Publications by authors named "Mona Sadeghalvad"

9 Publications

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An inflammatory triangle in Sarcoidosis: PPAR-γ, immune microenvironment, and inflammation.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2021 Apr 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder characterized by granuloma formation in several organs. Sarcoidosis patients experience higher inflammatory responses resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. Although the precise mechanisms have not been well elucidated, the relationship between the immune system activation and inflammatory status is pivotal in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

Areas Covered: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) includes the transcription factors involved in cell metabolism, proliferation, and immune response. In the alveolar macrophages of patients with sarcoidosis, the reduced activity and a decreased level of PPAR-γ have been shown. In this study, we discuss how reducing the level of PPAR-γ could lead to increased inflammation and immune responses in patients with sarcoidosis.

Expert Opinion: Lack of PPAR-γ may contribute to the development of a suitable milieu for the formation of immune-associated pulmonary granuloma. Reduced levels of PPAR-γ in sarcoidosis could result from over-activation of the immune system and elevated inflammatory responses, as well. Due to the anti-inflammatory function of PPAR-γ, identifying the relation between PPAR-γ, sarcoidosis development, and inflammatory state could be essential to identify the appropriate therapeutic targets. The synthesis of PPAR-γ agonists or PPAR-γ ligands may be an effective step toward the treatment of sarcoidosis patients in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2021.1913118DOI Listing
April 2021

Serological and Molecular Tests for COVID-19: a recent update.

Iran J Immunol 2021 Mar;18(1):13-33

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The COVID-19 pandemic is probably the most devastating worldwide challenge in recent century. COVID-19 leads to a mild to severe respiratory disease and affects different organs and has become a global concern since December 2019. Meanwhile, molecular biology and diagnostic laboratories played an essential role in diagnosis of the disease by introducing serological and molecular tests. Molecular-based techniques are reliable detection tools for SARS-CoV-2 and used for diagnosis of patients especially in the early stage of the disease. While, serological assays are considered as additional tools to verify the asymptomatic infections, tracing previous contacts of individuals, vaccine efficacy, and study the seroprevalance. The average time of the appearance of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the patient's serum is 3-6 days after the onset of symptoms for both IgM and IgA and 10-18 days for IgG. Following the outbreak of COVID-19, FDA has approved and authorized a series of serological laboratory tests for early diagnosis. Serological assays have low-cost and provide fast results but have poor sensitivity in the early stage of the viral infection. Although the serological tests may not play an important role in the active case of COVID-19, it could be effective to determine the immunity of health care workers, and confirm late COVID-19 cases during the outbreak. In this review, we compared various laboratory diagnostic assays for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/iji.2021.88660.1894DOI Listing
March 2021

Immune microenvironment in different molecular subtypes of ductal breast carcinoma.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan 3;185(2):261-279. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Ductal breast carcinoma as a heterogeneous disease has different molecular subtypes associated with clinical prognosis and patients' survival. The role of immune system as a consistent part of the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been documented in progression of ductal breast carcinoma. Here, we aimed to describe the important immune cells and the immune system-associated molecules in Ductal Carcinoma In situ (DCIS) and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) with special emphasis on their associations with different molecular subtypes and patients' prognosis.

Results: The immune cells have a dual role in breast cancer (BC) microenvironment depending on the molecular subtype or tumor grade. These cells with different frequencies are present in the TME of DCIS and IDC. The presence of regulatory cells including Tregs, MDSC, Th2, Th17, M2 macrophages, HLADR T cells, and Tγδ cells is related to more immunosuppressive microenvironment, especially in ER and TN subtypes. In contrast, NK cells, CTL, Th, and Tfh cells are associated to the anti-tumor activity. These cells are higher in ER BC, although in other subtypes such as TN or HER2 are associated with a favorable prognosis.

Conclusion: Determining the specific immune response in each subtype could be helpful in estimating the possible behavior of the tumor cells in TME. It is important to realize that different frequencies of immune cells in BC environment likely determine the patients' prognosis and their survival in each subtype. Therefore, elucidation of the distinct immune players in TME would be helpful toward developing targeted therapies in each subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05954-2DOI Listing
January 2021

The immune system as a target for therapy of SARS-CoV-2: A systematic review of the current immunotherapies for COVID-19.

Life Sci 2020 Oct 1;258:118185. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran; Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: The immune response is essential for the control and resolution of viral infections. Following the outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), several immunotherapies were applied to modulate the immune responses of the affected patients. In this review, we aimed to describe the role of the immune system in response to COVID-19. We also provide a systematic review to collate and describe all published reports of the using immunotherapies, including convalescent plasma therapy, monoclonal antibodies, cytokine therapy, mesenchymal stem cell therapy, and intravenous immunoglobulin and their important outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

Material And Methods: A thorough search strategy was applied to identify published research trials in PubMed, Scopus, Medline, and EMBASE from Dec 1, 2019, to May 4, 2020, for studies reporting clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients treated with immunotherapies along with other standard cares.

Key Findings: From an initial screen of 80 identified studies, 24 studies provided clinical outcome data on the use of immunotherapies for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, including convalescent plasma therapy (33 patients), monoclonal antibodies (55 patients), interferon (31 patients), mesenchymal stem cell therapy (8 patient), and immunoglobulin (63 patients). Except for nine severe patients who died after treatment, most patients were recovered from COVID-19 with improved clinical symptoms and laboratory assessment.

Significance: Based on the available evidence, it seems that treatment with immunotherapy along with other standard cares could be an effective and safe approach to modulate the immune system and improvement of clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7395832PMC
October 2020

In vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy of the combined Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor and genistein isoflavone, two biological compounds from soybean.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2019 Dec 8;33(12):e22406. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Soybean Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) and genistein, two biological compounds from soybean, are well-known for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. The aim of this study was designing a BBI-genistein conjugate and then investigating its protective effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in BALB/c mice, compared with the effects of combination of BBI and genistein. BBI was purified from soybean and the BBI-genistein conjugate was synthesized. The BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally treated 2 hours before LPS induction. Our results showed that treatment with the combination of BBI and genistein greatly led to more reduced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ compared with the treatments of BBI alone, the BBI-genistein conjugate, and genistein alone, respectively. Moreover, the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the splenocytes was significantly downregulated along with improving host survival against the LPS-induced lethal endotoxemia in the same way. Our data support a new combined therapy using BBI and genistein, as natural anti-inflammatory agents, to develop a new drug for inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22406DOI Listing
December 2019

Influenza vaccine: Where are we and where do we go?

Rev Med Virol 2019 01 8;29(1):e2014. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The alarming rise of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza pandemics and epidemics has drawn attention worldwide since the last few decades. This life-threatening problem necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine to protect against incoming pandemics. The currently available flu vaccines rely on inactivated viral particles, M2e-based vaccine, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and virus like particle (VLP). While inactivated vaccines can only induce systemic humoral responses, LAIV and VLP vaccines stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses. Yet, these vaccines have limited protection against newly emerging viral strains. These strains, however, can be targeted by universal vaccines consisting of conserved viral proteins such as M2e and capable of inducing cross-reactive immune response. The lack of viral genome in VLP and M2e-based vaccines addresses safety concern associated with existing attenuated vaccines. With the emergence of new recombinant viral strains each year, additional effort towards developing improved universal vaccine is warranted. Besides various types of vaccines, microRNA and exosome-based vaccines have been emerged as new types of influenza vaccines which are associated with new and effective properties. Hence, development of a new generation of vaccines could contribute to better treatment of influenza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2014DOI Listing
January 2019

2-Methylpyridine-1-ium-1-sulfonate as an Inducer of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest: A comparative in vitro and Computational Study.

Nutr Cancer 2019 1;71(4):643-656. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

a Medical Biology Research Center , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah , Iran.

"Let food be thy medicine and thy medicine be thy food" was expressed by Hippocrates and the health benefits of medicinal plants and natural products have been considered by humans since historic times. The current study aims to investigate the anti-cancer activity of 2-Methylpyridine-1-ium-1-sulfonate (MPS) isolated from bulbs of Allium hirtifolium. The MPS compound (in a dose-dependent manner) induced arrest the AGS cells in G1 and G2/M phases, and Caco-2 cells in G1 and S phases. These findings were associated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1, CDK4, and up-regulation of p21, p27 and p53. According to the morphological observations and DNA fragmentation assay, the MPS compound induced apoptosis in both cell lines, and also cause a significant increase in the expression of Bax/Bcl-2. In this context, our molecular docking results unveiled that the MPS compound has considerable affinity to interact with the minor groove of ctDNA and also with cell cycle kinases. To approve and find the accurate MPS mode of action against cancer cell lines (especially in gastrointestinal cancer) further studies is highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2018.1506495DOI Listing
May 2020

The effect of , , and polymorphism in patients under warfarin therapy in city of Kermanshah.

Res Pharm Sci 2018 Aug;13(4):377-384

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, I.R. Iran.

Polymorphism in the genes encoding enzyme and reductase significantly influence warfarin dose requirement since patients with , and mutant alleles require lower warfarin maintenance doses. Studies have reported the ethnic variations in the frequency of these genes within the various populations in Iran and other parts of the world. However, no such study has been done yet on Kurdish population in Kermanshah. From Kurdish population of Kermanshah province in Iran, a total of 110 patients who had heart surgery and taking warfarin, were genotyped for polymorphisms of , , and . Polymorphism genotyping was performed by sequencing as well as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using restriction enzymes of and , respectively. The frequencies of -1639 GG, GA, and AA genotypes were 42%, 36%, and 22%, respectively and for 1*/1*, 1*/2*, 2*/2*, 1*/3*, 3*/3*, 2*/3* were 71%, 17%, 5.4%, 1.8%, 4.5%, and 0%, respectively. The frequency of -1639A allele was 42.3% and the frequencies of and *3 alleles were 14% and 5.4%, respectively. It was indicated that low warfarin dose requirements are strongly associated with the presence of and variant alleles. Our results confirmed the supply to understand the distribution of genomic biomarkers related to the drugs metabolism for future planning health programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.235165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6040167PMC
August 2018

Soybean Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI): identification of the mechanisms of BBI suppressive effect on growth of two adenocarcinoma cell lines: AGS and HT29.

Arch Med Res 2014 Aug 8;45(6):455-61. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) has been well known to suppress the emergence and progression of different cancers. In the present study, the mechanisms by which BBI alters cancers have been addressed. To reach this goal, the effects of BBI on proliferation of and VEGF secretion by two cell lines (AGS: gastric adenocarcinoma and HT-29: colorectal adenocarcinoma) and also BBI effect on MMP-2 and 9 synthesis/secretion by AGS cells was evaluated.

Methods: ELISA method was used to assess VEGF concentration and gelatin zymography was used to address MMP-2 and 9 production/excretion.

Results: BBI had powerful inhibitory effect on proliferation and VEGF secretion by both cell lines. In addition, inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 secreted by AGS cells suggests BBI as a potent inhibitor of gastric cancer progression. On the other hand, the results indicated that inhibition of MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF secretion is one of the mechanisms of anti-angiogenic effect of BBI.

Conclusion: BBI expresses powerful suppressive effect on tumor progression of two prevalent cancers: gastric adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2014.07.001DOI Listing
August 2014