Publications by authors named "Monica Galli"

48 Publications

Dose/Schedule-Adjusted Rd-R vs Continuous Rd for elderly, intermediate-fit, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients.

Blood 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) is a standard treatment for elderly multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this randomized, phase III study, we investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a dose/schedule-adjusted Rd followed by maintenance 10 mg/day without dexamethasone (Rd-R) vs continuous Rd in elderly, intermediate-fit newly diagnosed MM patients. The primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS), defined as progression/death for any cause, lenalidomide discontinuation, any hematologic grade 4 or non-hematologic grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs). Of the 199 evaluable patients, 101 received Rd-R and 98 continuous Rd. Median follow-up was 37 months. Best response rates were comparable: ≥ partial response rates were 78% vs 68% (p=0.15) in Rd-R vs continuous Rd groups. EFS was 10.4 with Rd-R vs 6.9 months with continuous Rd (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.95, p=0.02). Median progression-free survival was 20.2 vs 18.3 months (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.55-1.10, p=0.16), 3-year overall survival was 74% vs 63% (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.37-1.03, p=0.06). At least 1 non-hematologic grade ≥3 AE rate was 33% vs 43% (p=0.14); the most frequent grade ≥3 AEs were neutropenia (21% vs 18%), infections (10% vs 12%) skin disorders (7% vs 3%) in Rd-R vs Rd; constitutional and central nervous system AEs mainly related to dexamethasone were more frequent with continuous Rd. Lenalidomide was discontinued for AEs in 24% vs 30% and was reduced in 45% vs 62% of patients, in Rd-R vs Rd, respectively. In intermediate-fit patients, switching to reduced-dose lenalidomide maintenance without dexamethasone after 9 cycles of Rd was feasible, with similar outcome to standard continuous Rd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009507DOI Listing
March 2021

Bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone followed by double autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (GIMEMA-MMY-3006): long-term follow-up analysis of a randomised phase 3, open-label study.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Dec;7(12):e861-e873

Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli", Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The phase 3 GIMEMA-MMY-3006 trial, which compared bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) combination therapy with thalidomide and dexamethasone (TD) as induction therapy before and consolidation therapy after double autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, showed the superiority of the triplet regimen over the doublet in terms of increased complete response rate and improved progression-free survival. We report the results from the final analysis of the study.

Methods: In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 study, patients aged 18-65 years with previously untreated symptomatic multiple myeloma and a Karnofsky Performance Status of 60% or higher were enrolled at 73 centres in Italy. Patients were randomised (1:1) by a web-based system to receive three 21-day cycles of thalidomide (100 mg daily orally for the first 14 days and 200 mg daily thereafter) plus dexamethasone (total 320 mg per cycle; 40 mg on days 1-2, 4-5, 8-9, and 11-12 in the VTD regimen, and 40 mg on days 1-4 and 9-12 in the TD regimen), either alone (TD group) or with bortezomib (1·3 mg/m intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11; VTD group). After double autologous HSCT, patients received two 35-day cycles of either the VTD or TD regimen, according to random assignment, as consolidation therapy. The primary outcome was the rate of complete response and near complete response after induction (already reported). In this updated analysis we assessed long-term progression-free survival and overall survival (secondary endpoints of the study) with an extended 10-year median follow-up, and analysed the variables influencing survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01134484.

Findings: Between May 10, 2006, and April 30, 2008, 480 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive VTD (241 patients) or TD (239 patients). Six patients withdrew consent before start of treatment. 236 (99 [42%] women) in the VTD group and 238 (102 [43%] women) in the TD group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The data cutoff date for this analysis was May 31, 2018. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 124·1 months (IQR 117·2-131·7). The 10-year progression-free survival estimate for patients in the VTD group was 34% (95% CI 28-41) compared with 17% (13-23) for the TD group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·62 [95% CI 0·50-0·77]; p<0·0001). 60% (95% CI 54-67) of patients in the VTD group were alive at 10 years versus 46% (40-54) of patients in the TD group (HR 0·68 [95% CI 0·51-0·90]; p=0·0068). VTD was an independent predictor of improved progression-free survival (HR 0·60 [95% CI 0·48-0·76]; p<0·0001) and overall survival (HR 0·68 [0·50-0·91]; p=0·010). The incidence of second primary malignancies per 100 person-years was 0·87 (95% CI 0·49-1·44) in the VTD group compared with 1·41 (0·88-2·13) in the TD group.

Interpretation: Incorporation of VTD into double autologous HSCT resulted in clinically meaningful improvements in long-term progression-free survival and overall survival, confirming that a regimen including bortezomib and an immunomodulatory drug is the gold standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed myeloma who are fit for high-dose chemotherapy.

Funding: Seràgnoli Institute of Haematology, University of Bologna, and BolognAIL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30323-9DOI Listing
December 2020

Once-per-week selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus twice-per-week bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma (BOSTON): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2020 11;396(10262):1563-1573

General Hospital Evangelismos, Athens, Greece.

Background: Selinexor combined with dexamethasone has shown activity in patients with heavily pre-treated multiple myeloma. In a phase 1b/2 study, the combination of oral selinexor with bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor) and dexamethasone induced high response rates with low rates of peripheral neuropathy, the main dose-limiting toxicity of bortezomib. We aimed to evaluate the clinical benefit of weekly selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus standard bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

Methods: This phase 3, randomised, open-label trial was done at 123 sites in 21 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older, who had multiple myeloma, and who had previously been treated with one to three lines of therapy, including proteasome inhibitors, were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive selinexor (100 mg once per week), bortezomib (1·3 mg/m once per week), and dexamethasone (20 mg twice per week), or bortezomib (1·3 mg/m twice per week for the first 24 weeks and once per week thereafter) and dexamethasone (20 mg four times per week for the first 24 weeks and twice per week thereafter). Randomisation was done using interactive response technology and stratified by previous proteasome inhibitor therapy, lines of treatment, and multiple myeloma stage. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Patients who received at least one dose of study treatment were included in the safety population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03110562. The trial is ongoing, with 55 patients remaining on randomised therapy as of Feb 20, 2020.

Findings: Of 457 patients screened for eligibility, 402 were randomly allocated-195 (49%) to the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group and 207 (51%) to the bortezomib and dexamethasone group-and the first dose of study medication was given between June 6, 2017, and Feb 5, 2019. Median follow-up durations were 13·2 months [IQR 6·2-19·8] for the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group and 16·5 months [9·4-19·8] for the bortezomib and dexamethasone group. Median progression-free survival was 13·93 months (95% CI 11·73-not evaluable) with selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone and 9·46 months (8·11-10·78) with bortezomib and dexamethasone (hazard ratio 0·70 [95% CI 0·53-0·93], p=0·0075). The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (77 [39%] of 195 patients in the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group vs 35 [17%] of 204 in the bortezomib and dexamethasone group), fatigue (26 [13%] vs two [1%]), anaemia (31 [16%] vs 20 [10%]), and pneumonia (22 [11%] vs 22 [11%]). Peripheral neuropathy of grade 2 or above was less frequent with selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (41 [21%] patients) than with bortezomib and dexamethasone (70 [34%] patients; odds ratio 0·50 [95% CI 0·32-0·79], p=0·0013). 47 (24%) patients in the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group and 62 (30%) in the bortezomib and dexamethasone group died.

Interpretation: A once-per-week regimen of selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone is a novel, effective, and convenient treatment option for patients with multiple myeloma who have received one to three previous lines of therapy.

Funding: Karyopharm Therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32292-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation versus bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone, with or without bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone consolidation therapy, and lenalidomide maintenance for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (EMN02/HO95): a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Jun 30;7(6):e456-e468. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Hematology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: The emergence of highly active novel agents has led some to question the role of autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) and subsequent consolidation therapy in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. We therefore compared autologous HSCT with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) as intensification therapy, and bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (VRD) consolidation therapy with no consolidation.

Methods: In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 study we recruited previously untreated patients with multiple myeloma at 172 academic and community practice centres of the European Myeloma Network. Eligible patients were aged 18-65 years, had symptomatic multiple myeloma stage 1-3 according to the International Staging System (ISS), measurable disease (serum M protein >10 g/L or urine M protein >200 mg in 24 h or abnormal free light chain [FLC] ratio with involved FLC >100 mg/L, or proven plasmacytoma by biopsy), and WHO performance status grade 0-2 (grade 3 was allowed if secondary to myeloma). Patients were first randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either four 42-day cycles of bortezomib (1·3 mg/m administered intravenously or subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 22, 25, 29, and 32) combined with melphalan (9 mg/m administered orally on days 1-4) and prednisone (60 mg/m administered orally on days 1-4) or autologous HSCT after high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m), stratified by site and ISS disease stage. In centres with a double HSCT policy, the first randomisation (1:1:1) was to VMP or single or double HSCT. Afterwards, a second randomisation assigned patients to receive two 28-day cycles of consolidation therapy with bortezomib (1·3 mg/m either intravenously or subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11), lenalidomide (25 mg orally on days 1-21), and dexamethasone (20 mg orally on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12) or no consolidation; both groups received lenalidomide maintenance therapy (10 mg orally on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle). The primary outcomes were progression-free survival from the first and second randomisations, analysed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all patients who underwent each randomisation. All patients who received at least one dose of study drugs were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2009-017903-28) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01208766), and has completed recruitment.

Findings: Between Feb 25, 2011, and April 3, 2014, 1503 patients were enrolled. 1197 patients were eligible for the first randomisation, of whom 702 were assigned to autologous HSCT and 495 to VMP; 877 patients who were eligible for the first randomisation underwent the second randomisation to VRD consolidation (n=449) or no consolidation (n=428). The data cutoff date for the current analysis was Nov 26, 2018. At a median follow-up of 60·3 months (IQR 52·2-67·6), median progression-free survival was significantly improved with autologous HSCT compared with VMP (56·7 months [95% CI 49·3-64·5] vs 41·9 months [37·5-46·9]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·73, 0·62-0·85; p=0·0001). For the second randomisation, the number of events of progression or death at data cutoff was lower than that preplanned for the final analysis; therefore, the results from the second protocol-specified interim analysis, when 66% of events were reached, are reported (data cutoff Jan 18, 2018). At a median follow-up of 42·1 months (IQR 32·3-49·2), consolidation therapy with VRD significantly improved median progression-free survival compared with no consolidation (58·9 months [54·0-not estimable] vs 45·5 months [39·5-58·4]; HR 0·77, 0·63-0·95; p=0·014). The most common grade ≥3 adverse events in the autologous HSCT group compared to the VMP group included neutropenia (513 [79%] of 652 patients vs 137 [29%] of 472 patients), thrombocytopenia (541 [83%] vs 74 [16%]), gastrointestinal disorders (80 [12%] vs 25 [5%]), and infections (192 [30%] vs 18 [4%]). 239 (34%) of 702 patients in the autologous HSCT group and 135 (27%) of 495 in the VMP group had at least one serious adverse event. Infection was the most common serious adverse event in each of the treatment groups (206 [56%] of 368 and 70 [37%] of 189). 38 (12%) of 311 deaths from first randomisation were likely to be treatment related: 26 (68%) in the autologous HSCT group and 12 (32%) in the VMP group, most frequently due to infections (eight [21%]), cardiac events (six [16%]), and second primary malignancies (20 [53%]).

Interpretation: This study supports the use of autologous HSCT as intensification therapy and the use of consolidation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, even in the era of novel agents. The role of high-dose chemotherapy needs to be reassessed in future studies, in particular in patients with undetectable minimal residual disease after four-drug induction regimens including a monoclonal antiboby combined with an immunomodulatory agent and a proteasome inhibitor plus dexamethasone.

Funding: Janssen and Celgene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30099-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone versus lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone in multiple myeloma patients at first relapse.

Br J Haematol 2020 03 2;188(6):907-917. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Bortezomib- and lenalidomide-containing regimens are well-established therapies in multiple myeloma (MM). However, despite their extensive use, head-to-head comparisons have never been performed. Therefore, we compared bortezomib and lenalidomide in fixed-duration therapies. In this open-label, phase III study, we randomized MM patients at first relapse to receive either nine cycles of bortezomib plus cyclophosphamide plus dexamethasone (VCD) or lenalidomide plus cyclophosphamide plus dexamethasone (RCD). The primary endpoint was achievement of a very good partial response (VGPR) or better at six weeks after nine treatment cycles. From March 2011 to February 2015, 155 patients were randomized. VGPR or better was achieved by 12 patients (15%) in the VCD arm and 14 patients (18%) in the RCD arm (P = 0·70). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16·3 (95% CI: 12·1-22·4) with VCD and 18·6 months (95% CI: 14·7-25·5) with RCD, and the two-year overall survival (OS) was 75% (95% CI: 66-86%) and 74% (95% CI: 64-85%) respectively. In subgroup analyses, no differences in PFS were observed in bortezomib- and lenalidomide-naïve patients, nor in patients who received a bortezomib-based regimen in first line. Adverse events were consistent with the well-established safety profiles of both drugs. Bortezomib and lenalidomide treatments were equally effective in terms of depth of response, PFS, and OS in MM patients at first relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16287DOI Listing
March 2020

The timing of plerixafor addition to G-Csf and chemotherapy affects immunological recovery after autologous stem cell transplant in multiple myeloma.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 05 25;55(5):946-954. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Clinic of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine (DiMI), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Plerixafor inhibits CXCR4, thus inducing the mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) patients eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). However, the kinetics of plerixafor-induced mobilization of lymphocyte subsets is poorly known. Here, we evaluated the graft content, the engraftment, and the immunological reconstitution of MM patients receiving plerixafor. Thirty-seven patients undergoing one or tandem ASCT were enrolled. After mobilization with cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF, plerixafor was added at hematological recovery regardless of CD34 cell count. We evaluated the number of CD34, CD34/CD38, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56/CD3, CD4/CD25/FOXP3, and CD138/CD38 cells on each apheresis. Hematological and immunological recovery were determined at 30 days, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ASCT. Overall, 34/37 patients mobilized a median of 10.1 × 10 CD34 cells/Kg (IQ 7.7-13.4). Patients with <20/µL CD34 cells at plerixafor administration (18/33) had a significantly higher CD34 cell fold increase, but not a higher absolute number, than 16/33 patients with ≥20/µL CD34 cells. A similar CD34 and immune graft composition was reported. A higher number of CD3 and CD8 cells/µL was observed at 3 months after first ASCT (p < 0.05) in the group with ≥20 CD34 cells/µL. Thus, in MM patients, the timing of plerixafor administration influences immunological recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0756-1DOI Listing
May 2020

Pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma previously treated with lenalidomide (OPTIMISMM): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 06 13;20(6):781-794. Epub 2019 May 13.

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: As lenalidomide becomes increasingly established for upfront treatment of multiple myeloma, patients refractory to this drug represent a population with an unmet need. The combination of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone has shown promising results in phase 1/2 trials of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of this triplet regimen in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who previously received lenalidomide.

Methods: We did a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial at 133 hospitals and research centres in 21 countries. We enrolled patients (aged ≥18 years) with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma and measurable disease, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, who received one to three previous regimens, including a lenalidomide-containing regimen for at least two consecutive cycles. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to bortezomib and dexamethasone with or without pomalidomide using a permutated blocked design in blocks of four, stratified according to age, number of previous regimens, and concentration of β microglobulin at screening. Bortezomib (1·3 mg/m) was administered intravenously until protocol amendment 1 then either intravenously or subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 for the first eight cycles and subsequently on days 1 and 8. Dexamethasone (20 mg [10 mg if age >75 years]) was administered orally on the same days as bortezomib and the day after. Patients allocated pomalidomide received 4 mg orally on days 1-14. Treatment cycles were every 21 days. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population, as assessed by an independent review committee. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study medication. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01734928; patients are no longer being enrolled.

Findings: Between Jan 7, 2013, and May 15, 2017, 559 patients were enrolled. 281 patients were assigned pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone and 278 were allocated bortezomib and dexamethasone. Median follow-up was 15·9 months (IQR 9·9-21·7). Pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone significantly improved progression-free survival compared with bortezomib and dexamethasone (median 11·20 months [95% CI 9·66-13·73] vs 7·10 months [5·88-8·48]; hazard ratio 0·61, 95% CI 0·49-0·77; p<0·0001). 278 patients received at least one dose of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone and 270 patients received at least one dose of bortezomib and dexamethasone, and these patients were included in safety assessments. The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (116 [42%] of 278 patients vs 23 [9%] of 270 patients; nine [3%] vs no patients had febrile neutropenia), infections (86 [31%] vs 48 [18%]), and thrombocytopenia (76 [27%] vs 79 [29%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 159 (57%) of 278 patients versus 114 (42%) of 270 patients. Eight deaths were related to treatment; six (2%) were recorded in patients who received pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (pneumonia [n=2], unknown cause [n=2], cardiac arrest [n=1], cardiorespiratory arrest [n=1]) and two (1%) were reported in patients who received bortezomib and dexamethasone (pneumonia [n=1], hepatic encephalopathy [n=1]).

Interpretation: Patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who previously received lenalidomide had significantly improved progression-free survival when treated with pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone compared with bortezomib and dexamethasone. Adverse events accorded with the individual profiles of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone. This study supports use of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone as a treatment option in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who previously received lenalidomide.

Funding: Celgene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30152-4DOI Listing
June 2019

Effect of novel agents on the risk of early death of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma patients: A single Centre retrospective analysis.

Am J Hematol 2019 01 25;94(1):E11-E13. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, ASST-Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25320DOI Listing
January 2019

Mobilization of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and plerixafor in patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis.

Amyloid 2015 20;22(4):259-60. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

b Department of Medicine , Hematology & Clinical Immunology Unit, University of Padua , Padua , Italy .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13506129.2015.1104295DOI Listing
October 2016

Treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

Authors:
Monica Galli

Auto Immun Highlights 2014 Jun 22;5(1):1-7. Epub 2013 Dec 22.

UO Ematologia, Ospedale Papa Giovanni XXIII, Largo OMS, 1, 24127 Bergamo, Italy.

The antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by a combination of laboratory findings (i.e., the presence of at least one antiphospholipid antibody) and clinical manifestations (arterial and/or venous thrombosis, obstetrical complications). Long-term oral anticoagulant is recommended to prevent recurrence of both arterial and venous thrombosis, whereas (low molecular weight) heparin plus aspirin is the treatment of choice to prevent further obstetrical complications. In the rare case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, heparin plus high-dose corticosteroids plus plasma exchange is associated with the highest recovery rate. Some new, non-antithrombotic-based treatments of antiphospholipid syndrome with rituximab, autologous stem cell transplantation, or hydroxychloroquine are also reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13317-013-0056-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4389011PMC
June 2014

Bortezomib- and thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma: clinical and molecular analyses of a phase 3 study.

Am J Hematol 2014 Dec 17;89(12):1085-91. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

"Seràgnoli" Institute of Hematology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy.

A subanalysis of the GIMEMA-MMY-3006 trial was performed to characterize treatment-emergent peripheral neuropathy (PN) in patients randomized to thalidomide-dexamethasone (TD) or bortezomib-TD (VTD) before and after double autologous transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM). A total of 236 patients randomized to VTD and 238 to TD were stratified according to the emergence of grade ≥2 PN. Gene expression profiles (GEP) of CD138+ plasma cells were analyzed in 120 VTD-treated patients. The incidence of grade ≥2 PN was 35% in the VTD arm and 10% in the TD arm (P < 0.001). PN resolved in 88 and 95% of patients in VTD and TD groups, respectively. Rates of complete/near complete response, progression-free and overall survival were not adversely affected by emergence of grade ≥2 PN. Baseline characteristics were not risk factors for PN, while GEP analysis revealed the deregulated expression of genes implicated in cytoskeleton rearrangement, neurogenesis, and axonal guidance. In conclusion, in comparison with TD, incorporation of VTD into ASCT was associated with a higher incidence of PN which, however, was reversible in most of the patients and did not adversely affect their outcomes nor their ability to subsequently receive ASCT. GEP analysis suggests an interaction between myeloma genetic profiles and development of VTD-induced PN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23835DOI Listing
December 2014

Autoimmune diseases during treatment with immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma: selective occurrence after lenalidomide.

Leuk Lymphoma 2014 Sep 5;55(9):2032-7. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

Hematology-Bone Marrow transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori , Milan , Italy.

Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) may favor autoimmune disease (AD) occurrence. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate AD occurrence among IMiD-treated patients with myeloma. Patients were grouped into three classes depending on the type of IMiD engaged. The first group included patients treated with thalidomide (Thal) (n = 474), the second group with lenalidomide (Len) (n = 140) and patients in the third group were first treated with Thal followed by Len (Thal-Len) (n = 94). Absolute risk of AD was 0.4% for patients treated with Thal, 4.3% for Len and 1.1% for Thal-Len. ADs manifested prevalently as autoimmune cytopenias (55%), although we observed one vasculitis, one optic neuritis, one Graves' disease and one polymyositis. ADs occurred preferentially in the first months of IMiD treatment. A previous autologous transplant was shown to be a significant risk factor. All ADs were managed with IMiD discontinuation and steroids, resolving in a few weeks, except for Graves' disease and polymyositis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2014.914203DOI Listing
September 2014

Pomalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: a multicenter phase 1/2 open-label study.

Blood 2013 Oct 16;122(16):2799-806. Epub 2013 Aug 16.

Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Italy;

We performed a phase 1/2 trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of pomalidomide and to explore its efficacy when combined with cyclophosphamide-prednisone in relapsed/refractory myeloma patients. Pomalidomide was given at 1 to 2.5 mg/d, cyclophosphamide at 50 mg every other day, prednisone at 50 mg every other day, for 6 28-day cycles, followed by pomalidomide-prednisone maintenance therapy. Thromboprophylaxis was recommended. Sixty-nine patients were enrolled, 55 received the MTD (2.5 mg/d) and were evaluated. Best responses included complete response in 3 patients (5%), very good partial response in 10 (18%), partial response in 15 (27%), minimal response in 11 (20%), stable disease in 15 (27%), and progressive disease in 1 (3%), for an overall response rate of 51%. The median time-to-response was 1.83 months. After a median follow-up of 14.8 months, median progression-free survival was 10.4 months and 1-year overall survival was 69%. At the MTD, grade 3 to 4 toxicities included anemia (9%), thrombocytopenia (11%), neutropenia (42%), neurologic events (7%), dermatologic events (7%), and thromboembolism (2%). Grade 3 to 5 infections occurred in 5 patients (9%). Five patients (9%) discontinued treatment for toxicity. New grade 3 to 4 adverse events were low during maintenance. Pomalidomide-cyclophosphamide-prednisone is safe and effective in relapsed/refractory myeloma patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01166113.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-03-488676DOI Listing
October 2013

Safety of thalidomide in newly diagnosed elderly myeloma patients: a meta-analysis of data from individual patients in six randomized trials.

Haematologica 2013 Jan 8;98(1):87-94. Epub 2012 Aug 8.

Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Turin, AOU S. Giovanni Battista, Torino, Italy.

Treatment with melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide improves the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma and is now considered a standard of care for patients not eligible for transplantation. However, this treatment is a major source of morbidity. A meta-analysis of data from individual patients (n=1680) in six randomized trials was performed, comparing the effects of melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide versus melphalan-prednisone. The main objective was to estimate the risk of serious adverse events and their impact on outcome. The primary endpoints were the 2-year cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities. At least 75% of the grade 3-4 toxicities occurred during the first 6 months of treatment in both treatment groups. The cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities was higher in the melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide group than in the melphalan-prednisone group (28% versus 22%; HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05-1.66) as was the cumulative incidence of non-hematologic toxicities (39% versus 17%, HR 2.78, 95% CI 2.21-3.50). Grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicities were significantly increased in patients with poor Performance Status. Occurrence of grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicities had a negative impact on both progression-free survival (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.45) and overall survival, (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.47). Besides toxicities, progression-free and overall survival were also negatively affected by advanced International Staging System stage, high creatinine levels and poor Performance Status. Age had a negative impact on survival as well. Although melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide improved outcome, it increased toxicities, especially non-hematologic ones. Serious non-hematologic toxicities, older age, poor Performance Status, and high creatinine levels negatively affected survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2012.067058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3533664PMC
January 2013

Interpretation and recommended testing for antiphospholipid antibodies.

Authors:
Monica Galli

Semin Thromb Hemost 2012 Jun 7;38(4):348-52. Epub 2012 Mar 7.

Divisione di Ematologia, Ospedali Riuniti, Largo Barozzi 1, Bergamo, Italy.

The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by the association of arterial and/or venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications with the presence of at least one of the main laboratory-detected antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) (i.e., lupus anticoagulants [LA], IgG and/or IgM anticardiolipin antibodies [aCL], and IgG and/or IgM anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies [aβ2GPI]). During the last decade efforts have been made to improve the harmonization and reproducibility of laboratory detection of aPL and guidelines have been published. The prognostic significance of aPL is being clarified through the fine elucidation of their antigenic targets and pathogenic mechanisms. Several clinical studies have consistently reported that LA is a stronger risk factor for both arterial and venous thrombosis compared with aCL and aβ2GPI. In particular, LA activity dependent on the first domain of β2-glycoprotein I and triple aPL positivity are prognosticators of the thrombotic and obstetric risks. Hopefully, this increasing knowledge will help improve diagnostic and treatment strategies for APS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1304716DOI Listing
June 2012

Response-adjusted ISS (RaISS) is a simple and reliable prognostic scoring system for predicting progression-free survival in transplanted patients with multiple myeloma.

Am J Hematol 2012 Feb 21;87(2):150-4. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Division of Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Complete response (CR) is associated with better outcome in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated with autologous transplant even though the progression-free survival (PFS) can be very variable among patients with good response. No simple and reliable prognostic scoring system, able to predict the duration of response, are so far available. Aim of this study was to identify any correlation between baseline clinical findings, response after transplant and the length of PFS, and thus develop a prognostic model. The new prognostic model was developed in a learning cohort of 549 patients with MM transplanted in five Italian hospitals. The prognostic value of this new score was confirmed in a validation cohort of 276 distinct patients with MM transplanted in two different Italian hospital. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox models. The most important independent baseline predictor of transplant outcome, together with response after transplant, was International Staging System (ISS). We thus incorporated response to transplant and baseline ISS in a new scoring system, named response-adjusted international scoring system (RaISS), that was able to classify patients in three risk groups (low, intermediate, high) with different probabilities of progression after transplant (median PFS 35.9-15.4 months). The prognostic value of this new score was confirmed in the validation cohort. In conclusion, RaISS is a new simple and easily available scoring system that, accurately defining the risk of progression, can allow to identify patients who could deserve further treatment after transplant (consolidation, maintenance).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.22220DOI Listing
February 2012

Extramedullary intracranial localization of multiple myeloma and treatment with novel agents: a retrospective survey of 50 patients.

Cancer 2012 Mar 25;118(6):1574-84. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Division of Hematology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico "Santa Maria alle Scotte", Siena, Italy.

Background: Intracranial involvement in multiple myeloma is extremely rare. The effect of new drugs (eg, thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide) with respect to old drugs (eg, alkylators, steroids) has not been reported.

Methods: We collected clinical and biological data of patients presenting with an osteo-dural or primary dural multiple myeloma (OD-DMM) or a central nervous system myelomatosis (CNS-MM) by sending a questionnaire to the centers of the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto (GIMEMA).

Results: A total of 50 patients were registered. New therapies were used in 35 patients, whereas 15 patients received old treatments. Twenty-five out of 50 patients obtained a complete remission or a very good partial remission (CR+VGPR). Overall survival (OS) for CNS-MM was 6 months, for OD-DMM 25 months. OS was 25 months for patients treated with new agents versus 8 months with old agents. Improved OS and progression-free survival were predicted by response (CR+VGPR) and by patients who underwent stem cell transplantation versus chemotherapy. β2-Microglobulin >5 mmol/L was a poor prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed poor survival for patients with β2-microglobulin >5 mmol/L and better survival for patients achieving CR+VGPR.

Conclusions: The overall data highlight the relevance of therapy with new drugs in intracranial myeloma, providing a framework for future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26447DOI Listing
March 2012

Lenalidomide can induce long-term responses in patients with multiple myeloma relapsing after multiple chemotherapy lines, in particular after allogeneic transplant.

Leuk Lymphoma 2011 Jul 3;52(7):1262-70. Epub 2011 May 3.

Divisione di Ematologia-Trapianto di Midollo Osseo, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy.

Evidence of long-term response to lenalidomide in heavily pretreated patients with multiple myeloma is lacking. This study sought to assess whether long-term responders exist, long-term responders' characteristics, and predictive factors of a long-term response. One hundred and four patients with multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone after ≥2 therapy lines (median, 3) were analyzed. Long-term response was defined as at least a partial response (≥PR) lasting ≥12 months. The overall response rate was 73%, and 80.3% of the responses were achieved within 5 months. The median response was 14.3 months. Patients evaluable for long-term response numbered 87, and a total of 47% were long-term responders. Compared to non-long-term responders, long-term responders had better overall survival, less light-chain multiple myeloma, and higher incidence of t(11;14). Previous allogeneic transplant (alloSCT) and the response quality predicted a long-term response. In conclusion, patients treated with lenalidomide can become long-term responders; alloSCT and response quality predict long-term response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2011.564695DOI Listing
July 2011

Aspirin, warfarin, or enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis in patients with multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide: a phase III, open-label, randomized trial.

J Clin Oncol 2011 Mar 31;29(8):986-93. Epub 2011 Jan 31.

University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni Battista, Torino, Italy.

Purpose: In patients with myeloma, thalidomide significantly improves outcomes but increases the risk of thromboembolic events. In this randomized, open-label, multicenter trial, we compared aspirin (ASA) or fixed low-dose warfarin (WAR) versus low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for preventing thromboembolism in patients with myeloma treated with thalidomide-based regimens.

Patients And Methods: A total of 667 patients with previously untreated myeloma who received thalidomide-containing regimens and had no clinical indication or contraindication for a specific antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy were randomly assigned to receive ASA (100 mg/d), WAR (1.25 mg/d), or LMWH (enoxaparin 40 mg/d). A composite primary end point included serious thromboembolic events, acute cardiovascular events, or sudden deaths during the first 6 months of treatment.

Results: Of 659 analyzed patients, 43 (6.5%) had serious thromboembolic events, acute cardiovascular events, or sudden death during the first 6 months (6.4% in the ASA group, 8.2% in the WAR group, and 5.0% in the LMWH group). Compared with LMWH, the absolute differences were +1.3% (95% CI, -3.0% to 5.7%; P = .544) in the ASA group and +3.2% (95% CI, -1.5% to 7.8%; P = .183) in the WAR group. The risk of thromboembolism was 1.38 times higher in patients treated with thalidomide without bortezomib. Three major (0.5%) and 10 minor (1.5%) bleeding episodes were recorded.

Conclusion: In patients with myeloma treated with thalidomide-based regimens, ASA and WAR showed similar efficacy in reducing serious thromboembolic events, acute cardiovascular events, and sudden deaths compared with LMWH, except in elderly patients where WAR showed less efficacy than LMWH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2010.31.6844DOI Listing
March 2011

Bortezomib with thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction therapy before, and consolidation therapy after, double autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a randomised phase 3 study.

Lancet 2010 Dec 9;376(9758):2075-85. Epub 2010 Dec 9.

Istituto di Ematologia Seràgnoli, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Thalidomide plus dexamethasone (TD) is a standard induction therapy for myeloma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of addition of bortezomib to TD (VTD) versus TD alone as induction therapy before, and consolidation therapy after, double autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Methods: Patients (aged 18-65 years) with previously untreated symptomatic myeloma were enrolled from 73 sites in Italy between May, 2006, and April, 2008, and data collection continued until June 30, 2010. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1 ratio) by a web-based system to receive three 21-day cycles of thalidomide (100 mg daily for the first 14 days and 200 mg daily thereafter) plus dexamethasone (40 mg daily on 8 of the first 12 days, but not consecutively; total of 320 mg per cycle), either alone or with bortezomib (1·3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11). The randomisation sequence was computer generated by the study coordinating team and was stratified by disease stage. After double autologous stem-cell transplantation, patients received two 35-day cycles of their assigned drug regimen, VTD or TD, as consolidation therapy. The primary endpoint was the rate of complete or near complete response to induction therapy. Analysis was by intention to treat. Patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation. This study is still underway but is not recruiting participants, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01134484, and with EudraCT, number 2005-003723-39.

Findings: 480 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive VTD (n=241 patients) or TD (n=239). Six patients withdrew consent before start of treatment, and 236 on VTD and 238 on TD were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. After induction therapy, complete or near complete response was achieved in 73 patients (31%, 95% CI 25·0-36·8) receiving VTD, and 27 (11%, 7·3-15·4) on TD (p<0·0001). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were recorded in a significantly higher number of patients on VTD (n=132, 56%) than in those on TD (n=79, 33%; p<0·0001), with a higher occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in patients on VTD (n=23, 10%) than in those on TD (n=5, 2%; p=0·0004). Resolution or improvement of severe peripheral neuropathy was recorded in 18 of 23 patients on VTD, and in three of five patients on TD.

Interpretation: VTD induction therapy before double autologous stem-cell transplantation significantly improves rate of complete or near complete response, and represents a new standard of care for patients with multiple myeloma who are eligible for transplant.

Funding: Seràgnoli Institute of Haematology at the University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61424-9DOI Listing
December 2010

A phase II multiple dose clinical trial of histone deacetylase inhibitor ITF2357 in patients with relapsed or progressive multiple myeloma.

Ann Hematol 2010 Feb 25;89(2):185-90. Epub 2009 Jul 25.

Div. of Hematology, Ospedali Riuniti, Largo Barozzi, 1, 24128, Bergamo, Italy.

ITF2357, an orally effective member of the family of histone deacetylase inhibitors, is a potent inducer of apoptosis and death of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We performed a phase-II, multiple-dose clinical trial in 19 patients with relapsed or progressive MM to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of ITF2357 administered twice daily for four consecutive days every week for 4 weeks (i.e., first cycle). The first six patients received 150 mg ITF2357 twice daily. Since two of them experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during the first cycle, the subsequent patients received 100 mg ITF2357 twice daily. This was the MTD, as only one DLT occurred. Up to 12 weeks (i.e., three cycles) of treatment were scheduled. Oral dexamethasone was allowed to a maximum weekly amount of 20 mg. Median duration of treatment was 6 weeks, ranging from two (two patients) to 12 weeks (five patients). Four patients suffered from serious adverse events. Three patients experienced grade 3-4 gastro-intestinal toxicity and three had transient electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia occurred in all but one patient (grade 3-4 in ten patients). At last follow-up, five patients were in stable disease, five had disease progression, and nine had died all of progressive MM. In conclusion, when given at a dose of 100 mg twice daily alone or combined with dexamethasone, ITF2357 proved tolerable but showed a modest clinical benefit in advanced MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-009-0793-8DOI Listing
February 2010

Aspirin thromboprophylaxis of asymptomatic antiphospholipid-positive subjects.

Authors:
Monica Galli

Intern Emerg Med 2009 Feb 21;4(1):63-4. Epub 2008 Nov 21.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-008-0203-6DOI Listing
February 2009

Clinical utility of laboratory tests used to identify antiphospholipid antibodies and to diagnose the antiphospholipid syndrome.

Authors:
Monica Galli

Semin Thromb Hemost 2008 Jun 23;34(4):329-34. Epub 2008 Sep 23.

Department of Hematology, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, Italy.

The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by thrombotic and/or obstetric events together with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in plasma of patients. The original laboratory criteria of APS included lupus anticoagulants (LA) and/or IgG/IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL). They were recently updated with the addition of IgG/IgM anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-beta2GPI), a better definition of "medium to high antibody titer," and the extension to 12 weeks of the "persistence in time." The revised criteria represent an improvement; however, the potential overdiagnosis of APS remains possible, thus putting patients at risk of overtreatment. To reduce this possibility, proposals have been made to implement strict guidelines for the performance of the LA assay, to exclude aCL measurements in their current application from the criteria, and to limit the measurement of anti-beta2GPI to the G isotype. This should also help in simplifying the laboratory workup of patients being investigated for APS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1085474DOI Listing
June 2008

Clinical significance of different antiphospholipid antibodies in the WAPS (warfarin in the antiphospholipid syndrome) study.

Blood 2007 Aug 17;110(4):1178-83. Epub 2007 Apr 17.

Divisione di Ematologia, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, Italy.

To assess the clinical significance of lupus anticoagulants (LAs) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) toward thrombosis and abortions, we measured them in 112 patients whose samples were available at enrollment in the warfarin in the antiphospholipid syndrome (WAPS) study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and coagulation test values in the highest and lowest tertiles were compared. When considered separately, IgG antibodies to beta2-glycoprotein I (abeta2GPI) and prothrombin (aPT) were associated with anamnestic arterial and venous thrombosis, respectively, and those to annexin AV (aAnAV) with abortions. IgM antibodies to protein S and the lupus ratio of the dilute prothrombin time were associated with prospective thrombosis. No other association for IgM antibodies was seen. LA-positive patients who carried abeta2GPI antibodies were at risk of anamnestic arterial and total thrombosis and aPT antibodies to that of anamnestic venous and total thrombosis. LA-positive patients who carried IgG abeta2GPI and aAnAV antibodies were at risk for both anamnestic abortion and prospective thrombosis. Overall, these data support the inclusion of abeta2GPI antibodies in and suggest the removal of anticardiolipin antibodies from the laboratory criteria of the antiphospholipid syndrome. They also suggest that the measurement of aPT and aAnAV antibodies is useful in some selected situations and that there is little role for IgM antibody detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-01-066043DOI Listing
August 2007

Toll-like receptor and antiphospholipid mediated thrombosis: in vivo studies.

Ann Rheum Dis 2007 Oct 29;66(10):1327-33. Epub 2007 Jan 29.

Antiphospholipid Standardization Laboratory, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-1165, USA.

Objective: A study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo pathogenic role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) by studying the thrombogenic antiphospholipid (aPL) activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) non-responsive (LPS-/-) mice and the association between tlr4 gene polymorphisms and APS in patients.

Methods: IgGs from two patients with APS, one with aPL negative systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and one with normal human serum (NHS), were evaluated for thrombosis, tissue factor (TF) activity and endothelial cell activation in LPS-/- mice displaying a tlr4 spontaneous mutation vs LPS responsive (LPS+/+) mice. Human tlr4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were evaluated by allele-specific PCR in 110 patients with APS with arterial/venous thrombosis and in 220 controls of the same ethnic origin.

Results: IgG-APS produced significantly larger thrombi and more leucocytes (WBC) adhering to endothelial cells in the cremaster muscle microcirculation of LPS+/+ mice than IgG-NHS or aPL negative SLE-IgG. These effects were abrogated after absorption of the anti-beta(2)glycoprotein I activity by an affinity column. The two IgG-APS induced significantly smaller thrombi and fewer WBC adhering to endothelial cells in LPS-/- mice than in LPS+/+ mice. IgG-APS induced higher TF activity in carotid artery homogenates of LPS+/+ mice than in LPS-/- mice. The prevalence of Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile tlr4 polymorphisms was significantly lower than in controls.

Conclusions: These findings in LPS-/- mice and the reduction in the "protective" polymorphism in patients with APS with thrombosis suggest that TLR-4 is involved in the interaction of aPL with endothelial cells in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2006.065037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1994302PMC
October 2007

Improving management of pregnancy in antiphospholipid antibody-positive women.

Authors:
Monica Galli

J Rheumatol 2006 Nov;33(11):2108-9

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November 2006