Publications by authors named "Moniek Heusinkveld"

11 Publications

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Case series of four secondary mucormycosis infections in COVID-19 patients, the Netherlands, December 2020 to May 2021.

Euro Surveill 2021 06;26(23)

Center for Infectious Disease Research, Diagnostics and Laboratory Surveillance National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

We describe four secondary fungal infections caused by Mucorales species in COVID-19 patients. Three COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) occurred in ICU, one outside ICU. All were men aged > 50 years, three died. Clinical presentations included pulmonary, rhino-orbital cerebral and disseminated infection. Infections occurred in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. CAM is an emerging disease and our observations underscore the need to be aware of invasive mucormycosis, including in COVID-19 patients without (poorly controlled) diabetes mellitus and outside ICU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.23.2100510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193993PMC
June 2021

Potential use of lymph node-derived HPV-specific T cells for adoptive cell therapy of cervical cancer.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2016 12 12;65(12):1451-1463. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 1, K1-P, PO box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cells, expanded from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or from peripheral blood, is a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. Here, we studied whether the tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN) of patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical cancer can be used as a source for ACT. The objectives were to isolate lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMC) from TDLN and optimally expand HPV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells under clinical grade conditions. TDLN were isolated from 11 patients with early-stage cervical cancer during radical surgery. Isolated lymphocytes were expanded in the presence of HPV16 E6 and E7 clinical grade synthetic long peptides and IL-2 for 22 days and then analyzed for HPV16 specificity by proliferation assay, multiparameter flow cytometry and cytokine analysis as well as for CD25 and FoxP3 expression. Stimulation of LNMC resulted in expansion of polyclonal HPV-specific T cells in all patients. On average a 36-fold expansion of a CD4+ and/or CD8+ HPV16-specific T cell population was observed, which maintained its capacity for secondary expansion. The T helper type 1 cytokine IFNγ was produced in all cell cultures and in some cases also the Th2 cytokines IL-10 and IL-5. The procedure was highly reproducible, as evidenced by complete repeats of the stimulation procedures under research and under full good manufacturing practice conditions. In conclusion, TDLN represent a rich source of polyclonal HPV16 E6- and E7-specific T cells, which can be expanded under clinical grade conditions for adoptive immunotherapy in patients with cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-016-1892-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5099359PMC
December 2016

Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children.

Sci Rep 2016 Feb 26;6:22144. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children experienced AGE (0.95 episodes/parent-year and 2.25 episodes/child-year). Healthcare utilization was 18.3% (children) and 8.6% (parents), with 1.6% children hospitalized. Work absenteeism was 55.6% (median 1.5 days) and day-care absenteeism was 26.2% (median 1 day). Besides chronic enteropathies, antacid use, non-breastfeeding, and toddling age, risk factors for childhood AGE were having developmental disabilities, parental occupation in healthcare, multiple siblings, single-parent families, and ≤ 12-month day-care attendance. Risk factors for parental AGE were female gender, having multiple or developmentally-disabled day-care-attending children, antimicrobial use, and poor food-handling practices. Parents of AGE-affected children had a concurrent 4-fold increased AGE risk. We concluded that AGE-causing agents spread widely in families with preschool children, causing high healthcare-seeking behaviours and productivity losses. Modifiable risk factors provide targets for AGE-reducing initiatives. Children may acquire some immunity to AGE after one year of day-care attendance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep22144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4768267PMC
February 2016

Influenza-like Illness in Households with Children of Preschool Age.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 Mar;35(3):242-8

From the *National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; †Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; and ‡Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Influenza-like illness (ILI) is the leading cause of medical consultation amongst preschool children, who may contribute to spreading ILI-causing agents within the household. We aimed to determine the societal burden (incidence, health-care consumption and productivity loss) and correlates of ILI in households with preschool children.

Methods: A survey was performed in the Netherlands during October 2012 to October 2014. Monthly, 2000 households with children younger than 4 years were invited to report their symptoms and related medical care, productivity loss and putative risk exposures for 1 preschool child and 1 parent.

Results: Eight thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight child-parent pairs were enrolled. ILI incidence was 2.81 episodes/child-year and 1.72 episodes/parent-year. Amongst those with ILI, health-care utilization was 35.7% (children) and 17.7% (parents). Work absenteeism was 45.7% (median 2 workdays lost) and day-care absenteeism was 22.8% (median 1 day missed). Chronic respiratory conditions, developmental disabilities, parental occupation in health care/child care, having a sibling and attending day care for ≤12 months increased childhood ILI risk. Parental ILI risk increased with having chronic respiratory conditions, developmentally disabled day-care-attending children and female gender in interaction with unemployment and multiple day-care-attending children. Breastfeeding infants 6-month-old or younger and attending day care for >24 months decreased childhood ILI risk. Pregnancy, occupation in health care and having ≥3 children decreased parental ILI risk. Parents of ILI-affected children had a concurrent 4-fold higher ILI risk.

Conclusion: ILI in households with preschool children has a considerable societal impact. Risk-mitigating initiatives seem justified for day-care attendees, mothers, people with chronic respiratory conditions, and children with developmental disabilities. Children attending day care for >2 years acquire some protection to ILI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000988DOI Listing
March 2016

Intradermal delivery of TLR agonists in a human explant skin model: preferential activation of migratory dendritic cells by polyribosinic-polyribocytidylic acid and peptidoglycans.

J Immunol 2013 Apr 6;190(7):3338-45. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands.

TLR agonists are attractive candidate adjuvants for therapeutic cancer vaccines as they can induce a balanced humoral and T cell-mediated immune response. With a dense network of dendritic cells (DCs) and draining lymphatics, the skin provides an ideal portal for vaccine delivery. Beside direct DC activation, TLR agonists may also induce DC activation through triggering the release of inflammatory mediators by accessory cells in the skin microenvironment. Therefore, a human skin explant model was used to explore the in vivo potential of intradermally delivered TLR agonists to stimulate Langerhans cells and dermal DCs in their natural complex tissue environment. The skin-emigrated DCs were phenotyped and analyzed for T cell stimulatory capacity. We report that, of six tested TLR-agonists, the TLR2 and -3 agonists peptidoglycan (PGN) and polyribosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:C) were uniquely able to enhance the T cell-priming ability of skin-emigrated DCs, which, in the case of PGN, was accompanied by Th1 polarization. The enhanced priming capacity of Poly I:C-stimulated DCs was associated with a strong upregulation of appropriate costimulatory molecules, including CD70, whereas that of PGN-stimulated DCs was associated with the release of a broad array of proinflammatory cytokines. Transcriptional profiling further supported the notion that the PGN- and Poly I:C-induced effects were mediated through binding to TLR2/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 and TLR3/MDA5, respectively. These data warrant further exploration of PGN and Poly I:C, alone or in combination, as DC-targeted adjuvants for intradermal cancer vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1200598DOI Listing
April 2013

Chemotherapy alters monocyte differentiation to favor generation of cancer-supporting M2 macrophages in the tumor microenvironment.

Cancer Res 2013 Apr 22;73(8):2480-92. Epub 2013 Feb 22.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Current therapy of gynecologic malignancies consists of platinum-containing chemotherapy. Resistance to therapy is associated with increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)), 2 inflammatory mediators known to skew differentiation of monocytes to tumor-promoting M2 macrophages. We investigated the impact of cisplatin and carboplatin on 10 different cervical and ovarian cancer cell lines as well as on the ability of the tumor cells to affect the differentiation and function of cocultured monocytes in vitro. Treatment with cisplatin or carboplatin increased the potency of tumor cell lines to induce IL-10-producing M2 macrophages, which displayed increased levels of activated STAT3 due to tumor-produced IL-6 as well as decreased levels of activated STAT1 and STAT6 related to the PGE(2) production of tumor cells. Blockade of canonical NF-κB signaling showed that the effect of the chemotherapy was abrogated, preventing the subsequent increased production of PGE(2) and/or IL-6 by the tumor cell lines. Treatment with the COX-inhibitor indomethacin and/or the clinical monoclonal antibody against interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), tocilizumab, prevented M2-differentiation. Importantly, no correlation existed between the production of PGE(2) or IL-6 by cancer cells and their resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death, indicating that other mechanisms underlie the reported chemoresistance of tumors producing these factors. Our data suggest that a chemotherapy-mediated increase in tumor-promoting M2 macrophages may form an indirect mechanism for chemoresistance. Hence, concomitant therapy with COX inhibitors and/or IL-6R antibodies might increase the clinical effect of platinum-based chemotherapy in otherwise resistant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-3542DOI Listing
April 2013

Identification and manipulation of tumor associated macrophages in human cancers.

J Transl Med 2011 Dec 16;9:216. Epub 2011 Dec 16.

Dept, of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Evading immune destruction and tumor promoting inflammation are important hallmarks in the development of cancer. Macrophages are present in most human tumors and are often associated with bad prognosis. Tumor associated macrophages come in many functional flavors ranging from what is known as classically activated macrophages (M1) associated with acute inflammation and T-cell immunity to immune suppressive macrophages (M2) associated with the promotion of tumor growth. The role of these functionally different myeloid cells is extensively studied in mice tumor models but dissimilarities in markers and receptors make the direct translation to human cancer difficult. This review focuses on recent reports discriminating the type of infiltrating macrophages in human tumors and the environmental cues present that steer their differentiation. Finally, immunotherapeutic approaches to interfere in this process are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-9-216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3286485PMC
December 2011

Activation of tumor-promoting type 2 macrophages by EGFR-targeting antibody cetuximab.

Clin Cancer Res 2011 Sep 25;17(17):5668-73. Epub 2011 Jul 25.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: In a recent randomized phase III clinical trial in metastatic colorectal cancer patients, the addition of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) cetuximab to bevacizumab and chemotherapy resulted in decreased progression-free survival, in particular for patients with the high-affinity FcγRIIIA.

Experimental Design: The presence of natural killer (NK) cells and type 2 (M2) macrophages in colorectal cancer was determined by immunohistochemistry, using antibodies to lineage-specific markers NKp46 and CD68 with CD163, respectively. Influence of tumor-bound cetuximab on M2 macrophages was carried out in vitro with EGFR-expressing tumor cells and short-term differentiated monocytes from blood donors, who were typed for the FcγRIIIA polymorphism (CD16).

Results: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by NK cells is generally proposed as one of the antitumor mechanisms of mAbs. We found that CD163-positive M2 macrophages are much more abundant in colorectal carcinomas. In vitro analysis of M2 macrophages revealed high levels of Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR) and PD-L1 and production of IL-10 and VEGF but not IL-12. These anti-inflammatory and tumor-promoting mediators were released upon coculture with EGFR-positive tumor cells loaded with low concentrations of cetuximab. Macrophage activation depended on EGFR expression on the tumor cells, FcγRs, target specificity of the mAb and mobility of antibody complexes. Cetuximab-induced macrophage responses were more pronounced for FCGR3A 158-Val (high-affinity) carriers.

Conclusion: These results suggest that tumor-promoting M2 macrophages are activated by the therapeutic mAb cetuximab in the local tumor microenvironment and argue that this immune mechanism should be taken into account for the application of therapeutic antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-0239DOI Listing
September 2011

M2 macrophages induced by prostaglandin E2 and IL-6 from cervical carcinoma are switched to activated M1 macrophages by CD4+ Th1 cells.

J Immunol 2011 Aug 27;187(3):1157-65. Epub 2011 Jun 27.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Monocytes attracted by tumor-induced chronic inflammation differentiate to APCs, the type of which depends on cues in the local tumor milieu. In this work, we studied the influence of human cervical cancer cells on monocyte differentiation and showed that the majority of cancer cells either hampered monocyte to dendritic cell differentiation or skewed their differentiation toward M2-like macrophages. Blocking studies revealed that M2 differentiation was caused by tumor-produced PGE(2) and IL-6. TGF-β, IL-10, VEGF, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not play a role. Notably, these CD14(+)CD163(+) M2 macrophages were also detected in situ. Activation of cancer cell-induced M2-like macrophages by several TLR-agonists revealed that compared with dendritic cells, these M2 macrophages displayed a tolerogenic phenotype reflected by a lower expression of costimulatory molecules, an altered balance in IL-12p70 and IL-10 production, and a poor capacity to stimulate T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production. Notably, upon cognate interaction with Th1 cells, these tumor-induced M2 macrophages could be switched to activated M1-like macrophages that expressed high levels of costimulatory molecules, produced high amounts of IL-12 and low amounts of IL-10, and acquired the lymphoid homing marker CCR7. The effects of the interaction between M2 macrophages and Th1 cells could partially be mimicked by activation of these APCs via CD40 in the presence of IFN-γ. Our data on the presence, induction, and plasticity of tumor-induced tolerogenic APCs in cervical cancer suggest that tumor-infiltrated Th1 cells can stimulate a tumor-rejecting environment by switching M2 macrophages to classical proinflammatory M1 macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1100889DOI Listing
August 2011

The detection of circulating human papillomavirus-specific T cells is associated with improved survival of patients with deeply infiltrating tumors.

Int J Cancer 2011 Jan 5;128(2):379-89. Epub 2010 Apr 5.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

A detailed analyses of HPV-specific immunity was performed in a large group of patients with HPV-induced cervical cancer (CxCa) in relation to HLA-types and prognostic factors. Patients were HLA-typed and HPV16/18-specific T-cell immunity was assessed by proliferation assay and cytometric bead array using freshly isolated PBMC and by phenotypic analysis of HPV-specific T cells. The results were analyzed in relation to known disease-related HLA-types (DR7, DR13, DR15/DQ06), invasion-depth and size of tumor, lymph node (LN) status and disease free survival. In total 119 HLA-typed patients with CxCa were analyzed. Patients expressing the HLA-DR13 haplotype were underrepresented as compared to the Dutch population (p = 0.014), whereas HLA-DR7 was overrepresented in patients with HPV16+ CxCa (p = 0.006). In 29 of 94 patients (31%) from whom blood could be tested, a proliferative response to HPV16/18 was detected, which was associated with increased numbers of HPV-specific CD4+CD25+ (activated) T cells (p = 0.03) and HPV-specific CD4+CD25+FoxP3-positive T cells (p = 0.04). The presence of both FoxP3-positive and negative HPV-specific CD4+CD25+ T cells was significantly correlated (p = 0.01). Interestingly, the detection of HPV-specific proliferation was associated with invasion depth (p = 0.020) but not with HLA type, tumor size nor LN status. Moreover, the detection of HPV-specific immunity was associated with an improved disease free survival (p = 0.04) in patients with deeply infiltrating tumors. In conclusion, HPV-specific proliferative T-cell response, comprising higher percentages of HPV-specific CD25+ and CD25+FoxP3-positive CD4+T cells, are more frequently detected in patients with deep infiltrating CxCa tumors and associated with an improved survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25361DOI Listing
January 2011

An unexpectedly large polyclonal repertoire of HPV-specific T cells is poised for action in patients with cervical cancer.

Cancer Res 2010 Apr 16;70(7):2707-17. Epub 2010 Mar 16.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

The diversity and extent of the local tumor-specific T-cell response in a given individual is largely unknown. We have performed an in-depth study of the local T-cell repertoire in a selected group of patients with cervical cancer, by systematic analyses of the proportion, breadth, and polarization of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7-specific T cells within the total population of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor-draining lymph node cells (TDLNC). Isolated T cells were stimulated with sets of overlapping E6 and E7 peptides and analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry with respect to activation, cytokine production, and T-cell receptor Vbeta usage. HPV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in TIL and TDLNC and their relative contribution varied between <1% and 66% of all T cells. In general, these HPV-specific responses were surprisingly broad, aimed at multiple E6 and E7 epitopes and involved multiple dominant and subdominant T-cell receptor Vbetas per single peptide-epitope. In most patients, only few IFNgamma-producing T cells were found and the amount of IFNgamma produced was low, suggesting that these are poised T cells, rendered functionally inactive within the tumor environment. Importantly, stimulation of the TIL and TDLNC with cognate antigen in the presence of commonly used Toll-like receptor ligands significantly enhanced the effector T-cell function. In conclusion, our study suggests that within a given patient with HPV-specific immunity many different tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are locally present and poised for action. This vast existing local T-cell population is awaiting proper stimulation and can be exploited for the immunotherapy of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4299DOI Listing
April 2010
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