or incident CHD (n = 851) during follow-up.

Results: Participants with higher SU levels were older and more likely to be male or Black. The crude HR (95% CI) per 1 mg/dL higher SU level was 1.26 (1.14-1.40) for sudden cardiac death and 1.17 (1.09-1.26) for incident CHD. After adjustment for age, sex, race, and cardiovascular risk factors, the HR (95% CI) per 1 mg/dL higher SU level was 1.19 (1.03-1.37) for sudden cardiac death and 1.05 (0.96-1.15) for incident CHD. HRs for sudden cardiac death were numerically higher among participants aged 45-64 vs ≥ 65 years, without vs with diabetes, and among those of White vs Black race, although values for effect modification were all ≥ 0.05.

Conclusion: Higher SU levels were associated with an increased risk for sudden cardiac death but not with incident CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.210139DOI Listing
June 2021

Patient-centered Outcomes Research in Interstitial Lung Disease: An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 07;204(2):e3-e23

In the past two decades, many advances have been made to our understanding of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and the way we approach its treatment. Despite this, many questions remain unanswered, particularly those related to how the disease and its therapies impact outcomes that are most important to patients. There is currently a lack of guidance on how to best define and incorporate these patient-centered outcomes in ILD research. To summarize the current state of patient-centered outcomes research in ILD, identify gaps in knowledge and research, and highlight opportunities and methods for future patient-centered research agendas in ILD. An international interdisciplinary group of experts was assembled. The group identified top patient-centered outcomes in ILD, reviewed available literature for each outcome, highlighted important discoveries and knowledge gaps, and formulated research recommendations. The committee identified seven themes around patient-centered outcomes as the focus of the statement. After a review of the literature and expert committee discussion, we developed 28 research recommendations. Patient-centered outcomes are key to ascertaining whether and how ILD and interventions used to treat it affect the way patients feel and function in their daily lives. Ample opportunities exist to conduct additional work dedicated to elevating and incorporating patient-centered outcomes in ILD research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202105-1193STDOI Listing
July 2021

Rural/urban differences in the prevalence of stroke risk factors: A cross-sectional analysis from the REGARDS study.

J Rural Health 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Purpose: We previously described the magnitude of rural-urban differences in the prevalence of stroke risk factors and stroke mortality. In this report, we sought to extend the understanding of rural-urban differences in the prevalence of stroke risk factors by using an enhanced definition of rural-urban status and assessing the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) on risk factor differences.

Methods: This analysis included 28,242 participants without a history of stroke from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Participants were categorized into the 6-level ordinal National Center for Health Statistics Urban-Rural Classification Scheme. The prevalence of stroke risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, smoking, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, and heart disease) was assessed across the rural-urban scale with adjustment for demographic characteristics and further adjustment for nSES score.

Findings: Hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease were more prevalent in rural than urban regions. Higher odds were observed for these risk factors in the most rural compared to the most urban areas (odds ratios [95% CI]: 1.25 [1.11-1.42] for hypertension, 1.15 [0.99-1.33] for diabetes, and 1.19 [1.02-1.39] for heart disease). Adjustment for nSES score partially attenuated the odds of hypertension and heart disease with rurality, completely attenuated the odds of diabetes, and unmasked an association of current smoking.

Conclusions: Some of the higher stroke mortality in rural areas may be due to the higher burden of stroke risk factors in rural areas. Lower nSES contributed most notably to rural-urban differences for diabetes and smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jrh.12608DOI Listing
July 2021

Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Patterns, and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the REGARDS Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 30;10(13):e019158. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Biostatistics School of Public Health University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham AL.

Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a common cause of death in the United States. Few previous studies have investigated the associations of diet scores and dietary patterns with risk of SCD. We investigated the associations of the Mediterranean diet score and various dietary patterns with risk of SCD in participants in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Methods and Results Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline in REGARDS. The Mediterranean diet score was derived based on the consumption of specific food groups considered beneficial or detrimental components of that diet. Dietary patterns were derived previously using factor analysis, and adherence to each pattern was scored. SCD events were ascertained through regular contacts. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the risk of SCD events associated with the Mediterranean diet score and adherence to each of the 5 dietary patterns overall and stratifying on history of coronary heart disease at baseline. The analytic sample included 21 069 participants with a mean 9.8±3.8 years of follow-up. The Mediterranean diet score showed a trend toward an inverse association with risk of SCD after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio [HR] comparing highest with lowest group, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-1.01; =0.07). There was a trend toward a positive association of the Southern dietary pattern with risk of SCD (HR comparing highest with lowest quartile of adherence, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.10; =0.06). Conclusions In REGARDS participants, we identified trends toward an inverse association of the Mediterranean diet score and a positive association of adherence to the Southern dietary pattern with risk of SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403280PMC
July 2021

Association between overcrowded households, multigenerational households, and COVID-19: a cohort study.

medRxiv 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Introduction: The role of overcrowded and multigenerational households as a risk factor for COVID-19 remains unmeasured. The objective of this study is to examine and quantify the association between overcrowded and multigenerational households, and COVID-19 in New York City (NYC).

Methods: We conducted a Bayesian ecological time series analysis at the ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) level in NYC to assess whether ZCTAs with higher proportions of overcrowded (defined as proportion of estimated number of housing units with more than one occupant per room) and multigenerational households (defined as the estimated percentage of residences occupied by a grandparent and a grandchild less than 18 years of age) were independently associated with higher suspected COVID-19 case rates (from NYC Department of Health Syndromic Surveillance data for March 1 to 30, 2020). Our main measure was adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of suspected COVID-19 cases per 10,000 population. Our final model controlled for ZCTA-level sociodemographic factors (median income, poverty status, White race, essential workers), prevalence of clinical conditions related to COVID-19 severity (obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, asthma, smoking status, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and spatial clustering.

Results: 39,923 suspected COVID-19 cases presented to emergency departments across 173 ZCTAs in NYC. Adjusted COVID-19 case rates increased by 67% (IRR 1.67, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.52) in ZCTAs in quartile four (versus one) for percent overcrowdedness and increased by 77% (IRR 1.77, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.79) in quartile four (versus one) for percent living in multigenerational housing. Interaction between both exposures was not significant (β = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.99-1.00).

Conclusions: Over-crowdedness and multigenerational housing are independent risk factors for suspected COVID-19. In the early phase of surge in COVID cases, social distancing measures that increase house-bound populations may inadvertently but temporarily increase SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk and COVID-19 disease in these populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.14.21258904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240691PMC
June 2021

Development of the Verbal Autopsy Instrument for COVID-19 (VAIC).

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Division of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Improving accuracy of identification of COVID-19-related deaths is essential to public health surveillance and research. The verbal autopsy, an established strategy involving an interview with a decedent's caregiver or witness using a semi-structured questionnaire, may improve accurate counting of COVID-19-related deaths.

Objective: To develop and pilot-test the Verbal Autopsy Instrument for COVID-19 (VAIC) and a death adjudication protocol using it.

Methods/key Results: We used a multi-step process to design the VAIC and a protocol for its use. We developed a preliminary version of a verbal autopsy instrument specifically for COVID. We then pilot-tested this instrument by interviewing respondents about the deaths of 15 adults aged ≥65 during the initial COVID-19 surge in New York City. We modified it after the first 5 interviews. We then reviewed the VAIC and clinical information for the 15 deaths and developed a death adjudication process/algorithm to determine whether the underlying cause of death was definitely (40% of these pilot cases), probably (33%), possibly (13%), or unlikely/definitely not (13%) COVID-19-related. We noted differences between the adjudicated cause of death and a death certificate.

Conclusions: The VAIC and a death adjudication protocol using it may improve accuracy in identifying COVID-19-related deaths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-021-06842-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231744PMC
June 2021

Medicaid Expansion Association With End-Stage Liver Disease Mortality Depends on Leniency of Medicaid Hepatitis C Virus Coverage.

Liver Transpl 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY.

The Affordable Care Act expanded Medicaid around the same time that direct-acting antivirals became widely available for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, there is significant variation in Medicaid HCV treatment eligibility criteria between states. We explored the combined effects of Medicaid expansion and leniency of HCV coverage under Medicaid on liver outcomes. We assessed state-level end-stage liver disease (ESLD) mortality rates, listings for liver transplantation (LT), and listing-to-death ratios (LDRs) for adults aged 25 to 64 years using data from United Network for Organ Sharing and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research. States were divided into 4 nonoverlapping groups based on expansion status on January 1, 2014 (expansion versus nonexpansion) and leniency of Medicaid HCV coverage (lenient versus restrictive coverage). Joinpoint regression analysis evaluated the significant changes in slope over time (joinpoints) during the pre-expansion (2009-2013) and postexpansion (2014-2018) time periods. We found significant changes in the annual percent change for population-adjusted ESLD deaths between 2014 and 2015 in all cohorts except for the nonexpansion/restrictive cohort, in which deaths increased at the same annual percent change from 2009 to 2018 (annual percent change of +2.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-3.3]). In the expansion/lenient coverage cohort, deaths increased at an annual percent change of +2.6% (95% CI, 1.8-3.5) until 2014 and then tended to decrease at an annual percent change of -0.4% (95% CI, -1.5 to 0.8). LT listings tended to decrease over time for all cohorts. For LDRs, only the expansion/lenient and expansion/restrictive cohorts had statistically significant joinpoints. Improvements in ESLD mortality and LDRs were associated with both Medicaid expansion and leniency of HCV coverage under Medicaid. These findings suggest the importance of implementing more lenient and widespread public health insurance to improve liver disease outcomes, including mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.26209DOI Listing
June 2021

Thirty-Day Post-Discharge Outcomes Following COVID-19 Infection.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 08 7;36(8):2378-2385. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Background: The clinical course of COVID-19 includes multiple disease phases. Data describing post-hospital discharge outcomes may provide insight into disease course. Studies describing post-hospitalization outcomes of adults following COVID-19 infection are limited to electronic medical record review, which may underestimate the incidence of outcomes.

Objective: To determine 30-day post-hospitalization outcomes following COVID-19 infection.

Design: Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Quaternary referral hospital and community hospital in New York City.

Participants: COVID-19 infected patients discharged alive from the emergency department (ED) or hospital between March 3 and May 15, 2020.

Measurement: Outcomes included return to an ED, re-hospitalization, and mortality within 30 days of hospital discharge.

Results: Thirty-day follow-up data were successfully collected on 94.6% of eligible patients. Among 1344 patients, 16.5% returned to an ED, 9.8% were re-hospitalized, and 2.4% died. Among patients who returned to the ED, 50.0% (108/216) went to a different hospital from the hospital of the index presentation, and 61.1% (132/216) of those who returned were re-hospitalized. In Cox models adjusted for variables selected using the lasso method, age (HR 1.01 per year [95% CI 1.00-1.02]), diabetes (1.54 [1.06-2.23]), and the need for inpatient dialysis (3.78 [2.23-6.43]) during the index presentation were independently associated with a higher re-hospitalization rate. Older age (HR 1.08 [1.05-1.11]) and Asian race (2.89 [1.27-6.61]) were significantly associated with mortality.

Conclusions: Among patients discharged alive following their index presentation for COVID-19, risk for returning to a hospital within 30 days of discharge was substantial. These patients merit close post-discharge follow-up to optimize outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-021-06924-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183585PMC
August 2021

Preadmission predictors of severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus.

J Diabetes Complications 2021 08 28;35(8):107967. Epub 2021 May 28.

Weill Cornell Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore predictors of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19.

Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of adults with diabetes admitted for COVID-19. Bivariate tests and multivariable Cox regression were used to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19, defined as a composite endpoint of intensive care unit admission/intubation or in-hospital death.

Results: In 1134 patients with diabetes admitted for COVID-19, more severe disease was associated with older age (HR 1.02, p<0.001), male sex (HR 1.28, p=0.017), Asian race (HR 1.34, p=0.029 [reference: white]), and greater obesity (moderate obesity HR 1.59, p=0.015; severe obesity HR 2.07, p=0.002 [reference: normal body mass index]). Outpatient diabetes medications were not associated with outcomes.

Conclusions: Age, male sex, Asian race, and obesity were associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease in adults with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19.

Summary: In patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 disease, we observed that age, male sex, Asian race, and obesity predicted severe COVID-19 outcomes of intensive care unit admission, intubation, or in-hospital death. The risk conferred by obesity increased with worsening obesity. Outpatient diabetes medications were not observed to be significant predictors of study outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2021.107967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162023PMC
August 2021

Silent Myocardial Infarction and Subsequent Ischemic Stroke in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

Neurology 2021 08 24;97(5):e436-e443. Epub 2021 May 24.

From the Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Unit (A.E.M., H.K.), Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute (A.E.M., H.K.), and Departments of Neurology (A.E.M., H.K.) and Medicine (P.M.O., M.M.S.), Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY; Department of Biostatistics (T.M.B.), Cardiovascular Health Research Unit (B.M.P.), and Departments of Medicine (B.M.P.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., W.T.L.), Health Services (B.M.P.), and Neurology (W.T.L.), University of Washington, Seattle; Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (E.Z.S.), Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (V.H.), School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute (B.M.P.), Seattle; and Department of Neurology, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons (M.S.V.E.), and Department of Epidemiology (M.S.V.E.), Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that silent myocardial infarction (MI) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, we evaluated the association between silent MI and subsequent ischemic stroke in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

Methods: The Cardiovascular Health Study prospectively enrolled community-dwelling individuals ≥65 years of age. We included participants without prevalent stroke or baseline evidence of MI. Our exposures were silent and clinically apparent, overt MI. Silent MI was defined as new evidence of Q-wave MI, without clinical symptoms of MI, on ECGs performed during annual study visits from 1989 to 1999. The primary outcome was incident ischemic stroke. Secondary outcomes were ischemic stroke subtypes: nonlacunar, lacunar, and other/unknown. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to model the association between time-varying MI status (silent, overt, or no MI) and stroke after adjustment for baseline demographics and vascular risk factors.

Results: Among 4,224 participants, 362 (8.6%) had an incident silent MI, 421 (10.0%) an incident overt MI, and 377 (8.9%) an incident ischemic stroke during a median follow-up of 9.8 years. After adjustment for demographics and comorbidities, silent MI was independently associated with subsequent ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.21). Overt MI was associated with ischemic stroke both in the short term (HR, 80; 95% CI, 53-119) and long term (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.04-2.44). In secondary analyses, the association between silent MI and stroke was limited to nonlacunar ischemic stroke (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.36-4.22).

Conclusion: In a community-based sample, we found an association between silent MI and ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356380PMC
August 2021

Atrial fibrillation and risk of incident heart failure with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction.

Heart 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Department of Epidemiology, Division of Public Health, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: Associations between atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) have been established. We compared the extent to which AF is associated with each primary subtype of HF, with reduced (HFrEF) versus preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

Methods: We included 25 787 participants free of baseline HF from the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort. Baseline AF was ascertained from ECG and self-reported history of physician diagnosis. Incident HF events were determined from physician-adjudicated review of hospitalisation medical records and HF deaths. Based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at the time of HF event, HFrEF, HFpEF, and mid-range HF were defined as LVEF <40%, ≥50% and 40%-49%, respectively. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models examined the association between AF and HF. The Lunn-McNeil method was used to compare associations of AF with incident HFrEF versus HFpEF.

Results: Over a median of 9 years of follow-up, 1109 HF events occurred (356 HFpEF, 388 HFrEF, 77 mid-range and 288 unclassified). In a model adjusted for sociodemographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and incident coronary heart disease, AF was associated with increased risk of all HF events (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.01). The associations of AF with HFrEF versus HFpEF events did not differ significantly (HR 1.87 (95% CI 1.38 to 2.54) and HR 1.65 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.28), respectively; p value for difference=0.581). These associations were consistent in sex and race subgroups.

Conclusions: AF is associated with both HFrEF and HFpEF events, with no significant difference in the strength of association among these subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319122DOI Listing
May 2021

Eliciting primary care and oncology provider perspectives on diabetes management during active cancer treatment.

Support Care Cancer 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, 420 East 70th Street, 3rd Floor (LH359), New York, NY, 10021, USA.

Purpose: We sought to elicit the perspectives of primary care providers (PCPs) and oncologists regarding their expectations on who should be responsible for diabetes management, as well as communication mode and frequency about diabetes care during cancer treatment.

Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with PCPs (physicians and nurse practitioners) and oncologists who treat cancer patients with type 2 diabetes. Interviews were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze the qualitative data and identify key themes.

Results: Ten PCPs and ten oncologists were interviewed between March and July 2019. Two broad themes emerged from our interviews with PCPs: (1) cancer patients pausing primary care during cancer treatments, and (2) patients with poorer prognoses and advanced cancer. The following theme emerged from our interviews with oncologists: (3) challenges in caring for cancer patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Three common themes emerged from our interviews with both PCPs and oncologists: (4) discomfort with providing care outside of respective specialty, (5) the need to individualize care plans, and (6) lack of communication across primary and oncology care.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that substantial barriers to optimal diabetes management during cancer care exist at the provider level. Interventions prioritizing effective communication and educational resources among PCPs, oncologists, and additional members of the patients' care team should be prioritized to achieve optimal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06264-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Inequities in Hypertension Control in the United States Exposed and Exacerbated by COVID-19 and the Role of Home Blood Pressure and Virtual Health Care During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 06 19;10(11):e020997. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine University of Utah School of Medicine Salt Lake City UT.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health crisis, having killed more than 514 000 US adults as of March 2, 2021. COVID-19 mitigation strategies have unintended consequences on managing chronic conditions such as hypertension, a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and health disparities in the United States. During the first wave of the pandemic in the United States, the combination of observed racial/ethnic inequities in COVID-19 deaths and social unrest reinvigorated a national conversation about systemic racism in health care and society. The 4th Annual University of Utah Translational Hypertension Symposium gathered frontline clinicians, researchers, and leaders from diverse backgrounds to discuss the intersection of these 2 critical social and public health phenomena and to highlight preexisting disparities in hypertension treatment and control exacerbated by COVID-19. The discussion underscored environmental and socioeconomic factors that are deeply embedded in US health care and research that impact inequities in hypertension. Structural racism plays a central role at both the health system and individual levels. At the same time, virtual healthcare platforms are being accelerated into widespread use by COVID-19, which may widen the divide in healthcare access across levels of wealth, geography, and education. Blood pressure control rates are declining, especially among communities of color and those without health insurance or access to health care. Hypertension awareness, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and evidence-based pharmacotherapy are essential. There is a need to improve the implementation of community-based interventions and blood pressure self-monitoring, which can help build patient trust and increase healthcare engagement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.020997DOI Listing
June 2021

Peer-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-based Intervention Reduced Depression and Stress in Community Dwelling Adults With Diabetes and Chronic Pain: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

Ann Behav Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Finding effective, accessible treatment options such as professional-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for medically complex individuals is challenging in rural communities.

Purpose: We examined whether a CBT-based program intended to increase physical activity despite chronic pain in patients with diabetes delivered by community members trained as peer coaches also improved depressive symptoms and perceived stress.

Methods: Participants in a cluster-randomized controlled trial received a 3-month telephonic lifestyle modification program with integrated CBT elements. Peer coaches assisted participants in developing skills related to adaptive coping, diabetes self-management goal-setting, stress reduction, and cognitive restructuring. Attention controls received general health advice with an equal number of contacts but no CBT elements. Depressive symptoms and stress were assessed using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression and Perceived Stress scales. Assessments occurred at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year.

Results: Of 177 participants with follow-up data, 96% were African Americans, 79% women, and 74% reported annual income <$20,000. There was a significant reduction in perceived stress in intervention compared to control participants at 3-months (β = -2.79, p = .002 [95% CI -4.52, -1.07]) and 1 year (β = -2.59, p < .0001 [95% CI -3.30, -1.87]). Similarly, intervention participants reported significant decreases in depressive symptoms at 3-months (β = -2.48, p < .0001 [95% CI -2.48, -2.02]) and at 1 year (β = -1.62, p < .0001 [95% CI -2.37, -0.86]).

Conclusions: This peer-delivered CBT-based program improved depressive symptoms and stress in individuals with diabetes and chronic pain. Training community members may be a feasible strategy for offering CBT-based interventions in rural and under-resourced communities.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02538055.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abm/kaab034DOI Listing
May 2021

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet Pattern and Incident Heart Failure.

J Card Fail 2021 May;27(5):512-521

Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet pattern has shown some promise for preventing heart failure (HF), but studies have been conflicting.

Objective: To determine whether the DASH diet pattern was associated with incident HF in a large biracial and geographically diverse population.

Methods And Results: Among participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study of adults aged ≥45 years who were free of suspected HF at baseline in 2003-2007, the DASH diet score was derived from the baseline food frequency questionnaire. The main outcome was incident HF defined as the first adjudicated HF hospitalization or HF death through December 31, 2016. We estimated hazard ratios for the associations of DASH diet score quartiles with incident HF, and incident HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction using the Lunn-McNeil extension to the Cox model. We tested for several prespecified interactions, including with age. Compared with the lowest quartile, individuals in the second to fourth DASH diet score quartiles had a lower risk for incident HF after adjustment for sociodemographic and health characteristics: quartile 2 hazard ratio, 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.85); quartile 3 hazard ratio, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58-0.87); and quartile 4 hazard ratio, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.92). When stratifying results by age, quartiles 2-4 had a lower hazard for incident HF among those age <65 years, quartiles 3-4 had a lower hazard among those age 65-74, and the quartiles had similar hazard among those age ≥75 years (P = .003). We did not find a difference in the association of DASH diet with incident HF with reduced ejection fraction vs HF with preserved ejection fraction (P = .11).

Conclusions: DASH diet adherence was inversely associated with incident HF, specifically among individuals <75 years old.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.01.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396128PMC
May 2021

Does the Association Between Hemoglobin A and Risk of Cardiovascular Events Vary by Residential Segregation? The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

Diabetes Care 2021 05 6;44(5):1151-1158. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Objective: To examine if the association between higher A1C and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults with and without diabetes is modified by racial residential segregation.

Research Design And Methods: The study used a case-cohort design, which included a random sample of 2,136 participants at baseline and 1,248 participants with incident CVD (i.e., stroke, coronary heart disease [CHD], and fatal CHD during 7-year follow-up) selected from 30,239 REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants originally assessed between 2003 and 2007. The relationship of A1C with incident CVD, stratified by baseline diabetes status, was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for demographics, CVD risk factors, and socioeconomic status. Effect modification by census tract-level residential segregation indices (dissimilarity, interaction, and isolation) was assessed using interaction terms.

Results: The mean age of participants in the random sample was 64.2 years, with 44% African American, 59% female, and 19% with diabetes. In multivariable models, A1C was not associated with CVD risk among those without diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] per 1% [11 mmol/mol] increase, 0.94 [95% CI 0.76-1.16]). However, A1C was associated with an increased risk of CVD (HR per 1% increase, 1.23 [95% CI 1.08-1.40]) among those with diabetes. This A1C-CVD association was modified by the dissimilarity ( < 0.001) and interaction ( = 0.001) indices. The risk of CVD was increased at A1C levels between 7 and 9% (53-75 mmol/mol) for those in areas with higher residential segregation (i.e., lower interaction index). In race-stratified analyses, there was a more pronounced modifying effect of residential segregation among African American participants with diabetes.

Conclusions: Higher A1C was associated with increased CVD risk among individuals with diabetes, and this relationship was more pronounced at higher levels of residential segregation among African American adults. Additional research on how structural determinants like segregation may modify health effects is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132333PMC
May 2021

Association Between Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Subsequent Arterial Ischemic Events in Participants From 4 Population-Based Cohort Studies.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul;78(7):809-816

Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Unit, Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Importance: Intracerebral hemorrhage and arterial ischemic disease share risk factors, to our knowledge, but the association between the 2 conditions remains unknown.

Objective: To evaluate whether intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with an increased risk of incident ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction.

Design, Setting, And Participants: An analysis was conducted of pooled longitudinal participant-level data from 4 population-based cohort studies in the United States: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Patients were enrolled from 1987 to 2007, and the last available follow-up was December 31, 2018. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020.

Exposure: Intracerebral hemorrhage, as assessed by an adjudication committee based on predefined clinical and radiologic criteria.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was an arterial ischemic event, defined as a composite of ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction, centrally adjudicated within each study. Secondary outcomes were ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Participants with prevalent intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction at their baseline study visit were excluded. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between intracerebral hemorrhage and subsequent arterial ischemic events after adjustment for baseline age, sex, race/ethnicity, vascular comorbidities, and antithrombotic medications.

Results: Of 55 131 participants, 47 866 (27 639 women [57.7%]; mean [SD] age, 62.2 [10.2] years) were eligible for analysis. During a median follow-up of 12.7 years (interquartile range, 7.7-19.5 years), there were 318 intracerebral hemorrhages and 7648 arterial ischemic events. The incidence of an arterial ischemic event was 3.6 events per 100 person-years (95% CI, 2.7-5.0 events per 100 person-years) after intracerebral hemorrhage vs 1.1 events per 100 person-years (95% CI, 1.1-1.2 events per 100 person-years) among those without intracerebral hemorrhage. In adjusted models, intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with arterial ischemic events (hazard ratio [HR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1), ischemic stroke (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.1-4.5), and myocardial infarction (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9). In sensitivity analyses, intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with arterial ischemic events when updating covariates in a time-varying manner (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0); when using incidence density matching (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.2); when including participants with prevalent intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-2.9); and when using death as a competing risk (subdistribution HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found that intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. These findings suggest that intracerebral hemorrhage may be a novel risk marker for arterial ischemic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.0925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8094038PMC
July 2021

A predictive model of clinical deterioration among hospitalized COVID-19 patients by harnessing hospital course trajectories.

J Biomed Inform 2021 06 30;118:103794. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

From early March through mid-May 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed hospitals in New York City. In anticipation of ventilator shortages and limited ICU bed capacity, hospital operations prioritized the development of prognostic tools to predict clinical deterioration. However, early experience from frontline physicians observed that some patients developed unanticipated deterioration after having relatively stable periods, attesting to the uncertainty of clinical trajectories among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Prediction tools that incorporate clinical variables at one time-point, usually on hospital presentation, are suboptimal for patients with dynamic changes and evolving clinical trajectories. Therefore, our study team developed a machine-learning algorithm to predict clinical deterioration among hospitalized COVID-19 patients by extracting clinically meaningful features from complex longitudinal laboratory and vital sign values during the early period of hospitalization with an emphasis on informative missing-ness. To incorporate the evolution of the disease and clinical practice over the course of the pandemic, we utilized a time-dependent cross-validation strategy for model development. Finally, we validated our prediction model on an external validation cohort of COVID-19 patients served in a demographically distinct population from the training cohort. The main finding of our study is the identification of risk profiles of early, late and no clinical deterioration during the course of hospitalization. While risk prediction models that include simple predictors at ED presentation and clinical judgement are able to identify any deterioration vs. no deterioration, our methodology is able to isolate a particular risk group that remain stable initially but deteriorate at a later stage of the course of hospitalization. We demonstrate the superior predictive performance with the utilization of laboratory and vital sign data during the early period of hospitalization compared to the utilization of data at presentation alone. Our results will allow efficient hospital resource allocation and will motivate research in understanding the late deterioration risk group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2021.103794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084618PMC
June 2021

Ambulatory Care Fragmentation and Incident Stroke.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 05 26;10(9):e019036. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Weill Cornell Medicine New York NY.

Background More fragmented ambulatory care (ie, care spread across many providers without a dominant provider) has been associated with excess emergency department and inpatient care. We sought to determine whether more fragmented ambulatory care is associated with an increase in the hazard of incident stroke, overall and stratified by health status and by race. Methods and Results We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study (2003-2016), including participants aged ≥65 years who had linked Medicare fee-for-service claims and no history of stroke (N=12 510). We measured fragmentation of care with the reversed Bice-Boxerman index. We used Poisson models to determine the association between fragmentation and adjudicated incident stroke. The average age of participants was 70.5 years; 53% were women, 32% were Black participants, and 16% were participants with fair or poor health. Overall, the adjusted rate of incident stroke was similar for high versus low fragmentation (8.2 versus 8.1 per 1000 person-years, respectively; =0.89). Among participants with fair or poor self-rated health, having high versus low fragmentation was associated with a trend toward a higher adjusted rate of incident strokes (14.8 versus 10.4 per 1000 person-years, respectively; =0.067). Among Black participants with fair or poor self-rated health, having high versus low fragmentation was associated with a higher adjusted rate of strokes (19.3 versus 10.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively; =0.02). Conclusions Highly fragmented ambulatory care is independently associated with incident stroke among Black individuals with fair or poor health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200753PMC
May 2021

COVID-19-Related Circumstances for Hospital Readmissions: A Case Series From 2 New York City Hospitals.

J Patient Saf 2021 06;17(4):264-269

From the Department of Medicine.

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the main factors contributing to hospital readmissions and their potential preventability after a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization at 2 New York City hospitals.

Methods: This was a retrospective study at 2 affiliated New York City hospitals located in the Upper East Side and Lower Manhattan neighborhoods. We performed case reviews using the Hospital Medicine Reengineering Network framework to determine potentially preventable readmissions among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 3, 2020 (date of first case) and April 27, 2020, and readmitted to either of the 2 hospitals within 30 days of discharge.

Results: Among 53 readmissions after hospitalization for COVID-19, 44 (83%) were deemed not preventable and 9 (17%) were potentially preventable. Nonpreventable readmissions were mostly due to disease progression or complications of COVID-19 (37/44, 84%). Main factors contributing to potentially preventable readmissions were issues with initial disposition (5/9, 56%), premature discharge (3/9, 33%), and inappropriate readmission (1/9, 11%) for someone who likely did not require rehospitalization.

Conclusions: Most readmissions after a COVID-19 hospitalization were not preventable and a consequence of the natural progression of the disease, specifically worsening dyspnea or hypoxemia. Some readmissions were potentially preventable, mostly because of issues with disposition that were directly related to challenges posed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Clinicians should be aware of challenges with disposition related to circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131259PMC
June 2021

Hyperglycemia in Acute COVID-19 is Characterized by Adipose Tissue Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance.

medRxiv 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

COVID-19 has proven to be a metabolic disease resulting in adverse outcomes in individuals with diabetes or obesity. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and hyperglycemia suffer from longer hospital stays, higher risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and increased mortality compared to those who do not develop hyperglycemia. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanism(s) of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 remains poorly characterized. Here we show that insulin resistance rather than pancreatic beta cell failure is the prevalent cause of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients with ARDS, independent of glucocorticoid treatment. A screen of protein hormones that regulate glucose homeostasis reveals that the insulin sensitizing adipokine adiponectin is reduced in hyperglycemic COVID-19 patients. Hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 also have diminished expression of adiponectin. Together these data suggest that adipose tissue dysfunction may be a driver of insulin resistance and adverse outcomes in acute COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.21.21254072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010756PMC
March 2021

Peer coach delivered storytelling program improved diabetes medication adherence: A cluster randomized trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 05 15;104:106358. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, United States of America.

Background: Because medication adherence is linked to better diabetes outcomes, numerous interventions have aimed to improve adherence. However, suboptimal adherence persists and necessitate continued research into intervention strategies. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention that combined storytelling and peer support to improve medication adherence and health outcomes in adults with diabetes.

Methods: Living Well with Diabetes was a cluster randomized controlled trial. Intervention participants received a six-month, 11-session peer-delivered behavioral diabetes self-care program over the phone. Control participants received a self-paced general health program. Outcomes were changes in medication adherence and physiologic measures (hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index).

Results: Of the 403 participants with follow-up data, mean age was 57 (±SD 11), 78% were female, 91% were African American, 56.4% had high school education or less, and 70% had an annual income of < $20,000. At follow-up, compared to controls, intervention participants had greater improvement in medication adherence (β = -0.25 [95% CI -0.35, -0.15]). Physiologic measures did not change significantly in either group. Intervention participants had significant improvements in beliefs about the necessity of medications (β = 0.87 [95% CI 0.27, 1.47]) concerns about the negative effects of medication (β = -0.91 [95% CI -1.35, -0.47]), and beliefs that medications are harmful (β = -0.50 [95% CI -0.89, -0.10]). In addition, medication use self-efficacy significantly improved in intervention participants (β = 1.0 [95% CI 0.23, 1.76]). 473 individuals were enrolled in the study and randomized.

Discussion: Living Well intervention resulted in improved medication adherence, medication beliefs, and medication use self-efficacy but not improved risk factor levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106358DOI Listing
May 2021
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