Publications by authors named "Mona E Pedersen"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Processed Eggshell Membrane Powder Is a Promising Biomaterial for Use in Tissue Engineering.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 30;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Nofima AS, Pb 210, NO-1431 Ås, Norway.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the tissue regenerating and biomechanical properties of processed eggshell membrane powder (PEP) for use in 3D-scaffolds. PEP is a low-cost, natural biomaterial with beneficial bioactive properties. Most importantly, this material is available as a by-product of the chicken egg processing (breaking) industry on a large scale, and it could have potential as a low-cost ingredient for therapeutic scaffolds. Scaffolds consisting of collagen alone and collagen combined with PEP were produced and analyzed for their mechanical properties and the growth of primary fibroblasts and skeletal muscle cells. Mechanical testing revealed that a PEP/collagen-based scaffold increased the mechanical hardness of the scaffold compared with a pure collagen scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated an interconnected porous structure for both scaffolds, and that the PEP was evenly distributed in dense clusters within the scaffold. Fibroblast and skeletal muscle cells attached, were viable and able to proliferate for 1 and 2 weeks in both scaffolds. The cell types retained their phenotypic properties expressing phenotype markers of fibroblasts (TE7, alpha-smooth muscle actin) and skeletal muscle (CD56) visualized by immunostaining. mRNA expression of the skeletal muscle markers myoD, myogenin, and fibroblasts marker (SMA) together with extracellular matrix components supported viable phenotypes and matrix-producing cells in both types of scaffolds. In conclusion, PEP is a promising low-cost, natural biomaterial for use in combination with collagen as a scaffold for 3D-tissue engineering to improve the mechanical properties and promote cellular adhesion and growth of regenerating cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663119PMC
October 2020

Screening of by-products from the food industry as growth promoting agents in serum-free media for skeletal muscle cell culture.

Food Funct 2020 Mar;11(3):2477-2488

Nofima - Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, P.O. Box 210, N-1431, Ås, Norway.

The most significant cost driver for efficient bio-production of edible animal proteins is the cell culture media, where growth factors account for up to 96% of the total cost. The culture media must be serum-free, affordable, contain only food-grade ingredients, be efficient to promote cell growth and available in massive quantities. The commercially available serum substitutes are expensive and not necessarily food-grade. Identifying inexpensive food-safe alternatives to serum is crucial. By-products from food production are available in massive quantities, contain potential factors that can promote growth and are promising ingredients for serum replacement. The main goal of this study was to explore if food-grade by-product materials can be used as growth promoting agents in skeletal muscle cell culture to develop a tailor-made serum free media. Different by-products, including chicken carcass, cod backbone, eggshell membrane, egg white powder and pork plasma were enzymatically or chemically hydrolyzed. The hydrolysates in addition to lyophilized pork plasma and yeast extract were further characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, elemental combustion analysis and degree of hydrolysis. The materials were used as supplement to or replacement of commercial serum and further evaluated for their effect on metabolic activity, cell proliferation and cell cytotoxicity in muscle cells cultured in vitro. Our results indicate that none of the materials were cytotoxic to the skeletal muscle cells. Hydrolysates rich in peptides with approximately 2-15 amino acids in length were shown to improve cell growth and metabolic activity. Of all the materials tested pork plasma hydrolysates and yeast extract were the most promising. Pork plasma hydrolysates increased metabolic activity by 110% and cell proliferation with 48% when cultured in serum-free conditions for 3 days compared with control cells cultured with full serum conditions. Most interestingly, this response was dependent on both material and choice of enzyme used. We suggest that these materials have the potential to replace serum during cultivation and as such be included in a tailor-made serum-free media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02690hDOI Listing
March 2020

The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize connective tissue components in skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.).

J Biophotonics 2019 09 1;12(9):e201800436. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Nofima AS, Ås, Norway.

In the present study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is investigated as a method to measure connective tissue components that are important for the quality of Atlantic cod filets (Gadus morhua L.). The Atlantic cod used in this study originated from a feeding trial, which found that fish fed a high starch diet contained relative more collagen type I, while fish fed a low starch (LS) diet contained relative more glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the connective tissue. FTIR spectra of pure commercial collagen type I and GAGs were acquired to identify spectral markers and compare them with FTIR spectra and images from connective tissue. Using principal component analysis, high and LS diets were separated due to collagen type I in the spectral region 1800 to 800 cm . The spatial distribution of collagen type I and GAGs were further investigated by FTIR imaging in combination with immunohistochemistry. Pixel-wise correlation images were calculated between preprocessed connective tissue images and preprocessed pure components spectra of collagen type I and GAGs, respectively. For collagen, the FTIR images reveal a collagen distribution that closely resembles the collagen distribution as imaged by immunohistochemistry. For GAGs, the concentration is very low. Still, the FTIR images detect the most GAGs rich regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201800436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065610PMC
September 2019

Preparation of Proliferated Bovine Primary Skeletal Muscle Cells for Bottom-Up Proteomics by LC-MSMS Analysis.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1889:255-266

Nofima AS, Osloveien 1, NO-1433, Aas, Norway.

This chapter outlines a method for sample preparation for bottom-up proteomics by LC-MSMS analysis of in vitro proliferated bovine primary skeletal muscle cells. The protocol describes the isolation of bovine primary skeletal muscle cells, extraction of proteins, proteolytic digestion of proteins, and desalting of the final peptide samples. The final peptide samples can be analyzed using various LC-MSMS systems after reconstitution in a suitable elution buffer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8897-6_15DOI Listing
June 2019

Processed eggshell membrane powder regulates cellular functions and increase MMP-activity important in early wound healing processes.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(8):e0201975. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Nofima AS, Ås, Norway.

Avian eggshell membrane (ESM) is a natural biomaterial that has been used as an alternative natural bandage to cure wounds, and is available in large quantities from egg industries. We have previously demonstrated that processed eggshell membrane powder (PEP), aiming to be used in a low cost wound healing product, possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we further investigated effects of PEP on MMP activities in vitro (a dermal fibroblast cell culture system) and in vivo (a mouse skin wound healing model). Three days incubation with PEP in cell culture led to rearrangement of the actin-cytoskeleton and vinculin in focal adhesions and increased syndecan-4 shedding. In addition, we observed increased matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (MMP-2) enzyme activation, without effects on protein levels of MMP-2 or its regulators (membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (TIMP-2). Longer incubation (10 days) led to increased protein levels of MMP-2 and its regulators. We also observed an increased alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) production, suggesting an effect of PEP on myofibroblast differentiation. In vivo, using the mouse skin wound healing model, PEP treatment (3 days) increased MMP activity at the wound edges, along with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels, and increased keratinocyte cell proliferation. Altogether, our data suggest PEP stimulates MMP activity, and with a positive effect on early cellular events during wound healing.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201975PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6078314PMC
February 2019

Can postmortem proteolysis explain tenderness differences in various bovine muscles?

Meat Sci 2018 Mar 8;137:114-122. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Nofima AS, PO Box 210, NO-1431 Aas, Norway.

This study investigated the relationship between postmortem proteolysis, muscle pH decline, sarcomere length (SL), intramuscular fat (IMF) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in four bovine muscles (biceps femoris (BF), infraspinatus (IS), longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM). The WBSF was low in BF, IS and PM, while LL had a higher value (P<0.001), but still considered as tender. The PM had fastest pH decline (P<0.001), ultimate pH was lowest in LL and PM and highest for IS (P<0.001), sarcomeres were longest for PM and shortest for BF and LL (P<0.001), while IS and PM had more IMF than BF and LL (P=0.038). Troponin T degradation was similar in all muscles after 2d postmortem, however after 13d LL had more degradation than IS (P=0.003). The MMP-2 activity increased during storage (P=0.001), while IS had less activity than the other muscles (P=0.022). Although the variation in proteolytic activity could not explain the variation in WBSF, the study provides useful knowledge for the meat industry for optimising processing and storage procedures for different beef muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.11.011DOI Listing
March 2018

The extracellular matrix of eggshell displays anti-inflammatory activities through NF-κB in LPS-triggered human immune cells.

J Inflamm Res 2017 4;10:83-96. Epub 2017 Jul 4.

Department of Raw Materials and Process Optimisation, Nofima AS, Ås.

Avian eggshell membrane (ESM) is a natural biomaterial that has been used as an alternative natural bandage on burned and cut skin injuries for >400 years in Asian countries, and is available in large quantities from egg industries. Our aim was to characterize ESM that was separated and processed from egg waste, and to study whether this material possesses anti-inflammatory properties, making it suitable as an ingredient in industrial production of low cost wound healing products. Our results show that the processed ESM particles retain a fibrous structure similar to that observed for the native membrane, and contain collagen, and carbohydrate components such as hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycans, as well as N-glycans, mostly with uncharged structures. Furthermore, both processed ESM powder and the ESM-derived carbohydrate fraction had immunomodulation properties in monocytes and macrophage-like cells. Under inflammatory conditions induced by lipopolysaccharide, the ESM powder and the isolated carbohydrate fraction reduced the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. The expression of the immune regulating receptors toll-like receptor 4 and ICAM-1, as well as the cell surface glycoprotein CD44, all important during inflammation response, were down-regulated by these fractions. Interestingly, our experiments show that the two fractions regulated cytokine secretion differently: ESM depressed inflammation by increased secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 while the carbohydrate fraction reduced secretions of the pro inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. Also, the phosphorylation of p65 and p50 subunits of nuclear factor-κB, as well as nuclear localization, differed between processed ESM powder and carbohydrate fraction, suggesting different down-stream regulation during inflammation. In conclusion, processed ESM powder and its soluble carbohydrate components possess anti-inflammatory properties, demonstrating the potential of ESM as a novel biological wound dressing for treatment of chronic inflammatory wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S130974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5503671PMC
July 2017

The role of extracellular matrix components in pin bone attachments during storage-a comparison between farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and cod (Gadus morhua L.).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2017 Apr 2;43(2):549-562. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Nofima AS, Pb 210, 1431, Ås, Norway.

Pin bones represent a major problem for processing and quality of fish products. Development of methods of removal requires better knowledge of the pin bones' attachment to the muscle and structures involved in the breakdown during loosening. In this study, pin bones from cod and salmon were dissected from fish fillets after slaughter or storage on ice for 5 days, and thereafter analysed with molecular methods, which revealed major differences between these species before and after storage. The connective tissue (CT) attaches the pin bone to the muscle in cod, while the pin bones in salmon are embedded in adipose tissue. Collagens, elastin, lectin-binding proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are all components of the attachment site, and this differ between salmon and cod, resulting in a CT in cod that is more resistant to enzymatic degradation compared to the CT in salmon. Structural differences are reflected in the composition of transcriptome. Microarray analysis comparing the attachment sites of the pin bones with a reference muscle sample showed limited differences in salmon. In cod, on the other hand, the variances were substantial, and the gene expression profiles suggested difference in myofibre structure, metabolism and cell processes between the pin bone attachment site and the reference muscle. Degradation of the connective tissue occurs closest to the pin bones and not in the neighbouring tissue, which was shown using light microscopy. This study shows that the attachment of the pin bones in cod and salmon is different; therefore, the development of methods for removal should be tailored to each individual species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-016-0309-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5374190PMC
April 2017

The enzyme profiles in the connective tissue attaching pin bones to the surrounding tissue is specific in farmed salmon (Salmo salar) and cod (Gadus morhua L.).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2017 Feb 9;43(1):19-25. Epub 2016 Jul 9.

Nofima AS, Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Postboks 210, 1431, Ås, Norway.

Post mortem storage is a necessary process for removal of pin bones without destruction of fillets, thereby avoiding volume and economic loss. However, the enzymes involved in loosening pin bones during storage have not been studied to a great extent. In this study, the activities and localization of MMPs in the connective tissue (CT) of pin bones dissected from fillet of salmon and cod were investigated. Interestingly, the enzyme activity profile in these two species was different during post mortem storage of fish fillets. Adding MMP inhibitor (GM6001) and serine protease inhibitor (Pefabloc) revealed different effects in the two species, suggesting different regulations in salmon and cod. In situ zymography with the same inhibitors verified MMP and serine protease activity in CT close to pin bone at early post mortem (6 h) in salmon. However, MMP inhibition was not evident in cod in this area at that time point. Immunohistochemistry further revealed MMP9 and MMP13 were located more to the outer rim of CT, facing the pin bone and adipose tissue, while MMP7 was more randomly distributed within CT in salmon. In contrast, all these three MMPs were randomly distributed in CT in cod. In summary, our study reveals different MMP enzyme profiles in salmon and cod in the pin bone area, influenced by serine proteases, and suggests that MMPs and serine proteases must be taken in consideration when studying the conditions for early pin bone removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-016-0264-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5306258PMC
February 2017

Syndecan-4 Regulates Muscle Differentiation and Is Internalized from the Plasma Membrane during Myogenesis.

PLoS One 2015 12;10(6):e0129288. Epub 2015 Jun 12.

Nofima AS, Pb 210, NO-1431 Ås, Norway.

The cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-4 has been reported to be crucial for muscle differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. During in vitro differentiation of bovine muscle cells immunocytochemical analyses showed strong labelling of syndecan-4 intracellularly, in close proximity with Golgi structures, in membranes of intracellular vesicles and finally, in the nuclear area including the nuclear envelope. Chase experiments showed that syndecan-4 was internalized from the plasma membrane during this process. Furthermore, when syndecan-4 was knocked down by siRNA more myotubes were formed, and the expression of myogenic transcription factors, β1-integrin and actin was influenced. However, when bovine muscle cells were treated with a cell-penetrating peptide containing the cytoplasmic region of syndecan-4, myoblast fusion and thus myotube formation was blocked, both in normal cells and in syndecan-4 knock down cells. Altogether this suggests that the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4 is important in regulation of myogenesis. The internalization of syndecan-4 from the plasma membrane during muscle differentiation and the nuclear localization of syndecan-4 in differentiated muscle cells may be part of this regulation, and is a novel aspect of syndecan biology which merits further studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0129288PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4467083PMC
April 2016

Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2015 Aug 12;41(4):1029-51. Epub 2015 May 12.

Nofima AS, 1430, Ås, Norway.

In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-015-0067-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4495713PMC
August 2015

Matrix metalloproteinases in fish biology and matrix turnover.

Matrix Biol 2015 May-Jul;44-46:86-93. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Matrix metalloproteinases have important functions for tissue turnover in fish, with relevance both for the fish industry and molecular and cellular research on embryology, inflammation and tissue repair. These metalloproteinases have been studied in different fish types, subjected to both aquaculture and experimental conditions. This review highlights studies on these metalloproteinases in relation to both fish quality and health and further, the future importance of fish for basic research studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2015.01.009DOI Listing
March 2016

Soft texture of atlantic salmon fillets is associated with glycogen accumulation.

PLoS One 2014 9;9(1):e85551. Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Nofima AS, Ås, Norway.

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with soft fillets are not suited for manufacturing high quality products. Therefore fillets with insufficient firmness are downgraded, leading to severe economic losses to the farming and processing industries. In the current study, morphological characteristics of salmon fillets ranging from soft to hard were analysed. Different microscopic techniques were applied, including novel methods in this field of research: morphometric image analysis, periodic acid Schiff staining, immunofluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared microscopy. The results showed that the myocytes of soft muscle had detached cells with mitochondrial dysfunctions, large glycogen aggregates and enlarged inter cellular areas, void of extracellular matrix proteins, including lower amounts of sulfated glycoproteins. Myofibre-myofibre detachment and disappearance of the endomysium in soft muscles coincided with deterioration of important connective tissue constituents such as Collagen type I (Col I), Perlecan and Aggrecan. In summary our investigations show for the first time an association between soft flesh of Atlantic salmon and massive intracellular glycogen accumulation coinciding with degenerated mitochondria, myocyte detachment and altered extracellular matrix protein distribution. The results are important for further understanding the etiology of soft salmon.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0085551PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3887068PMC
September 2014

Small leucine-rich proteoglycans in the vertebrae of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

Dis Aquat Organ 2013 Sep;106(1):57-68

Nofima AS, Pb 6122, 9291 Tromsø, Norway.

We analysed the distribution and expression of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) decorin, biglycan and lumican in vertebral columns of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. with and without radiographically detectable deformities. Vertebral deformities are a reoccurring problem in salmon and other intensively farmed species, and an understanding of the components involved in the pathologic development of the vertebrae is important in order to find adequate solutions to this problem. Using immunohistology and light microscopy, we found that in non-deformed vertebrae biglycan, lumican and decorin were all expressed in osteoblasts at the vertebral growth zones and at the ossification front of the chondrocytic arches. Hence, the SLRPs are expressed in regions where intramembranous and endochondral ossification take place. In addition, mRNA expression of biglycan, decorin and lumican was demonstrated in a primary osteoblast culture established from Atlantic salmon, supporting the in vivo findings. Transcription of the SLRPs increased during differentiation of the osteoblasts in vitro and where lumican mRNA expression increased later in the differentiation compared with decorin and biglycan. Intriguingly, in vertebral fusions, biglycan, decorin and lumican protein expression was extended to trans-differentiating cells at the border between arch centra and osteoblast growth zones. In addition, mRNA expression of biglycan, decorin and lumican differed between non-deformed and fused vertebrae, as shown by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Western blotting revealed an additional band of biglycan in fused vertebrae which had a higher molecular weight than in non-deformed vertebrae. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed more spectral focality in the endplates of vertebral fusions and significantly more non-reducible collagen crosslinks compared with non-deformed vertebrae, thus identifying differences in bone structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02638DOI Listing
September 2013

Lumican is a major small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) skeletal muscle.

Glycoconj J 2012 Jan 29;29(1):13-23. Epub 2011 Nov 29.

The Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Nofima AS, Ås, Norway.

Knowledge on fish matrix biology is important to ensure optimal fish -quality, -growth and -health in aquaculture. The aquaculture industry face major challenges related to matrix biology, such as inflammations and malformations. Atlantic cod skeletal muscle was investigated for collagen I, decorin, biglycan, and lumican expression and distribution by real-time PCR, immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining and Western immunoblotting were also performed using antibodies against glycosaminoglycan side chains of these proteoglycans, in addition to fibromodulin. Real-time PCR showed highest mRNA expression of lumican and collagen I. Collagen I and proteoglycan immunohistochemical staining revealed distinct thread-like structures in the myocommata, with the exception of fibromodulin, which stained in dense structures embedded in the myocommata. Chondroitinase AC-generated epitopes stained more limited than cABC-generated epitopes, indicating a stronger presence of dermatan sulfate than chondroitin sulfate in cod muscle. Lumican and keratan sulfate distribution patterns were strong and ubiquitous in endomysia and myocommata. Western blots revealed similar SLRPs sizes in cod as are known from mammals. Staining of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate epitopes in Western blots were similar in molecular size to those of decorin and biglycan, whereas staining of keratan sulfate epitopes coincided with expected molecular sizes of lumican and fibromodulin. In conclusion, lumican was a major proteoglycan in cod muscle with ubiquitous distribution overlapping with keratan sulfate. Other leucine-rich proteoglycans were also present in cod muscle, and Western blot using antibodies developed for mammalian species showed cross reactivity with fish, demonstrating similar structures and molecular weights as in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10719-011-9358-xDOI Listing
January 2012

Matrilin-1 expression is increased in the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) individuals displaying spinal fusions.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2011 Dec 31;37(4):821-31. Epub 2011 Mar 31.

Nofima Mat AS, Ås, Norway.

We have previously characterized the development of vertebral fusions induced by elevated water temperature in Atlantic salmon. Molecular markers of bone and cartilage development together with histology were used to understand the complex pathology and mechanism in the development of this spinal malformation. In this study, we wanted to use proteomics, a non-hypothetical approach to screen for possible new markers involved in the fusion process. Proteins extracted from non-deformed and fused vertebrae of Atlantic salmon were therefore compared by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and MALDI-TOF analysis. Data analysis of protein spots in the 2DE gels demonstrated matrilin-1, also named cartilage matrix protein, to be the most highly up-regulated protein in fused compared with non-deformed vertebrae. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed strong up-regulation of matrilin-1 mRNA in fused vertebrae. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated induced matrilin-1 expression in trans-differentiating cells undergoing a metaplastic shift toward chondrocytes in fusing vertebrae, whereas abundant expression was demonstrated in cartilaginous tissue and chordocytes of both non-deformed and fused vertebrae. These results identifies matrilin-1 as a new interesting candidate in the fusion process, and ratify the use of proteomic as a valuable technique to screen for markers involved in vertebral pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-011-9480-5DOI Listing
December 2011

Monitoring cellular responses upon fatty acid exposure by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

Analyst 2011 Apr 24;136(8):1649-58. Epub 2011 Feb 24.

Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark.

We investigated the applicability of FTIR-spectroscopy as a high throughput screening method for detection of biochemical changes in intact liver cells in bulk upon fatty acid exposure. HepG2 cells adapted to serum free (HepG2-SF) growth were exposed to four different fatty acids, three octadecenoic acids, differing in cis/trans-configuration or double bond position (oleic acid, elaidic acid and vaccenic acid) as well as palmitic acid in three days. High throughput FTIR spectroscopic measurements on dried films of intact cells showed spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio and great reproducibility. When applying principal component analysis (PCA) a clear discrimination between fatty acid exposures was observed. Higher levels of triacylglycerides were accumulated in cells exposed to elaidic acid than when exposed to the other fatty acids; the least accumulation appeared to be in cells exposed to palmitic acid. An increased absorption at ~966 cm(-1) corresponding to trans-double bond was detected upon elaidic acid exposure but not upon vaccenic acid exposure. Instead, upon vaccenic acid exposure two new absorption bands were observed at 981 and 946 cm(-1) due to the presence of double bond conjugation. Raman spectroscopy on single cells, with and without treatment by vaccenic acid, confirmed the presence of conjugation. By fatty acid composition analysis, the conjugation was further specified to be conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Thus, instead of being preserved as a monounsaturated fatty acid, vaccenic acid was converted into CLA in HepG2 cells. The results demonstrate the applicability of high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy as an explorative method in in vitro systems from which biologically relevant hypotheses can be generated and further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0an00916dDOI Listing
April 2011

Remodeling of the notochord during development of vertebral fusions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

Cell Tissue Res 2010 Dec 18;342(3):363-76. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Nofima Marine AS, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Norwegian Institute of Food, P.O. Box 5010, Aas N-1432, Norway.

Histological characterization of spinal fusions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has demonstrated shape alterations of vertebral body endplates, a reduced intervertebral space, and replacement of intervertebral cells by ectopic bone. However, the significance of the notochord during the fusion process has not been addressed. We have therefore investigated structural and cellular events in the notochord during the development of vertebral fusions. In order to induce vertebral fusions, Atlantic salmon were exposed to elevated temperatures from fertilization until they attained a size of 15g. Based on results from radiography, intermediate and terminal stages of the fusion process were investigated by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Examination of structural extracellular matrix proteins such as Perlecan, Aggrecan, Elastin, and Laminin revealed reduced activity and reorganization at early stages in the pathology. Staining for elastic fibers visualized a thinner elastic membrane surrounding the notochord of developing fusions, and immunohistochemistry for Perlecan showed that the notochordal sheath was stretched during fusion. These findings in the outer notochord correlated with the loss of Aggrecan- and Substance-P-positive signals and the further loss of vacuoles from the chordocytes in the central notochord. At more progressed stages of fusion, chordocytes condensed, and the expression of Aggrecan and Substance P reappeared. The hyperdense regions seem to be of importance for the formation of notochordal tissue into bone. Thus, the remodeling of notochord integrity by reduced elasticity, structural alterations, and cellular changes is probably involved in the development of vertebral fusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-1069-2DOI Listing
December 2010

Calmodulin-dependent kinase 1beta is expressed in the epiphyseal growth plate and regulates proliferation of mouse calvarial osteoblasts in vitro.

Bone 2008 Oct 20;43(4):700-7. Epub 2008 Jun 20.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) family is activated in response to elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and includes CaMK1 (as well as CaMK2 and CaMK4), which exists as different isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). CaMK1 is present in several cell types and may be involved in various cellular processes, but its role in bone is unknown. In situ hybridization was used to determine the spatial and temporal expression of CaMK1beta during endochondral bone development in mouse embryos and newborn pups. The cellular and subcellular distribution of CaMK1 was assessed by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy (EM). The role of CaMK1beta in mouse calvarial osteoblasts was investigated by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence its expression, while in parallel monitoring cell proliferation and levels of skeletogenic transcripts. cRNA in situ hybridization and EM studies show that CaMK1beta is mainly located in developing long bones and vertebrae (from ED14.5 until day 10 after birth), with highest expression in epiphyseal growth plate hypertrophic chondrocytes. By RT-PCR, we show that CaMK1beta2 (but not beta1) is expressed in mouse hind limbs (in vivo) and mouse calvarial osteoblasts (in vitro), and also in primary human articular chondrocyte cultures. Silencing of CaMK1beta in mouse calvarial osteoblasts by siRNA significantly decreases osteoblast proliferation and c-Fos gene expression (approx. 50%), without affecting skeletogenic markers for more differentiated osteoblasts (i.e. Cbfa1/Runx2, Osterix (Osx), Osteocalcin (Oc), Alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and Osteopontin (Opn)). These results identify CaMK1beta as a novel regulator of osteoblast proliferation, via mechanisms that may at least in part involve c-Fos, thus implicating CaMK1beta in the regulation of bone and cartilage development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2008.06.006DOI Listing
October 2008

Osteopenia, decreased bone formation and impaired osteoblast development in Sox4 heterozygous mice.

J Cell Sci 2007 Aug 24;120(Pt 16):2785-95. Epub 2007 Jul 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.

The transcription factor Sox4 is vital for fetal development, as Sox4(-/-) homozygotes die in utero. Sox4 mRNA is expressed in the early embryonic growth plate and is regulated by parathyroid hormone, but its function in bone modeling/remodeling is unknown. We report that Sox4(+/-) mice exhibit significantly lower bone mass (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) from an early age, and fail to obtain the peak bone mass of wild-type (WT) animals. Microcomputed tomography (muCT), histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of Sox4(+/-) bones show reduced trabecular and cortical thickness, growth plate width, ultimate force and stiffness compared with WT. Bone formation rate (BFR) in 3-month-old Sox4(+/-) mice is 64% lower than in WT. Primary calvarial osteoblasts from Sox4(+/-) mice demonstrate markedly inhibited proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. In these cultures, osterix (Osx) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression was reduced, whereas Runx2 mRNA was unaffected. No functional defects were found in osteoclasts. Silencing of Sox4 by siRNA in WT osteoblasts replicated the defects observed in Sox4(+/-) cells. We demonstrate inhibited formation and altered microarchitecture of bone in Sox4(+/-) mice versus WT, without apparent defects in bone resorption. Our results implicate the transcription factor Sox4 in regulation of bone formation, by acting upstream of Osx and independent of Runx2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.003855DOI Listing
August 2007

Effects of bovine oviduct epithelial cells, fetal calf serum and bovine serum albumin on gene expression in single bovine embryos produced in the synthetic oviduct fluid culture system.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2005 ;17(8):751-7

Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, 0033 Oslo, Norway.

In this study the synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) system with bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture is compared with an SOF system with common protein supplements. One thousand six hundred bovine embryos were cultured in SOF media supplemented with BOEC, fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Eight different culture groups were assigned according to the different supplementation factors. Developmental competence and the expression levels of five genes, namely glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP), connexin43 (Cx43), (2)-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), analysed as mRNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were measured on bovine embryos cultured for 9 days. Gene expression of these in vitro-produced embryos was compared with the gene expression of in vivo-produced embryos. There was no significant difference found in embryo developmental competence between the Day 9 embryos in BOEC co-culture, FCS and BSA supplements in SOF media. However, differences in gene expression were observed. With respect to gene expression in in vivo and in vitro embryos, BOEC co-culture affected the same genes as did supplementation with FCS and BSA. HSP was the only gene that differed significantly between in vitro and in vivo embryos. When the different in vitro groups were compared, a significant difference between the BOEC co-culture and the FCS supplementation groups due to Glut-1 expression was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/rd05048DOI Listing
October 2006

Sulfation in the Golgi lumen of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells is inhibited by brefeldin A and depends on a factor present in the cytoplasm and on Golgi membranes.

J Biol Chem 2002 Sep 22;277(39):36272-9. Epub 2002 Jul 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Oslo 0316, Norway.

Madin-Darby canine kidney cells are more resistant than most other cell types to the classical effects of brefeldin A (BFA) treatment, the induction of retrograde transport of Golgi cisternae components to the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we show that sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), and proteins in the Golgi apparatus is dramatically reduced by low concentrations of BFA in which Golgi morphology is unaffected and secretion still takes place. BFA treatment seems to reduce sulfation by inhibition of the uptake of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) into the Golgi lumen, and the inhibitory effect of BFA was similar for HSPGs, CSPGs, and proteins. This was different from the effect of chlorate, a well known inhibitor of PAPS synthesis in the cytoplasm. Low concentrations of chlorate (2-5 mm) inhibited sulfation of CSPGs and proteins only, whereas higher concentrations (15-30 mm) were required to inhibit sulfation of HSPGs. Golgi fractions pretreated with BFA had a reduced capacity for the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but control level capacity could be restored by the addition of cytosol from various sources. This indicates that the PAPS pathway to the Golgi lumen depends on a BFA-sensitive factor that is present both on Golgi membranes and in the cytoplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M206365200DOI Listing
September 2002