Publications by authors named "Monica M Schmitt"

6 Publications

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Therapy with PTH 1-34 or calcitriol and calcium in diverse etiologies of hypoparathyroidism over 27 years at a single tertiary care center.

Bone 2021 Apr 28;149:115977. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Fungal Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology (LCIM), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Objective: Hypoparathyroidism has heterogeneous genetic and acquired etiologies with a broad spectrum of severity. Herein we describe the clinical outcomes of the largest cohort of hypoparathyroid patients reported to date, who were followed over 27-years.

Design: Pooled analysis of current and past studies describing the differential responses to PTH 1-34 injections vs conventional therapy among the varied hypoPT etiologies.

Methods: 192 participants (ages 2-74 years) with hypoparathyroidism who received either calcitriol and calcium or PTH 1-34 by subcutaneous injection.

Results: Among the 4 main etiologic categories of hypoparathyroidism (autoimmune polyglandular failure type 1, activating mutation of the calcium receptor, surgical, and idiopathic hypoparathyroidism), we reveal significant differences in PTH 1-34 dose requirements, prevalence of nephrocalcinosis, biomarkers of mineral homeostasis, and pharmacodynamic profiles. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D increased significantly (P < 0.001) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased during PTH 1-34 injections compared to calcitriol therapy (P < 0.01). Post-surgical patients achieved consistently lower urine calcium excretion over long-term PTH 1-34 therapy compared to conventional therapy (p < 0.001), but this was not achieved in the other etiologies. At study entry, patients had a high prevalence of renal insufficiency and nephrocalcinosis which were directly related to the duration of hypoparathyroidism (P < 0.03). Renal function remained stable during participation in our studies for both PTH 1-34 and conventional therapies.

Conclusions: We conclude that the effects and dose-response of PTH 1-34 treatment differ according to the etiology of hypoparathyroidism. Postsurgical hypoPT maintained mean serum calcium levels in the mid- to low-normal range while concurrently maintaining normal mean urine calcium during long-term twice-daily PTH 1-34 therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.115977DOI Listing
April 2021

Preexisting autoantibodies to type I IFNs underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with APS-1.

J Exp Med 2021 07;218(7)

Pediatric Medicine Unit, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France.

Patients with biallelic loss-of-function variants of AIRE suffer from autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS-1) and produce a broad range of autoantibodies (auto-Abs), including circulating auto-Abs neutralizing most type I interferons (IFNs). These auto-Abs were recently reported to account for at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in the general population. We report 22 APS-1 patients from 21 kindreds in seven countries, aged between 8 and 48 yr and infected with SARS-CoV-2 since February 2020. The 21 patients tested had auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-α subtypes and/or IFN-ω; one had anti-IFN-β and another anti-IFN-ε, but none had anti-IFN-κ. Strikingly, 19 patients (86%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, including 15 (68%) admitted to an intensive care unit, 11 (50%) who required mechanical ventilation, and four (18%) who died. Ambulatory disease in three patients (14%) was possibly accounted for by prior or early specific interventions. Preexisting auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs in APS-1 patients confer a very high risk of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia at any age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077172PMC
July 2021

Impact of periprocedural subcutaneous parathyroid hormone on control of hypocalcaemia in APS-1/APECED patients undergoing invasive procedures.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Mar 26;94(3):377-383. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Fungal Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology (LCIM), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Context: The monogenic disorder autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) or autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) manifests frequently with hypoparathyroidism, which requires treatment with oral supplementation with calcium and active vitamin D analogs. The majority of APS-1/APECED patients also suffer from intestinal malabsorption, which complicates the management of hypoparathyroidism and may lead to refractory severe hypocalcaemia. In such situations, reliance on intravenous calcium carries a high risk of nephrocalcinosis and renal damage.

Methods: Here, we report our experience of periprocedural subcutaneous administration of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH 1-34) in APS-1/APECED patients. Serum calcium was measured up to five times within the 36-hour period starting the evening before the scheduled procedure and ending the morning following the procedure.

Results: Twenty-seven APS-1/APECED patients with hypoparathyroidism (aged 4-67 years) underwent 31 invasive gastrointestinal and/or pulmonary procedures. The patients received an average rhPTH1-34 dose of 9.6 ± 1.4 µg by subcutaneous injection. 92% of the adults and 54% of children in our cohort had evidence of nephrocalcinosis. Mean calcium levels remained stable and ranged from 2.06 to 2.17 mmol/L with minimal fluctuation. None of our patients experienced periprocedural adverse events connected with hypocalcaemia.

Conclusion: rhPTH 1-34 is an alternative to conventional therapy in patients with APS-1/APECED and hypoparathyroidism undergoing invasive procedures. Subcutaneous PTH1-34 given directly before and after procedures resulted in well-controlled serum calcium levels maintained in the low-normal range and avoided the need for intravenous calcium which may contribute to renal calcifications and tubular damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14335DOI Listing
March 2021

Peritonitis on Fasting-Refeeding in APECED Patients: A Case Series.

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 05;115(5):790-795

Fungal Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286105PMC
May 2020

Posaconazole-induced Pseudohyperaldosteronism Manifesting with Nephrotic-range Proteinuria.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 12;71(10):2768-2770

Fungal Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744976PMC
December 2020