Publications by authors named "Monica Parry"

39 Publications

The Canadian Women's Heart Health Alliance ATLAS on the Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Cardiovascular Disease in Women-Chapter 2: Scope of the Problem.

CJC Open 2021 Jan 15;3(1):1-11. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: This Atlas chapter summarizes the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women in Canada, discusses sex and gender disparities, and examines the intersectionality between sex and other factors that play a prominent role in CVD outcomes in women, including gender, indigenous identity, ethnic variation, disability, and socioeconomic status.

Methods: CVD is the leading cause of premature death in Canadian women. Coronary artery disease, including myocardial infarction, and followed by stroke, accounts for the majority of CVD-related deaths in Canadian women. The majority of emergency department visits and hospitalizations by women are due to coronary artery disease, heart failure, and stroke. The effect of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their association with increasing cardiovascular morbidity is unique in this group.

Results: Indigenous women in Canada experience increased CVD, linked to colonization and subsequent social, economic, and political challenges. Women from particular racial and ethnic backgrounds (ie, South Asian, Afro-Caribbean, Hispanic, and Chinese North American women) have greater CVD risk factors, and CVD risk in East Asian women increases with duration of stay in Canada.

Conclusions: Canadians living in northern, rural, remote, and on-reserve residences experience greater CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. An increase in CVD risk among Canadian women has been linked with a background of lower socioeconomic status, and women with disabilities have an increased risk of adverse cardiac events.
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January 2021

Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention Among First Nations Peoples With Type 2 Diabetes in Canada: Findings From the FORGE AHEAD Program.

CJC Open 2020 Nov 9;2(6):547-554. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Centre for Studies in Family Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: First Nations (FN) peoples in Canada face spiraling rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data on the extent of CVD risk-factor management in FN peoples with T2DM in Canada are scarce.

Methods: A T2DM registry with data from 7 FN communities in Canada was utilized to identify individuals eligible for primary and secondary CVD prevention. Proportions of individuals meeting clinical practice guideline-specified targets (hemoglobin A1c ≤7.0%; blood pressure ≤130/80 mm Hg; low-density lipoprotein ≤2 mmol/L) were calculated. Prescription of recommended cardioprotective medications (antithrombotic medication, lipid-lowering agents, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, and beta-blockers) among those with CVD was assessed. χ tests were employed to evaluate differences between CVD prevention groups and sexes.

Results: Of the 2098 individuals in the registry, 18% had documented CVD (female: male = 1.12). Overall, <10% met all 3 clinical practice guideline targets. Attainment of hemoglobin A1c and blood pressure targets was comparable between primary and secondary CVD prevention groups, with<50% achieving targets. A greater proportion of the secondary prevention group met low-density lipoprotein targets compared to those without CVD (61.6% vs 40.9%, < 0.01). In the secondary prevention group, beta-blockers were prescribed to only 20%, and <60% were prescribed antithrombotics, lipid-lowering medications, or agents targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; <2% were prescribed medications from all 4 classes of cardioprotective medications.

Conclusions: Primary and secondary CVD prevention recommendations for individuals with T2DM are not being met for an alarmingly high proportion of FN peoples. These findings serve as an urgent call for proactive measures to reduce CVD events and related mortality in this high-risk population.
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November 2020

Patient Engagement Partnerships in Clinical Trials: Development of Patient Partner and Investigator Decision Aids.

Patient 2020 12 7;13(6):745-756. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Patient Partner, Diabetes Action Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: A 2017 systematic review suggested patient engagement in clinical trials has been limited, with little active engagement in trial design or data analysis, interpretation or dissemination. Additionally, there remains limited sex/gender reporting in clinical trial research.

Objectives: The overall goal of this project was to disseminate sex/gender knowledge and build capacity for patient engagement in clinical trials. Specific objectives were to (1) create capacity and identify opportunities for patient engagement in clinical trials and sponsor- or investigator-led activities (e.g. clinical trial design and conduct); and (2) enhance new/early investigator sex/gender knowledge and skills related to patient-oriented research (POR).

Methods: We used the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research (SPOR) Capacity Development Framework and the SPOR Patient Engagement Framework to guide three phases of this project: (1) conduct a scoping review using methods described by the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information (EPPI) and the Coordinating Centre at the Institute of Education (Phase 1); (2) host a 1-day POR consultation workshop (Phase 2); and (3) deliver a new/early investigator POR training day (Phase 3). Six electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, the Cochrane Library, and AMED) were searched from 1996 using keywords and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms in accordance with the International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) and the search criteria in the bibliographic databases. Standard approaches were used to search the grey literature.

Results: A total of 79 studies and over 150 websites were subject to data abstraction by team members, capturing information on sex/gender and SPOR's patient engagement guiding principles of inclusiveness, support, mutual respect, and co-building. Results were presented to 32 key stakeholders at the consultation workshop and input was sought on next steps using nominal group techniques. Based on the plethora of existing POR resources, relevant POR information from the scoping review was collated into two decision aids (patient and investigator) to determine readiness to engage with/as a patient partner in a clinical trial. The decision aids were presented at a POR training day with 88 new/early investigators, clinicians, patient partners and decision makers. The decision aids showed 'good' usability, assessed using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Attendees thought the decision aids were engaging, they increased their understanding of sex/gender, patient engagement and POR, and they would recommend them to others. POR principles and practices were integrated across all phases of the project. Patient partners (1) identified research priorities/search terms; (2) collected/analyzed data; (3) designed the patient partner decision aid; and (4) disseminated the results through presentation.

Conclusion: Our digital patient partner and investigator decision aids are the first to provide information technology to deliver sex/gender, POR knowledge, and decision support beyond the traditional decision aids used for health screening and/or treatment decisions. The decision aids have the potential to make a significant contribution to Canada's Strategy for POR and support the collaborative efforts of patients and investigators to build a sustainable, accessible and equitable health care system.
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December 2020

A Smartphone App (mDASHNa-CC) to Support Healthy Diet and Hypertension Control for Chinese Canadian Seniors: Protocol for Design, Usability and Feasibility Testing.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 Apr 2;9(4):e15545. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

School of Nursing, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Background: This proposed study aims to translate the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension with Sodium (Na) Reduction for Chinese Canadians (DASHNa-CC), a classroom-based, antihypertensive, dietary educational intervention, to an innovative smartphone app (mDASHNa-CC). This study will enable Chinese Canadian seniors to access antihypertensive dietary interventions anytime, regardless of where they are. It is hypothesized that senior Chinese Canadians will be satisfied with their experiences using the mDASHNa-CC app and that the use of this app could lead to a decrease in their blood pressure and improvement in their health-related quality of life.

Objective: The goal of this study is to design and test the usability and feasibility of a smartphone-based dietary educational app to support a healthy diet and hypertension control for Chinese Canadian seniors.

Methods: A mixed-method two-phase design will be used. The study will be conducted in a Chinese immigrant community in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Chinese Canadian seniors, who are at least 65 years old, self-identified as Chinese, living in Canada, and with elevated blood pressure, will be recruited. In Phase I, we will design and test the usability of the app using a user-centered approach. In Phase II, we will test the feasibility of the app, including implementation (primary outcomes of accrual and attrition rates, technical issues, acceptability of the app, and adherence to the intervention) and preliminary effectiveness (secondary outcomes of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, health-related quality of life, and health service utilization), using a pilot, two-group, randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 60 participants in a Chinese Canadian community.

Results: The study is supported by the Startup Research Grant from Nipissing University, Canada. The research ethics application is under review by a university research ethics review board.

Conclusions: The study results will make several contributions to the existing literature, including illustrating the rigorous design and testing of smartphone app technology for hypertension self-management in the community, exploring an approach to incorporating traditional medicine into chronic illness management in minority communities and promoting equal access to current technology among minority immigrant senior groups.

Trial Registration: NCT03988894;

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/15545.
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April 2020

Development and usability testing of HEARTPA♀N: protocol for a mixed methods strategy to develop an integrated smartphone and web-based intervention for women with cardiac pain.

BMJ Open 2020 03 9;10(3):e033092. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Patient Advisor, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: More women experience cardiac pain related to coronary artery disease and cardiac procedures compared with men. The overall goal of this programme of research is to develop an integrated smartphone and web-based intervention (HEARTPA♀N) to help women recognise and self-manage cardiac pain.

Methods And Analysis: This protocol outlines the mixed methods strategy used for the development of the HEARTPA♀N content/core feature set (phase 2A), usability testing (phase 2B) and evaluation with a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) (phase 3). We are using the individual and family self-management theory, mobile device functionality and pervasive information architecture of mHealth interventions, and following a sequential phased approach recommended by the Medical Research Council to develop HEARTPA♀N. The phase 3 pilot RCT will enable us to refine the prototype, inform the methodology and calculate the sample size for a larger multisite RCT (phase 4, future work). Patient partners have been actively involved in setting the HEARTPA♀N research agenda, including defining patient-reported outcome measures for the pilot RCT: pain and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). As such, the guidelines for Inclusion of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Clinical Trial Protocols (SPIRIT-PRO) are used to report the protocol for the pilot RCT (phase 3). Quantitative data (eg, demographic and clinical information) will be summarised using descriptive statistics (phases 2AB and 3) and a content analysis will be used to identify themes (phase 2AB). A process evaluation will be used to assess the feasibility of the implementation of the intervention and a preliminary efficacy evaluation will be undertaken focusing on the outcomes of pain and HRQoL (phase 3).

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Toronto (36415; 26 November 2018). We will disseminate knowledge of HEARTPA♀N through publication, conference presentation and national public forums (Café Scientifique), and through fact sheets, tweets and webinars.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03800082.
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March 2020

Experiences of informal caregivers after cardiac surgery: a systematic integrated review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

BMJ Open 2019 11 11;9(11):e032751. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: To provide a comprehensive synthesis of informal caregivers' experiences of caring for a significant other following discharge from cardiac surgery.

Design: Systematic integrated review without meta-analysis.

Data Sources: A bibliographic search for publications indexed in six databases (Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED and PsycINFO), including a scan of grey literature sources (GreyNet International, Google Scholar, Web of Science, WorldCat and the Clinical Trials Registry) was conducted in October 2018.

Eligibility Criteria For Selecting Studies: Studies were included if they described views and perspectives of informal caregivers of cardiac surgery patients (non-intervention studies (qualitative and quantitative)), and the effectiveness of interventions to evaluate support programme for informal caregivers of cardiac surgery patients (intervention studies).

Results: Of the 4912 articles identified in searches, 42 primary research studies were included in a narrative synthesis with 5292 participants, including 3231 (62%) caregivers of whom 2557 (79%) were women. The median sample size across studies was 96 (range 6-734). Three major themes emerged from the qualitative study data: (1) caregiver information needs; (2) caregiver work challenges and (3) caregivers adaption to recovery. Across the observational studies (n=22), similar themes were found. The trend across seven intervention studies focused on caregiver information needs related to patient disease management and symptom monitoring, and support for caregivers to reduce symptoms of emotional distress.

Conclusion: Informal caregivers want to assist in the care of their significant others after hospital discharge postcardiac surgery. However, caregivers feel insecure and overwhelmed and they lack clear/concise discharge information and follow-up support during the early at-home recovery period. The burden of caregiving has been recognised and reported since the early 1990s, but there remains a limited number of studies that assesses the effectiveness of caregiver interventions.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42018096590.
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November 2019

Caregiver Burden and Cardiovascular Disease: Can We Afford to Keep the Health of Caregivers in Canada Invisible?

Monica Parry

Can J Cardiol 2019 10 9;35(10):1267-1269. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

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October 2019

Self-management and blood pressure control in China: a community-based multicentre cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2019 03 20;9(3):e025819. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

School of Nursing, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Objectives: This study explored the relationship between self-management and blood pressure (BP) control in China.

Design: A cross-sectional study.

Setting: Eight community health centres from four cities in the Northeast (Shenyang), Northwest (Xi'an), Southwest (Chengdu) and South (Changsha) of China.

Participants: A total of 873 adults with hypertension, including 360 men and 513 women. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg.

Outcome Measurements: BP control was the primary outcome variable. This was categorised as good control if individuals with hypertension reduced their BP to <140/90 mm Hg, otherwise, it was categorised as poor control. Secondary outcomes included self-management, defined as: (1) context or condition-specific factors or physical/social environments (eg, age, sex, marital status, education, personal income and health insurance) and (2) process or knowledge/beliefs, self-regulation skills/abilities and social facilitation (eg, treatment, diet, exercise and risk factor management). Data were analysed using logistic regression models using SPSS V.20.

Results: A total of 67.1% (n=586) participants had poor BP control. Limited outpatient care benefits in mainly rural residents (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.81) and longer disease duration (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04) were associated with poor BP control. Self-management practices reduced the odds of having poor BP control (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99).

Conclusions: The individual and family self-management theory can serve as an effective theory for understanding the key contexts, processes and outcomes essential for BP control in China. Future research should evaluate the effect of a self-management intervention (eg, self-monitoring, medication adherence, regular and routine doctor visits, and social supports) for BP control in China using a multisite cluster randomised controlled trial. Sex and gender difference, cost and patient-reported outcomes should also be examined.
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March 2019

A Feasibility Study of a Multifaceted Walking Intervention to Maintain the Functional Mobility, Activities of Daily Living, and Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents With Dementia.

Rehabil Nurs 2020 Jul/Aug;45(4):204-217

Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a multifaceted walking intervention (MWI) aimed to maintain the functional mobility, activities of daily living function, and quality of life of long-term care home residents with dementia.

Design/methods: A quasiexperimental time-series design was used. The 4-month intervention provided one-on-one walking 2-4 days a week, guided by an individualized communication care plan and interviews with collaterals and staff.

Results: The MWI was feasible based on high recruitment and adherence rates (86% and 94%, respectively) and highly acceptable to stakeholders. Residents (n = 25) showed significant improvements after the intervention: Timed Up-and-Go (-8.85 seconds, p = .00), Two-Minute Walk Test (27.47 m, p = .00), Functional Independence Measure (0.72, p = .00), and Alzheimer's Disease-Related Quality of Life (2.44, p = .05).

Conclusion: The MWI was feasible and improved functional mobility compared to usual care.

Clinical Relevance: Physical activity delivered with a person-centered care was feasible and may be beneficial to mitigate decline in long-term care home residents with dementia.
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October 2018

Association between self-perceived pain sensitivity and pain intensity after cardiac surgery.

J Pain Res 2018 1;11:1425-1432. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Oslo, Norway.

Background And Purpose: Cardiac surgical pain remains a clinical challenge affecting about 40% of individuals in the first six months post-cardiac surgery, and continues up to two years after surgery for about 15-20%. Self-perceived sensitivity to pain may help to identify individuals at risk for persistent cardiac surgical pain to optimize health care responses. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between self-perceived pain sensitivity assessed by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) and postoperative worst pain intensity up to 12 months after cardiac surgery. Sex differences in baseline characteristics and the PSQ scores were also assessed.

Methods: This study was performed among 416 individuals (23% women) scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery between March 2012 and September 2013. A secondary data-analysis was utilized to explore the relationship between preoperative PSQ scores and worst pain intensity rated preoperatively, across postoperative Days 1-4, at 2 weeks, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgery. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to estimate changes in pain intensity during 1-year follow-up.

Results: The mean (±standard deviation) PSQ-total score was 3.3±1.4, with similar scores in men and women. The PSQ-total score was significantly associated with higher worst pain intensity ratings adjusted for participant characteristics (=0.001).

Conclusion: Use of the PSQ before surgery may predict cardiac surgical pain intensity. However, previous evidence is limited and not consistent, and more research is needed to substantiate our results.
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August 2018

Self-Management of Cardiac Pain in Women: A Meta-Summary of the Qualitative Literature.

Qual Health Res 2018 09 19;28(11):1769-1787. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

1 University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Symptom recognition and self-management is instrumental in reducing the number of deaths related to coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. The purpose of this study was to synthesize qualitative research evidence on the self-management of cardiac pain and associated symptoms in women. Seven databases were systematically searched, and the concepts of the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory were used as the framework for data extraction and analysis. Search strategies yielded 22,402 citations, from which 35 qualitative studies were included in a final meta-summary, comprising data from 769 participants, including 437 (57%) women. The available literature focused cardiac pain self-management from a binary sex and gender perspective. Ethnicity was indicated in 19 (54%) studies. Results support individualized intervention strategies that promote goal setting and action planning, management of physical and emotional responses, and social facilitation provided through social support.
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September 2018

Self-Management Interventions for Women With Cardiac Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Can J Cardiol 2018 04 19;34(4):458-467. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Lawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Cardiac pain is considered the primary indicator of coronary artery disease (CAD). Existing reviews lack appropriate numbers of women or sex-based subgroup analyses, or both; thus, the benefits of self-management (women with cardiac pain actively participating in their own care and treatment) remain uncertain.

Methods: Using methods described by the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre at the Institute of Education, 7 databases were systematically searched to examine and synthesize the evidence on self-management interventions for women with cardiac pain and cardiac pain equivalents, such as fatigue, dyspnea, and exhaustion.

Results: Our search yielded 22,402 article titles and abstracts. Of these, 57 randomized controlled trials were included in a final narrative synthesis, comprising data from 13,047 participants, including 5299 (41%) women. Self-management interventions targeting cardiac pain in women compared with a control population reduced (1) cardiac pain frequency and cardiac pain proportion (obstructive and nonobstructive CAD), (2) fatigue at 12 months, and (3) dyspnea at 2 months. There was no evidence of group differences in postprocedural (percutaneous coronary intervention or cardiac surgery) pain. Results indicated that self-management interventions for cardiac pain were more effective if they included a greater proportion of women (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.01; standard error, 0.003; P = 0.02), goal setting (SMD, -0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.49 to -0.03), and collaboration/support from health care providers (SMD, -0.57; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.14).

Conclusions: The results of this review suggest that self-management interventions reduce cardiac pain and cardiac pain equivalents.
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April 2018

The association between hope, marital status, depression and persistent pain in men and women following cardiac surgery.

BMC Womens Health 2018 01 2;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Department of Research and Development, Division of Emergencies and Critical Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, P.O Box 4956, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Cardiac surgery is a major life event, and outcomes after surgery are associated with men's and women's ability to self-manage and cope with their cardiac condition in everyday life. Hope is suggested to impact cardiac health by having a positive effect on how adults cope with and adapt to illness and recommended lifestyle changes.

Methods: We did a secondary analysis of 416 individuals (23% women) undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery between March 2012 and September 2013 enrolled in randomized controlled trial. Hope was assessed using The Herth Hope Index (HHI) at three, six and 12 months following cardiac surgery. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to explore associations after cardiac surgery between hope, marital status, depression, persistent pain, and surgical procedure.

Results: For the total sample, no statistically significant difference between global hope scores from 3 to 12 months was observed (ranging from 38.3 ± 5.1 at 3 months to 38.7 ± 5.1 at 12 months), and no differences between men and women were observed at any time points. However, 3 out of 12 individual items on the HHI were associated with significantly lower scores in women: #1) I have a positive outlook toward life, #3) I feel all alone, and #6) I feel scared about my future. Over the study period, diminished hope was associated with older age, lower education, depression prior to surgery, and persistent pain at all measurement points. Isolated valve surgery was positively associated with hope. While neither sex nor marital status, as main effects, demonstrated significant associations with hope, women who were divorced/widowed/single were significantly more likely to have lower hope scores over the study period.

Conclusion: Addressing pain and depression, and promoting hope, particularly for women living alone may be important targets for interventions to improve outcomes following cardiac surgery.

Trial Registration: Clinical Trials gov Identifier: NCT01976403 . Date of registration: November 28, 2011.
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January 2018

Translation and validation of the Canadian diabetes risk assessment questionnaire in China.

Public Health Nurs 2018 01 29;35(1):18-28. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objectives: To adapt the Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire for the Chinese population and to evaluate its psychometric properties.

Design And Sample: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 194 individuals aged 35-74 years from October 2014 to April 2015.

Methods: The Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire was adapted and translated for the Chinese population. Test-retest reliability was conducted to measure stability. Criterion and convergent validity of the adapted questionnaire were assessed using 2-hr 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests and the Finnish Diabetes Risk Scores, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated to establish its predictive validity.

Results: The test-retest reliability was 0.988. Adequate validity of the adapted questionnaire was demonstrated by positive correlations found between the scores and 2-hr 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (r = .343, p < .001) and with the Finnish Diabetes Risk Scores (r = .738, p < .001). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.705 (95% CI .632, .778), demonstrating moderate diagnostic value at a cutoff score of 30. The sensitivity was 73%, with a positive predictive value of 57% and negative predictive value of 78%.

Conclusions: Our results provided evidence supporting the translation consistency, content validity, convergent validity, criterion validity, sensitivity, and specificity of the translated Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire with minor modifications. This paper provides clinical, practical, and methodological information on how to adapt a diabetes risk calculator between cultures for public health nurses.
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January 2018

Self-management of cardiac pain in women: an evidence map.

BMJ Open 2017 Nov 25;7(11):e018549. Epub 2017 Nov 25.

Lawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To describe the current evidence related to the self-management of cardiac pain in women using the process and methodology of evidence mapping.

Design And Setting: Literature search for studies that describe the self-management of cardiac pain in women greater than 18 years of age, managed in community, primary care or outpatient settings, published in English or a Scandinavian language between 1 January 1990 and 24 June 2016 using AMED, CINAHL, ERIC, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Proquest, PsychInfo, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, Swemed+, Web of Science, the Clinical Trials Registry, International Register of Controlled Trials, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, theses and dissertations, published conference abstracts and relevant websites using GreyNet International, ISI proceedings, BIOSIS and Conference papers index. Two independent reviewers screened using predefined eligibility criteria. Included articles were classified according to study design, pain category, publication year, sample size, per cent women and mean age.

Interventions: Self-management interventions for cardiac pain or non-intervention studies that described views and perspectives of women who self-managed cardiac pain.

Primary And Secondary Outcomes Measures: Outcomes included those related to knowledge, self-efficacy, function and health-related quality of life.

Results: The literature search identified 5940 unique articles, of which 220 were included in the evidence map. Only 22% (n=49) were intervention studies. Sixty-nine per cent (n=151) of the studies described cardiac pain related to obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), 2% (n=5) non-obstructive CAD and 15% (n=34) postpercutaneous coronary intervention/cardiac surgery. Most were published after 2000, the median sample size was 90 with 25%-100% women and the mean age was 63 years.

Conclusions: Our evidence map suggests that while much is known about the differing presentations of obstructive cardiac pain in middle-aged women, little research focused on young and old women, non-obstructive cardiac pain or self-management interventions to assist women to manage cardiac pain.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42016042806.
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November 2017

Examination of a Nurse-led Community-based Education and Coaching Intervention for Coronary Heart Disease High-risk Individuals in China.

Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci) 2017 Sep 15;11(3):187-193. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Department of Community Nursing, Xiangya Nursing School, Central South University, Changsha, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Early detection and management of coronary heart disease (CHD) are embedded into many community health service and primary care practices in western countries. The Framingham CHD risk score has been used to predict CHD and mortality for nearly 20 years, and it has predicted CHD event risk accurately in multiethnic populations. The aim of this study was to access the effect of a 6-month community-based intervention on CHD risk in individuals at high risk.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial of individuals with a high 10-year CHD risk were recruited from two communities in China. Individuals in the intervention group (n = 53) received a 3-month group education and a 3-month coaching session. Physical examination and self-report questionnaires were used to collect both pre- and postintervention data on blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, smoking, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

Results: A total of 102 participants (85.0%) completed the 6-month study. Compared with the usual care group, the intervention group had a 5 mmHg greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (t = 2.01, p = .047), larger declines in glucose (t = -2.49, p = .015), cholesterol (t = -2.44, p = .017), body mass index (t = -2.58, p = .011), and depression (t = -2.05, p = .043), and better reports of HRQoL (t = 3.36, p = .001). No significant group differences in smoking behaviors were reported.

Conclusion: A 6-month community-based intervention in a CHD high-risk population improved disease-related risk factors, depression, and HRQoL. Results provide preliminary evidence for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease risk in a community high-risk population.
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September 2017

Hypertension Prevalence, Health Service Utilization, and Participant Satisfaction: Findings From a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial in Aged Chinese Canadians.

Inquiry 2017 01;54:46958017724942

2 University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Responding to high prevalence of hypertension and patients' preference of integrating traditional Chinese medicine for blood pressure control, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension With Sodium Reduction for Chinese Canadian (DASHNa-CC) intervention was newly designed as a culturally sensitive dietary educational intervention to facilitate middle-aged and senior Chinese Canadians' blood pressure control in community. The aim of this study was to report the hypertension prevalence rate according to the data from blood pressure screening events, to describe the characteristics of health service utilization among aged Chinese Canadians, and to report the evaluation of participant satisfaction to the DASHNa-CC intervention. This study was designed as a pilot randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 60. Among 618 Chinese Canadians participated in blood pressure screening events, 54.5% (n = 337) having various levels of hypertension. Across 2 months, 38 (63.3%) participants made a total of 47 visits to see their family physicians; 20 (33.3%) participants consulted their family members 224 times for lifestyle modifications and hypertension self-management. Various forms of Chinese media were frequently used as sources of health care information, and English media were rarely accessed. Participants highly satisfied with the contents, delivery approaches, and integration of traditional Chinese medicine in the intervention. Results indicated that middle-aged and senior Chinese Canadians have high hypertension prevalence and specific characteristics of health service utilization. It is important to implement interventions, which are culturally tailored, language appropriate, using proper technology and incorporating traditional Chinese medicine, in Chinese Canadian community for hypertension control.
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January 2017

Predictive coding: A contemporary view on the burden of normality and forced normalization in individuals undergoing epilepsy surgery.

Epilepsy Behav 2017 10 24;75:110-113. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Krembil Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital (TWH), Toronto, ON, Canada; Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Following epilepsy surgery, a good psychosocial outcome is not necessarily contingent on a good seizure outcome. Increasingly, it is believed that "successful" surgery is a combination of both an acceptable and expected seizure status as well as the individual's perception of improvements in quality of life (QOL). The factors that create this optimal outcome remain an ongoing area of research in the epilepsy community. That being said, there have been some major breakthroughs in observing and understanding poor outcomes seen in a subset of postoperative patients with epilepsy. Characteristics of burden of normality and forced normalization are two phenomena that have been evident in cases of poor postoperative outcomes. In this review, we provide a summary of research and concepts used to explain these poor QOL outcomes for a seemingly successful surgery and suggest a contemporary view in understanding the mechanism of forced normalization through understanding the brain as a predictive organ. Using such a predictive coding model together with recommendations of other studies, we suggest the crucial need for a preoperative intervention addressing patient predictions and expectations to optimize on the benefits achievable through epilepsy surgery.
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October 2017

Intersecting Health Policy and the Social Determinants of Health in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Management and Care.

J Pediatr Nurs 2017 Nov - Dec;37:62-69. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

School of Health Services Management, Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Theoretical Principles: Type 1 diabetes health technologies are evolving. This is an expensive chronic condition to manage, hence a combination of public and private healthcare funding sources, as well as out-of-pocket payments support disease management. The aim of this paper is to describe two conceptual underpinnings, which can appropriately position the health policy and clinical context of pediatric type 1 diabetes management and care. PHENOMENA ADDRESSED: "The Main Determinants of Health" framework is used to position pediatric T1D management and care within the model's four interconnected layers: the structural environment, social and material conditions, support systems and individual health behaviors. A health policy in Ontario, Canada, the Assistive Devices Program for insulin pump therapy is also discussed relative to the model's outermost layer: the structural environment. Four dimensions of control, which characterize the "street-level bureaucrat" role including "distributing benefits and sanctions; structuring the context; teaching the client role; and, psychological benefits and sanctions" then position the policy context of the diabetes nurse educator role relative to the Assistive Devices Program policy.

Research Linkages: These conceptual underpinnings could extend beyond the pediatric T1D landscape to position global research in other nursing practice areas, as well as with other patient populations and professional disciplines such as social work and medicine.
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July 2018

Impact of marital status and comorbid disorders on health-related quality of life after cardiac surgery.

Qual Life Res 2017 09 8;26(9):2421-2434. Epub 2017 May 8.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: To explore associations between HRQL, marital status, and comorbid disorders in men and women following cardiac surgery.

Method: A secondary analysis was completed using data from a randomized controlled trial in which 416 individuals (23% women) scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery were recruited between March 2012 and September 2013. HRQL was assessed using the Health State Descriptive System (15D) preoperatively, then at 2 weeks, and at 3, 6, and 12 months following cardiac surgery. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to explore associations between HRQL, social support, and comorbid disorders.

Results: The overall 15D scores for the total sample improved significantly from 2 weeks to 3 months post surgery, with only a gradual change observed from 3 to 12 months. Thirty percent (n = 92) of the total sample reported a lower 15D total score at 12 months compared to preoperative status, of whom 78% (n = 71) had a negative minimum important differences (MID), indicating a worse HRQL status. When adjusted for age and marital status, women had statistically significant lower 15D total scores compared to men at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Compared to pre-surgery, improvement was demonstrated in 4 out of 15 dimensions of HRQL for women, and in 6 out of 15 dimensions for men at 12 months post surgery. Both men and women associated back/neck problems, depression, and persistent pain intensity with lower HRQL; for women, not living with a partner/spouse was associated with lower HRQL up to 12 months.

Conclusion: Women experienced decreased HRQL and a slower first-year recovery following cardiac surgery compared to men. This study demonstrates a need for follow-up and support to help women manage their symptoms and improve their function within the first year after cardiac surgery. This was particularly pronounced for those women living alone.
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September 2017

The association between diabetes status and survival following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective cohort study.

Resuscitation 2017 04 23;113:21-26. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Robert and Dorothy Pitts Chair in Acute Care and Emergency Medicine, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), confirmed absence of cardiac mechanical activity, is the leading cause of heart-related death in the US. Almost 85% of SCA occur out-of-hospital (OHCA), with very poor rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital discharge. We sought to determine if diabetes status was associated with survival or ROSC following an OHCA.

Methods: We completed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Toronto Regional RescuNet Epistry dataset, based upon data definitions defined by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Epistry-Cardiac Arrest and the Strategies for Post Arrest Resuscitation Care (SPARC) network datasets. Adults ≥18years of age who experienced an OHCA, had data on diabetes status, and were treated by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) between 2012-2014 were included in the analysis (n=10,097). We used bivariate analyses to examine relationships between diabetes status, Utstein elements and outcomes, and logistic regression to determine predictors of survival.

Results: Diabetes prevalence was 27.8% (95% CI: 27.0-28.7). A larger proportion of those with diabetes had a non-shockable initial rhythm (28.8% vs. 25.1%; p<0.01) and did not survive to hospital discharge (92.1% vs. 89.2%, p<0.001). Diabetes status is associated with a decrease in survival, independent from a number of Utstein elements (adjusted OR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.64-0.91, p=0.003).

Conclusions: This is the first Canadian study to examine the association between diabetes status and OHCA outcomes. Our findings suggest that diabetes status prior to arrest is associated with decreased survival. The growing prevalence of diabetes globally suggests a future burden related to OHCAs.
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April 2017

Technology-Enabled Remote Monitoring and Self-Management - Vision for Patient Empowerment Following Cardiac and Vascular Surgery: User Testing and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

JMIR Res Protoc 2016 Aug 1;5(3):e149. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

McMaster University, Hamiltion, ON, Canada.

Background: Tens of thousands of cardiac and vascular surgeries (CaVS) are performed on seniors in Canada and the United Kingdom each year to improve survival, relieve disease symptoms, and improve health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), undetected or delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise, complications, and related poor functional status are major problems for substantial numbers of patients during the recovery process. To tackle this problem, we aim to refine and test the effectiveness of an eHealth-enabled service delivery intervention, TecHnology-Enabled remote monitoring and Self-MAnagemenT-VIsion for patient EmpoWerment following Cardiac and VasculaR surgery (THE SMArTVIEW, CoVeRed), which combines remote monitoring, education, and self-management training to optimize recovery outcomes and experience of seniors undergoing CaVS in Canada and the United Kingdom.

Objective: Our objectives are to (1) refine SMArTVIEW via high-fidelity user testing and (2) examine the effectiveness of SMArTVIEW via a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

Methods: CaVS patients and clinicians will engage in two cycles of focus groups and usability testing at each site; feedback will be elicited about expectations and experience of SMArTVIEW, in context. The data will be used to refine the SMArTVIEW eHealth delivery program. Upon transfer to the surgical ward (ie, post-intensive care unit [ICU]), 256 CaVS patients will be reassessed postoperatively and randomly allocated via an interactive Web randomization system to the intervention group or usual care. The SMArTVIEW intervention will run from surgical ward day 2 until 8 weeks following surgery. Outcome assessments will occur on postoperative day 30; at week 8; and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The primary outcome is worst postop pain intensity upon movement in the previous 24 hours (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form), averaged across the previous 14 days. Secondary outcomes include a composite of postoperative complications related to hemodynamic compromise-death, myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke- all-cause mortality and surgical site infections, functional status (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12), depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), health service utilization-related costs (health service utilization data from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences data repository), and patient-level cost of recovery (Ambulatory Home Care Record). A linear mixed model will be used to assess the effects of the intervention on the primary outcome, with an a priori contrast of weekly average worst pain intensity upon movement to evaluate the primary endpoint of pain at 8 weeks postoperation. We will also examine the incremental cost of the intervention compared to usual care using a regression model to estimate the difference in expected health care costs between groups.

Results: Study start-up is underway and usability testing is scheduled to begin in the fall of 2016.

Conclusions: Given our experience, dedicated industry partners, and related RCT infrastructure, we are confident we can make a lasting contribution to improving the care of seniors who undergo CaVS.
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August 2016

Pain experiences of men and women after cardiac surgery.

J Clin Nurs 2016 Oct 15;25(19-20):3058-68. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Oslo, Norway.

Aims And Objectives: To compare the prevalence and severity of pain in men and women during the first year following cardiac surgery and to examine the predictors of persistent postoperative pain 12 months post surgery.

Background: Persistent pain has been documented after cardiac surgery, with limited evidence for differences between men and women.

Design: Prospective cohort study of patients in a randomised controlled trial (N = 416, 23% women) following cardiac surgery.

Methods: Secondary data analysis of data collected prior to surgery, across postoperative days 1-4, at two weeks, and at one, three, six and 12 months post surgery. The main outcome was worst pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form).

Results: Twenty-nine percent (97/339) of patients reported persistent postoperative pain at rest at 12 months that was worse in intensity and interference for women than for men. For both sexes, a more severe co-morbidity profile, lower education and postoperative pain at rest at one month post surgery were associated with an increased probability for persistent postoperative pain at 12 months. Women with more concerns about communicating pain and a lower intake of analgesics in the hospital had an increased probability of pain at 12 months.

Conclusion: Sex differences in pain are present up to one year following cardiac surgery. Strategies for sex-targeted pain education and management pre- and post-surgery may lead to better pain outcomes.

Relevance To Clinical Practice: These results suggest that informing patients (particularly women) about the benefits of analgesic use following cardiac surgery may result in less pain over the first year post discharge.
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October 2016

Nursing students' knowledge and attitudes toward urinary incontinence: A cross-sectional survey.

Nurse Educ Today 2016 May 2;40:134-9. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Xiang Ya Nursing School, Central South University, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Nurses must have adequate knowledge to manage the complexities of urinary incontinence. Nursing students are the nurses of the future, yet little is known about urinary incontinence education in undergraduate nursing programs.

Objectives: The aim of this study was (a) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of urinary incontinence held by undergraduate nursing students in China and (b) to explore the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics.

Design: A cross-sectional survey using cluster random sampling.

Settings: Undergraduate departments of Nursing within the Faculty of Health Sciences at six Universities, located in different areas of China.

Participants: A random selection of 6 faculties with a total of 1313 full time undergraduate nursing students completed the survey.

Methods: Self-reported data were collected using two validated questionnaires, the Urinary Incontinence Knowledge Scale and the Urinary Incontinence Attitude Scale, to access students' knowledge and attitudes toward urinary incontinence.

Results: Overall urinary incontinence knowledge was poor (49.9%, 15.0/30) and attitudes about urinary incontinence were generally positive (71.7%, 43.0/60). A high level of interest in learning more about urinary incontinence was found. There was a weak correlation between urinary incontinence knowledge and attitudes (r=0.135, p<0.01). There was also a significant positive correlation between urinary incontinence knowledge and attitudes and nursing students' year of study, urinary incontinence education and training, and formal clinical practicum experience in urology (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Chinese nursing students showed poor urinary incontinence knowledge but generally positive attitudes toward urinary incontinence. This study suggests there is a need to examine urinary incontinence content throughout undergraduate nursing curricula in China.
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May 2016

The impact of an educational pain management booklet intervention on postoperative pain control after cardiac surgery.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2017 01 7;16(1):18-27. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

7 Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Norway.

Background: Relevant discharge information about the use of analgesic medication and other strategies may help patients to manage their pain more effectively and prevent postoperative persistent pain.

Aims: To examine patients' pain characteristics, analgesic intake and the impact of an educational pain management booklet intervention on postoperative pain control after cardiac surgery. Concerns about pain and pain medication prior to surgery will also be described.

Methods: From March 2012 to September 2013, 416 participants (23% women) were consecutively enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. The intervention group received usual care plus an educational booklet at discharge with supportive telephone follow-up on postoperative day 10, and the control group received only usual care. The primary outcome was worst pain intensity (The Brief Pain Inventory - Short Form). Data about pain characteristics and analgesic use were collected at 2 weeks and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery. General linear mixed models were used to determine between-group differences over time.

Results: Twenty-nine percent of participants reported surgically related pain at rest and 9% reported moderate to severe pain at 12 months post-surgery. Many participants had concerns about pain and pain medication, and analgesic intake was insufficient post-discharge. No statistically significant differences between the groups were observed in terms of the outcome measures following surgery.

Conclusion: Postoperative pain and inadequate analgesic use were problems for many participants regardless of group allocation, and the current intervention did not reduce worst pain intensity compared with control. Further examination of supportive follow-up monitoring and/or self-management strategies post-discharge is required.
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January 2017

A Novel Noninvasive Device to Assess Sympathetic Nervous System Function in Patients With Heart Failure.

Nurs Res 2015 Sep-Oct;64(5):351-60

Monica Parry, NP-Adult, PhD, CCN(C), is Assistant Professor and Director, Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, and is Nurse Practitioner, Cardiac Program, Kingston General Hospital, Ontario, Canada. Chantelle A. Nielson, MSc, is Undergraduate Nursing Student; and Fiona Muckle, MSc, is Registered Nurse, Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Sheila O'Keefe-McCarthy, PhD, is Adjunct Scientist, Ross Memorial Hospital, Lindsay, Ontario, Canada. Rene van Lien, PhD, is Product Specialist, Heinen and Lowenstein, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Jan H. Meijer, PhD, is Biomedical Physicist, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Heart failure is a complex syndrome associated with sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system hyperactivity. Sympathoinhibition and downregulation of sympathetic activity using medications and exercise training improve outcomes in patients with heart failure. Impedance cardiography provides data on hemodynamic and autonomic function that may assist with safe medication, exercise monitoring, and titration.

Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the Vrije Universiteit Ambulatory Monitoring System (VU-AMS) version 5fs to detect hemodynamic and sympathetic nervous system changes associated with postural shift in persons with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

Methods: In this descriptive study, participants (N = 28) were recruited from an outpatient device clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Ontario, Canada. They completed a sit-to-stand posture protocol wearing an ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and a noninvasive VU-AMS version 5fs impedance cardiography system.

Results: Most (n = 18, 64%) participants were eliminated from the final analyses in this sample because of difficulty in Q-onset and B-point identification in peculiar electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram waveforms. The remaining participants (n = 10) had a mean age of 69 years (SD = 10 years) and responses to a sit-to-stand posture protocol that included a 5% increase in heart rate (p = .001), an 18% decrease in stroke volume (p = .01), and an 8% decrease in left ventricular ejection time (p = .01). Participants had an increased preejection period (11%, p = .01), a drop in cardiac output of 13% (p = .02), and a reduced mean arterial pressure of approximately 4% (p = .09) with standing.

Discussion: Although the VU-AMS version 5fs system detected anticipated hemodynamic and sympathetic nervous system changes to postural shift in participants (n = 10), the elimination of 64% (n = 18) of the sample because of scoring difficulties limits the use of this impedance cardiography device using standard scoring algorithms in persons with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.
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November 2015

Writing competitive scientific and clinical abstracts: tips for success.

Can J Cardiovasc Nurs 2013 ;23(1):19-20

Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, 155 College St. Suite 130, Toronto, ON M5T 1P8.

Successful writing of a research or clinical abstract requires meticulous adherence to the professional society's call for abstracts and its particular specifications. The abstract must clearly answer why this research was carried out, how did you do it, what did you find, and what are the important nursing implications for clinical practice, education and research.
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April 2013

Exercise interventions for patients with peripheral arterial disease: a review of the literature.

Phys Sportsmed 2012 May;40(2):41-55

Trent University, Trent/Fleming School of Nursing, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common chronic cardiovascular condition that affects the lower extremities and can substantially limit daily activities and quality of life. Lifestyle interventions, including smoking cessation, diet modification, regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, are often prescribed to treat patients with PAD. Exercise interventions can be effective in increasing claudication onset time and maximal walking distance. Of the various types of exercise interventions available for patients with PAD, little is known about the differences that may exist between men and women in patient response to such interventions. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the current knowledge of exercise interventions for individuals with mild (Fontaine stages I-II) PAD and to consider any differences that may exist between men and women. Women with PAD present with a different clinical profile compared with men, but respond similarly to an acute bout of exercise and a training program. Patients with PAD should be encouraged to walk regularly; however, more research is needed to determine differences between men and women in their response to various exercise interventions.
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May 2012