Publications by authors named "Mona Mostaghim"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

ESCAPE-Allergy: Evaluating screening for children and adolescents with penicillin allergy.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Women's and Children's Heath, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: Penicillin allergy labels are frequently encountered in children and are associated with significant harms. Most children are falsely labelled and can safely tolerate a penicillin but delabelling strategies are underutilised and paediatric-specific resources are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate an allergy assessment tool for children in hospital.

Methods: We evaluated a paediatric-adapted penicillin allergy assessment tool, using an online survey of clinicians in a tertiary paediatric hospital, with 10 hypothetical potential penicillin allergy or adverse reaction cases (including non-allergy reactions). For each case, respondents were asked to use the tool to assign a reaction phenotype and recommend management. We determined the tool's sensitivity, specificity and acceptability to end users.

Results: We evaluated 30 complete survey responses from senior and junior medical staff, nurses and pharmacists. The tool's overall sensitivity was 80.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 74.2-87.1%) for assigning the correct reaction phenotype and 85.3% (95% CI 79.4-91.3%) for appropriate management. The tool had high sensitivity for identifying immediate hypersensitivity reactions at 95.6% (95% CI 90.2-100%). Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they would use the tool in their practice (22/30, 73.3%).

Conclusion: This survey evaluated a paediatric-adapted penicillin allergy assessment tool in a tertiary paediatric hospital among multidisciplinary clinician groups. The tool performed well overall and had high safety in identifying immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Further research to support implementation of allergy assessment and delabelling programmes among children is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.15657DOI Listing
July 2021

Improving intravenous-to-oral antibiotic switch in children: a team-based audit and implementation approach.

BMJ Open Qual 2021 03;10(1)

Medication Safety, Clinical Excellence Commission, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Children in hospital are frequently prescribed intravenous antibiotics for longer than needed. Programmes to optimise timely intravenous-to-oral antibiotic switch may limit excessive in-hospital antibiotic use, minimise complications of intravenous therapy and allow children to go home faster. Here, we describe a quality improvement approach to implement a guideline, with team-based education, audit and feedback, for timely, safe switch from intravenous-to-oral antibiotics in hospitalised children. Eligibility for switch was based on evidence-based guidelines and supported by education and feedback. The project was conducted over 12 months in a tertiary paediatric hospital. Primary outcomes assessed were the proportion of eligible children admitted under paediatric and surgical teams switched within 24 hours, and switch timing prior to and after guideline launch. Secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay, recommencement of intravenous therapy or readmission. The percentage of children switched within 24 hours of eligibility significantly increased from 32/50 (64%) at baseline to 203/249 (82%) post-implementation (p=0.006). The median time to switch fell from 15 hours 42 min to 4 hours 20 min (p=0.0006). In addition, there was a 14-hour median reduction in hospital length of stay (p=0.008). Readmission to hospital and recommencement of intravenous therapy did not significantly change postimplementation. This education, audit and feedback approach improved timely intravenous-to-oral switch in children and also allowed for more timely discharge from hospital. The study demonstrates proof of concept for this implementation with a methodology that can be readily adapted to other paediatric inpatient settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2020-001120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7978100PMC
March 2021

Penicillin - getting prescribing right for children.

Aust Prescr 2020 06 2;43(3):81-84. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Sydney Children's Hospital.

Penicillins are commonly prescribed to children. Recommendations in the product information may not be the most appropriate doses for children and may list clinical indications that are preferably treated with other antibiotics Reputable guidelines, for example Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, offer up-to-date advice on optimal choice, route, dosage and duration of oral penicillins in children In most instances, the child’s weight should be used to calculate the dose in mg per kg without exceeding the maximum adult dose When prescribing higher weight-based doses of amoxicillin or flucloxacillin, check the volume of oral liquid required to complete a treatment course to ensure adequate supply
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18773/austprescr.2020.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358052PMC
June 2020

Antibiotic appropriateness and guideline adherence in hospitalized children: results of a nationwide study.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 03;75(3):738-746

National Centre for Antimicrobial Stewardship, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Information on the nature and appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for children in hospitals is important, but scarce.

Objectives: To analyse antimicrobial prescribing and appropriateness, and guideline adherence, in hospitalized children across Australia.

Patients And Methods: We analysed data from the National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey (NAPS) from 2014 to 2017. Surveys were performed in hospital facilities of all types (public and private; major city, regional and remote). Participants were admitted children <18 years old. Risk factors associated with inappropriate prescribing were explored using logistic regression models.

Results: Among 6219 prescriptions for 3715 children in 253 facilities, 19.6% of prescriptions were deemed inappropriate. Risk factors for inappropriate prescribing included non-tertiary paediatric hospital admission [OR 1.37 (95% CI 1.20-1.55)] and non-major city hospital location [OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.30-1.77)]. Prescriptions for neonates, immunocompromised children and those admitted to an ICU were less frequently inappropriate. If a restricted antimicrobial was prescribed and not approved, the prescription was more likely to be inappropriate [OR 12.9 (95% CI 8.4-19.8)]. Surgical prophylaxis was inappropriate in 59% of prescriptions.

Conclusions: Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing in children was linked to specific risk factors identified here, presenting opportunities for targeted interventions to improve prescribing. This information, using a NAPS dataset, allows for analysis of antimicrobial prescribing among different groups of hospitalized children. Further exploration of barriers to appropriate prescribing and facilitators of best practice in this population is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz474DOI Listing
March 2020

Agreement between units of measure for paediatric antibiotic utilisation surveillance using hospital pharmacy supply data.

Pharm Pract (Granada) 2019 Jul-Sep;17(3):1482. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, NSW (Australia).

Background: Drug utilisation studies from paediatric hospitals that do not have access to patient level data on medication use are limited by a lack of standardised units of measures that reflect the varying daily dosage requirements among patients. The World Health Organization's defined daily dose is frequently used in adult hospitals for benchmarking and longitudinal analysis but is not endorsed for use in paediatric populations.

Objective: Explore agreement between standard adult-based defined daily doses (DDD) and paediatric estimates of daily injectable antibiotic use in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit that does not have access to individual patient-level data.

Methods: Hospital pharmacy antibiotic use reports and age-specific occupied bed-day data from 1 January 2010 to 31 May 2016 were extracted. Paediatric reference dosages and frequencies for antibiotics were defined and applied to three paediatric units of measure. Measures were applied to extracted data, agreement between antibiotic use measured in the adult DDD and each of the paediatric measures was assessed visually via Bland-Altman plots and linear regression for each antibiotic.

Results: Thirty one different antibiotics were used throughout the study period. Despite varying daily dosages in grams, the daily use of vials was unchanged from birth to 18 years for thirteen antibiotics. Agreement between DDD and vial-based measures was closer than the total recommended daily dose that did not account for wastage during preparation and administration. Vial-based measures were unaffected by vial size changes due to drug shortage.

Conclusions: Agreement between the DDD and vial-based measures of use supports the use of DDD for select antibiotics that may be targeted by antimicrobial stewardship programs. Vial based measures should be further explored in hospitals with single vial policies; detailed understanding of hospital practice is needed before inter-hospital comparisons are made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2019.3.1482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6763297PMC
September 2019

Adherence to surgical antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines in children: A cohort study.

J Paediatr Child Health 2020 Jan 29;56(1):34-40. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aims: Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is an important measure to reduce post-operative infections. Guidelines exist, but their efficacy and performance in children is poorly understood compared with adults. To review adherence to SAP guidelines, this study assesses risk factors for non-adherence and rate of early post-surgical infections.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of paediatric surgical cases (0-<18 years) at a tertiary children's hospital was performed. Patient characteristics, surgical factors and antimicrobial details were evaluated against hospital guidelines for overall adherence and domains of: antimicrobial choice, dose, re-dosing, timing and duration. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for non-adherence. Hospital records were reviewed for post-operative infections at 7 and 30 days.

Results: Among 326 cases, overall guideline adherence was 39.6% but varied by domain and surgical subspecialty. Incorrect wound classification was associated with overall non-adherence on multivariate regression (odds ratio (OR): 2.59; P < 0.001). Incorrect antimicrobial choice was more likely in children with penicillin hypersensitivity (OR 138.34, P = 0.004) and incorrect dosing more likely in adolescent patients (OR 4.33; P = 0.004). Presence of invasive devices was associated with prolonged duration of antimicrobials (OR 2.92, P = 0.016). Only two post-operative infections were documented by 30 days, but data were insufficient to exclude mild infections managed in the community.

Conclusions: SAP was suboptimal in children, with areas for improvement including better guidance on wound classification, allergy management and care for adolescent patients. Documented infections were rare, but mild infections were unable to be excluded due to limited post-discharge information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14484DOI Listing
January 2020

Factors associated with adherence to antimicrobial stewardship after-hours.

Int J Pharm Pract 2019 Apr 3;27(2):180-190. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objectives: Assess restricted antimicrobials acquired after standard working hours for adherence to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and identify factors associated with increased likelihood of adherence at the time of acquisition, and the next standard working day.

Methods: All documented antimicrobials acquired from a paediatric hospital after-hours drug room from 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015 were reconciled with records of AMS approval, and documented AMS review in the medical record.

Key Findings: Of the 758 antimicrobial acquisitions from the after-hours drug room, 62.3% were restricted. Only 29% were AMS adherent at the time of acquisition, 15% took place despite documented request for approval by a pharmacist. Antimicrobials for respiratory patients (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.68-5.5) and antifungals (2.48, 95% CI 1.43-4.30) were more likely to be AMS adherent. Half of the acquisitions that required review the next standard working day were adherent to AMS (51.8%, 129/249). Weekday acquisitions (2.10, 95% CI 1.20-3.69) and those for patients in paediatric intensive care (2.26, 95% CI 1.07-4.79) were associated with AMS adherence. Interactions with pharmacists prior to acquisition did not change the likelihood of AMS adherence the next standard working day. Access to restricted antimicrobial held as routine ward stock did not change the likelihood of AMS adherence at the time of acquisition, or the next standard working day.

Conclusion: Restricted antimicrobials acquired after-hours are not routinely AMS adherent at the time of acquisition or the next standard working day, limiting opportunities for AMS involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12486DOI Listing
April 2019

Impact of clinical decision support on empirical antibiotic prescribing for children with community-acquired pneumonia.

J Paediatr Child Health 2019 Mar 30;55(3):305-311. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: To assess the impact of a computerised clinical decision support system (CDSS) on antibiotic use in hospitalised children with a presumptive diagnosis of uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Methods: Codes associated with lower respiratory tract infection were used to identify cases of presumed uncomplicated CAP requiring admission to a tertiary paediatric hospital. Random sampling of the periods between 1 October 2010 and 30 September 2012 (pre-CDSS) and 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2014 (post-CDSS) determined the sequence of case assessment by two independent investigators. Initial antibiotic therapy, associated CDSS approvals and documented signs of clinical deterioration prior to antibiotic decision-making were recorded.

Results: Statistically significant differences between cases pre- and post-CDSS implementation were minimal. High fever was observed in 57.5% (77/134) cases pre-CDSS and 45.8% (49/107) cases post-CDSS (P = 0.07). Supplemental oxygen was used in 30.6% pre-CDSS and 54.2% post-CDSS cases (P < 0.001). Narrow-spectrum penicillins were prescribed most often, with no statistically significant change post-CDSS implementation (81.3% pre-CDSS, 77.6% post-CDSS, P = 0.47). Macrolides were used consistently throughout the study period (53.7% pre-CDSS, 61.7% post-CDSS; P = 0.21).

Conclusion: CDSS implementation did not reduce already low rates of broad-spectrum antibiotic use for uncomplicated CAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14191DOI Listing
March 2019

Paediatric antimicrobial stewardship and safe prescribing: an assessment of medical staff knowledge and behaviour.

Pharm Pract (Granada) 2018 Apr-Jun;16(2):1198. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney. Sydney (Australia).

Objective: Determine baseline knowledge of antimicrobial stewardship, and safe prescribing among junior medical officers, monitor their level of participation in interactive education during protected teaching time and assess day-to-day prescribing behaviours over the subsequent 3-month period.

Methods: A voluntary and anonymous survey of all non-consultant level medical officers was conducted with the use of an audience response system during mandatory face-to-face orientation sessions at a tertiary paediatric hospital. Routine prescribing audits monitored compliance with national and locally derived quality use of medicines indicators.

Results: Eighty-six percent of medical officers participated by responding to at least one question (171/200). Response rate for individual questions ranged between 31% and 78%. Questions that addressed adverse drug reactions, documentation and monitoring for empiric antibiotics and the error-prone abbreviations IU and U were correctly answered by over 90% of participants. Other non-standard and error-prone abbreviations were less consistently identified. In practice, 68% of patients had complete adverse drug reaction documentation (113/166). Error-prone abbreviations were identified on 5% of audited medication orders (47/976), approximately half included a documented indication and intended dose.

Conclusions: Participants demonstrated a good understanding of safe prescribing and antimicrobial stewardship. Audits of prescribing identified potential discrepancies between prescribing knowledge and behaviours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2018.02.1198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041210PMC
June 2018

Improving the prescribing of palivizumab.

J Paediatr Child Health 2018 12 4;54(12):1353-1356. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: Palivizumab prevents respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children at high risk of severe disease. This paper reviews the use and effectiveness of palivizumab at two tertiary paediatric hospitals (hospitals A and B) in New South Wales, Australia.

Methods: Children prescribed palivizumab during the pre-intervention period, 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2014, were compared with children under 2 years of age who were admitted to paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) with an RSV infection. Eligibility for palivizumab was determined. To improve evidence-based utilisation of palivizumab, a 'streamlined palivizumab individual patient use' (IPU) pro forma was introduced at hospital A during 2015, and its applicability was reviewed.

Results: In the 2 years prior to implementing the streamlined IPU, 47 children received palivizumab, with 87% at hospital A. Of the children at hospital A, 32% did not meet the guidelines, and 32% did not complete the course. While 13% of children admitted to PICU for RSV infection were eligible for palivizumab, none received it prior to admission. In 2015, 16 streamlined IPUs were submitted, and 11 patients received palivizumab. Of these patients, 27% did not meet the guidelines, and 63% did not complete the course. Of the children who received palivizumab during the three RSV seasons, one developed an RSV infection, and none were admitted to PICU.

Conclusions: Palivizumab is often prescribed without meeting recognised best practice guidelines, and patients eligible are frequently not prescribed palivizumab. The streamlined IPU, implemented in hospital A, excluded patients who did not meet guidelines. The pro forma needs further refinement, and complementary strategies introduced to improve compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14083DOI Listing
December 2018

Outcomes of multisite antimicrobial stewardship programme implementation with a shared clinical decision support system.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 07;72(7):2110-2118

St George Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Studies evaluating antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) supported by computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have predominantly been conducted in single site metropolitan hospitals.

Objectives: To examine outcomes of multisite ASP implementation supported by a centrally deployed CDSS.

Methods: An interrupted time series study was conducted across five hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, from 2010 to 2014. Outcomes analysed were: effect of the intervention on targeted antimicrobial use, antimicrobial costs and healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HCA-CDI) rates. Infection-related length of stay (LOS) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were also assessed.

Results: Post-intervention, antimicrobials targeted for increased use rose from 223 to 293 defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 occupied bed days (OBDs)/month (+32%, P  <   0.01). Conversely, antimicrobials targeted for decreased use fell from 254 to 196 DDDs/1000 OBDs/month (-23%; P  <   0.01). These effects diminished over time. Antimicrobial costs decreased initially (-AUD$64551/month; P  <   0.01), then increased (+AUD$7273/month; P  <   0.01). HCA-CDI rates decreased post-intervention (-0.2 cases/10 000 OBDs/month; P  <   0.01). Proportional LOS reductions for key infections (respiratory from 4.8 to 4.3 days, P  <   0.01; septicaemia 6.8 to 6.1 days, P  <   0.01) were similar to background LOS reductions (2.1 to 1.9 days). Similarly, infection-related SMRs (observed/expected deaths) decreased (respiratory from 1.1 to 0.75; septicaemia 1.25 to 0.8; background rate 1.19 to 0.90.

Conclusions: Implementation of a collaborative multisite ASP supported by a centrally deployed CDSS was associated with changes in targeted antimicrobial use, decreased antimicrobial costs, decreased HCA-CDI rates, and no observable increase in LOS or mortality. Ongoing targeted interventions are suggested to promote sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx080DOI Listing
July 2017

Prescribing azithromycin.

Aust Prescr 2015 Jun 1;38(3):87-9. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Sydney Children's Hospital.

Azithromycin is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic with a long half-life and excellent tissue penetration. It is primarily used for the treatment of respiratory, enteric and genitourinary infections and may be used in preference to other macrolides for some sexually transmitted and enteric infections. Azithromycin has additional immunomodulatory effects and has been used in chronic respiratory inflammatory diseases for this purpose. Potential major adverse effects include cardiovascular arrhythmias and hearing loss. Macrolide resistance is also a problem, as are interactions with commonly prescribed drugs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653965PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18773/austprescr.2015.030DOI Listing
June 2015

A Pilot Study of a Computerized Decision Support System to Detect Invasive Fungal Infection in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Patients.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015 Nov 17;36(11):1313-7. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

1Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases,Sydney Children's Hospital,Randwick,NSW,Australia.

Objective: Computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) can provide indication-specific antimicrobial recommendations and approvals as part of hospital antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a CDSS for surveillance of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in an inpatient hematology/oncology cohort.

Methods: Between November 1, 2012, and October 31, 2013, pediatric hematology/oncology inpatients diagnosed with an IFI were identified through an audit of the CDSS and confirmed by medical record review. The results were compared to hospital diagnostic-related group (DRG) coding for IFI throughout the same period.

Results: A total of 83 patients were prescribed systemic antifungals according to the CDSS for the 12-month period. The CDSS correctly identified 19 patients with IFI on medical record review, compared with 10 patients identified by DRG coding, of whom 9 were confirmed to have IFI on medical record review.

Conclusions: CDSS was superior to diagnostic coding in detecting IFI in an inpatient pediatric hematology/oncology cohort. The functionality of CDSS lends itself to inpatient infectious diseases surveillance but depends on prescriber adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2015.179DOI Listing
November 2015
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