Publications by authors named "Molly Strom"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Analysis of segmentation ontology reveals the similarities and differences in connectivity onto L2/3 neurons in mouse V1.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 2;11(1):4983. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, University College London, 25 Howland Street, London, W1T 4JG, UK.

Quantitatively comparing brain-wide connectivity of different types of neuron is of vital importance in understanding the function of the mammalian cortex. Here we have designed an analytical approach to examine and compare datasets from hierarchical segmentation ontologies, and applied it to long-range presynaptic connectivity onto excitatory and inhibitory neurons, mainly located in layer 2/3 (L2/3), of mouse primary visual cortex (V1). We find that the origins of long-range connections onto these two general cell classes-as well as their proportions-are quite similar, in contrast to the inputs on to a cell type in L6. These anatomical data suggest that distal inputs received by the general excitatory and inhibitory classes of neuron in L2/3 overlap considerably.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82353-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925549PMC
March 2021

A Circuit for Integration of Head- and Visual-Motion Signals in Layer 6 of Mouse Primary Visual Cortex.

Neuron 2018 04 15;98(1):179-191.e6. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

The Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, University College London, 25 Howland Street, London W1T 4JG, UK. Electronic address:

To interpret visual-motion events, the underlying computation must involve internal reference to the motion status of the observer's head. We show here that layer 6 (L6) principal neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) receive a diffuse, vestibular-mediated synaptic input that signals the angular velocity of horizontal rotation. Behavioral and theoretical experiments indicate that these inputs, distributed over a network of 100 L6 neurons, provide both a reliable estimate and, therefore, physiological separation of head-velocity signals. During head rotation in the presence of visual stimuli, L6 neurons exhibit postsynaptic responses that approximate the arithmetic sum of the vestibular and visual-motion response. Functional input mapping reveals that these internal motion signals arrive into L6 via a direct projection from the retrosplenial cortex. We therefore propose that visual-motion processing in V1 L6 is multisensory and contextually dependent on the motion status of the animal's head.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.02.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896233PMC
April 2018

Inhibitory Interplay between Orexin Neurons and Eating.

Curr Biol 2016 09 18;26(18):2486-2491. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Mill Hill Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London NW7 1AA, UK; Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK. Electronic address:

In humans and rodents, loss of brain orexin/hypocretin (OH) neurons causes pathological sleepiness [1-4], whereas OH hyperactivity is associated with stress and anxiety [5-10]. OH cell control is thus of considerable interest. OH cells are activated by fasting [11, 12] and proposed to stimulate eating [13]. However, OH cells are also activated by diverse feeding-unrelated stressors [14-17] and stimulate locomotion and "fight-or-flight" responses [18-20]. Such OH-mediated behaviors presumably preclude concurrent eating, and loss of OH cells produces obesity, suggesting that OH cells facilitate net energy expenditure rather than energy intake [2, 21-23]. The relationship between OH cells and eating, therefore, remains unclear. Here we investigated this issue at the level of natural physiological activity of OH cells. First, we monitored eating-associated dynamics of OH cells using fiber photometry in free-feeding mice. OH cell activity decreased within milliseconds after eating onset, and remained in a down state during eating. This OH inactivation occurred with foods of diverse tastes and textures, as well as with calorie-free "food," in both fed and fasted mice, suggesting that it is driven by the act of eating itself. Second, we probed the implications of natural OH cell signals for eating and weight in a new conditional OH cell-knockout model. Complete OH cell inactivation in adult brain induced a hitherto unrecognized overeating phenotype and caused overweight that was preventable by mild dieting. These results support an inhibitory interplay between OH signals and eating, and demonstrate that OH cell activity is rapidly controllable, across nutritional states, by voluntary action.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5049542PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.013DOI Listing
September 2016

Awake dynamics and brain-wide direct inputs of hypothalamic MCH and orexin networks.

Nat Commun 2016 Apr 22;7:11395. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

The Francis Crick Institute, Mill Hill Laboratory, London NW7 1AA, UK.

The lateral hypothalamus (LH) controls energy balance. LH melanin-concentrating-hormone (MCH) and orexin/hypocretin (OH) neurons mediate energy accumulation and expenditure, respectively. MCH cells promote memory and appropriate stimulus-reward associations; their inactivation disrupts energy-optimal behaviour and causes weight loss. However, MCH cell dynamics during wakefulness are unknown, leaving it unclear if they differentially participate in brain activity during sensory processing. By fiberoptic recordings from molecularly defined populations of LH neurons in awake freely moving mice, we show that MCH neurons generate conditional population bursts. This MCH cell activity correlates with novelty exploration, is inhibited by stress and is inversely predicted by OH cell activity. Furthermore, we obtain brain-wide maps of monosynaptic inputs to MCH and OH cells, and demonstrate optogenetically that VGAT neurons in the amygdala and bed nucleus of stria terminalis inhibit MCH cells. These data reveal cell-type-specific LH dynamics during sensory integration, and identify direct neural controllers of MCH neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844703PMC
April 2016

The stimulus selectivity and connectivity of layer six principal cells reveals cortical microcircuits underlying visual processing.

Neuron 2014 Sep 28;83(6):1431-43. Epub 2014 Aug 28.

The Division of Neurophysiology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK; Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Electronic address:

Sensory computations performed in the neocortex involve layer six (L6) cortico-cortical (CC) and cortico-thalamic (CT) signaling pathways. Developing an understanding of the physiological role of these circuits requires dissection of the functional specificity and connectivity of the underlying individual projection neurons. By combining whole-cell recording from identified L6 principal cells in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) with modified rabies virus-based input mapping, we have determined the sensory response properties and upstream monosynaptic connectivity of cells mediating the CC or CT pathway. We show that CC-projecting cells encompass a broad spectrum of selectivity to stimulus orientation and are predominantly innervated by deep layer V1 neurons. In contrast, CT-projecting cells are ultrasparse firing, exquisitely tuned to orientation and direction information, and receive long-range input from higher cortical areas. This segregation in function and connectivity indicates that L6 microcircuits route specific contextual and stimulus-related information within and outside the cortical network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4175007PMC
September 2014

Isolated GH deficiency type II: knockdown of the harmful Delta3GH recovers wt-GH secretion in rat tumor pituitary cells.

Endocrinology 2010 Sep 30;151(9):4400-9. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Pediatric Endocrinology, University Children's Hospital, Inselspital, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland.

Isolated GH deficiency type II (IGHD II) is the autosomal dominant form of GHD. In the majority of the cases, this disorder is due to specific GH-1 gene mutations that lead to mRNA missplicing and subsequent loss of exon 3 sequences. When misspliced RNA is translated, it produces a toxic 17.5-kDa GH (Delta3GH) isoform that reduces the accumulation and secretion of wild-type-GH. At present, patients suffering from this type of disease are treated with daily injections of recombinant human GH in order to maintain normal growth. However, this type of replacement therapy does not prevent toxic effects of the Delta3GH mutant on the pituitary gland, which can eventually lead to other hormonal deficiencies. We developed a strategy involving Delta3GH isoform knockdown mediated by expression of a microRNA-30-adapted short hairpin RNA (shRNA) specifically targeting the Delta3GH mRNA of human (shRNAmir-Delta3). Rat pituitary tumor GC cells expressing Delta3GH upon doxycycline induction were transduced with shRNAmir-Delta3 lentiviral vectors, which significantly reduced Delta3GH protein levels and improved human wild-type-GH secretion in comparison with a shRNAmir targeting a scrambled sequence. No toxicity due to shRNAmir expression could be observed in cell proliferation assays. Confocal microscopy strongly suggested that shRNAmir-Delta3 enabled the recovery of GH granule storage and secretory capacity. These viral vectors have shown their ability to stably integrate, express shRNAmir, and rescue IGHD II phenotype in rat pituitary tumor GC cells, a methodology that opens new perspectives for the development of gene therapy to treat IGHD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2010-0196DOI Listing
September 2010

Phosphorylation of S776 and 14-3-3 binding modulate ataxin-1 interaction with splicing factors.

PLoS One 2009 Dec 23;4(12):e8372. Epub 2009 Dec 23.

National Institute for Medical Research, Medical Research Council, London, United Kingdom.

Ataxin-1 (Atx1), a member of the polyglutamine (polyQ) expanded protein family, is responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. Requirements for developing the disease are polyQ expansion, nuclear localization and phosphorylation of S776. Using a combination of bioinformatics, cell and structural biology approaches, we have identified a UHM ligand motif (ULM), present in proteins associated with splicing, in the C-terminus of Atx1 and shown that Atx1 interacts with and influences the function of the splicing factor U2AF65 via this motif. ULM comprises S776 of Atx1 and overlaps with a nuclear localization signal and a 14-3-3 binding motif. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of S776 provides the molecular switch which discriminates between 14-3-3 and components of the spliceosome. We also show that an S776D Atx1 mutant previously designed to mimic phosphorylation is unsuitable for this aim because of the different chemical properties of the two groups. Our results indicate that Atx1 is part of a complex network of interactions with splicing factors and suggest that development of the pathology is the consequence of a competition of aggregation with native interactions. Studies of the interactions formed by non-expanded Atx1 thus provide valuable hints for understanding both the function of the non-pathologic protein and the causes of the disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0008372PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2791216PMC
December 2009

Assessment of the transformation of equine skin-derived fibroblasts to multinucleated skeletal myotubes following lentiviral-induced expression of equine myogenic differentiation 1.

Am J Vet Res 2008 Dec;69(12):1637-45

Comparative Neuromuscular Diseases Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Ln, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, England.

Objective: To develop a reliable method for converting cultured equine skin-derived fibroblasts into muscle cells.

Sample Population: Equine skin-derived fibroblasts.

Procedures: The equine myogenic differentiation 1 (eqMyoD) genomic sequence was obtained by use of equine bacterial artificial chromosome screening and PCR sequencing. Total mRNA was extracted from foal skeletal muscle, and eqMyoD cDNA was cloned into a plasmid vector with an internal ribosomal entry site to express bicistronic eqMyoD or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Transient expression was confirmed by immunocytochemical analysis and western immunoblots in equine fibroblasts and fibroblasts from National Institutes of Health Swiss mouse embryos, prior to generation of a lentiviral vector containing the same coding sequences. Transformation of equine skin-derived cells into skeletal myotubes was examined by use of immunohistochemical analysis, western immunoblotting, and periodic acid-Schiff staining.

Results: eqMyoD mRNA consists of 960 bp and shares high homology with myogenic differentiation 1 from other mammals. Transfection confirmed the expression of a 53-kd protein with mainly nuclear localization. Lentiviral transduction was efficient, with approximately 80% of EGFP-positive cells transformed into multinucleated myotubes during 15 days, as determined by expression of the muscle-specific proteins desmin, troponin-T, and sarcomeric myosin and by cytoplasmic storage of glycogen.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Equine primary fibroblasts were transformed by lentiviral transduction of eqMyoD into fusion-competent myoblasts. This may offer a preferable alternative to primary myoblast cultures for the investigation of cellular defects associated with muscle diseases of horses, such as recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis and polysaccharide storage myopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.69.12.1637DOI Listing
December 2008

Single nucleotide polymorphisms that cause structural changes in the cyclic AMP receptor protein transcriptional regulator of the tuberculosis vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG alter global gene expression without attenuating growth.

Infect Immun 2008 May 10;76(5):2227-34. Epub 2008 Mar 10.

Division of Mycobacterial Research, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present in the global transcriptional regulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) of the attenuated vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We have found that these SNPs resulted in small but significant changes in the expression of a number of genes in M. tuberculosis when a deletion of the Rv3676 CRP was complemented by the BCG allele, compared to complementation by the M. tuberculosis allele. We can explain these changes in gene expression by modeling the structure of the mycobacterial protein on the known structure of CRP from Escherichia coli. Thus, the SNP change in the DNA-binding domain, Lys178, is predicted to form a hydrogen bond with the phosphate backbone of the DNA, as does the equivalent residue in E. coli, whereas Glu178 in M. tuberculosis/M. bovis does not, thus explaining the stronger binding reported for CRP of BCG to CRP-binding sites in mycobacterial DNA. In contrast, the SNP change in the nucleotide binding domain (Leu47Pro) is predicted to result in the loss of one hydrogen bond, which is accommodated by the structure, and would not therefore be expected to cause any change in function relating to cAMP binding. The BCG allele fully complemented the growth defect caused by the deletion of the Rv3676 protein in M. tuberculosis, both in vitro and in macrophage and mouse infections, suggesting that these SNPs do not play any role in the attenuation of BCG. However, they may have allowed BCG to grow better under the in vitro-selective conditions used in its derivation from the M. bovis wild type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01410-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2346674PMC
May 2008

An ABC transporter containing a forkhead-associated domain interacts with a serine-threonine protein kinase and is required for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.

Infect Immun 2005 Aug;73(8):4471-7

Division of Mycobacterial Research, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA, United Kingdom.

Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are modular phosphopeptide recognition motifs with a striking preference for phosphothreonine-containing epitopes. FHA domains have been best characterized in eukaryotic signaling pathways but have been identified in six proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative organism of tuberculosis. One of these, coded by gene Rv1747, is an ABC transporter and the only one to contain two such modules. A deletion mutant of Rv1747 is attenuated in a mouse intravenous injection model of tuberculosis where the bacterial load of the mutant is 10-fold lower than that of the wild type in both lungs and spleen. In addition, growth of the mutant in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells is significantly impaired. In contrast, growth of this mutant in vitro was indistinguishable from that of the wild type. The mutant phenotype was lost when the mutation was complemented by the wild-type allele, confirming that it was due to mutation of Rv1747. Using yeast two-hybrid analysis, we have shown that the Rv1747 protein interacts with the serine-threonine protein kinase PknF. This interaction appears to be phospho-dependent since it is abrogated in a kinase-dead mutant and by mutations in the presumed activation loop of PknF and in the first FHA domain of Rv1747. These results demonstrate that the protein coded by Rv1747 is required for normal virulent infection by M. tuberculosis in mice and, since it interacts with a serine-threonine protein kinase in a kinase-dependent manner, indicate that it forms part of an important phospho-dependent signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.73.8.4471-4477.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1201257PMC
August 2005

Multiple regions contribute to membrane targeting of Rab GTPases.

J Cell Sci 2004 Dec 23;117(Pt 26):6401-12. Epub 2004 Nov 23.

Cell and Molecular Biology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

Small GTPases of the Rab family are key regulators of membrane trafficking. Each Rab shows a characteristic subcellular distribution, and may serve as an important determinant of organelle identity. The molecular mechanisms responsible for targeting Rabs to specific intracellular compartments, however, remain poorly understood. The divergent C-terminal hypervariable region was postulated to contain Rab targeting information. We generated a series of hybrid Rab proteins by exchanging the hypervariable domains of Rab1a, Rab2a, Rab5a, Rab7 and Rab27a, and analysed their subcellular localisations. We found that the various hybrid proteins retained their targeting to the parent organelle and were functionally active. We conclude that the hypervariable region does not contain a general Rab targeting signal. Furthermore, we identified other regions within the RabF and RabSF motifs that are required for specific targeting of Rab27a to secretory granules or melanosomes, and Rab5a to endosomes. We observed only partial overlap between targeting-determining regions in the Rab proteins examined, suggesting that Rab recruitment may be complex and at least partially Rab-specific. Mutations in these targeting-determining regions induced localisation to the ER, an observation that further strengthens our previous finding that ER/Golgi membranes serve as the default location for Rabs that have lost targeting information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.01542DOI Listing
December 2004

Visceral obesity without insulin resistance in late-onset obesity rats.

Endocrinology 2004 Jun 19;145(6):2666-79. Epub 2004 Mar 19.

Division of Molecular Neuroendocrinology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom.

We describe a line of transgenic rats in which the males develop a unique autosomal dominant, late-onset obesity (LOB) phenotype. LOB males gradually accumulate fat specifically in visceral, but not peripheral, fat depots despite a normal intake of a low fat diet. LOB females normally develop only mild obesity with advanced age. However, the phenotype can be induced rapidly in young females by ovariectomy and prevented by estrogen replacement. LOB males are highly sensitive to dietary fat. Young, nonobese LOB males gain more weight on a 30% fat diet and lose more weight when treated with the lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, than their nontransgenic littermates. Remarkably, despite severe visceral obesity, LOB rats have normal fasting blood glucose, insulin, and corticosterone; show normal or increased insulin sensitivity in glucose and insulin tolerance tests; have increased plasma adiponectin levels; and display a heightened response to treatment with rosiglitazone. Their visceral adiposity reflects a specific increase in visceral adipocyte number, not size. Analysis of the transgene in LOB rats revealed a deletion in the gene encoding the S26 subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome that results in the production of a truncated protein, which we show to be imported into mitochondria. However, the transgene integrant is complex, so whether this is the sole molecular disruption underlying this phenotype remains to be established. Nevertheless, LOB rats provide a valuable new model of late-onset, male-preponderant, visceral-specific obesity, clearly dissociated from insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2003-1608DOI Listing
June 2004

Structural determinants of Rab and Rab Escort Protein interaction: Rab family motifs define a conserved binding surface.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003 Jan;301(1):92-7

Cell and Molecular Biology Section, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

Rab proteins are a large family of monomeric GTPases with 60 members identified in the human genome. Rab GTPases require an isoprenyl modification to their C-terminus for membrane association and function in the regulation of vesicular trafficking pathways. This reaction is catalysed by Rab geranylgeranyl transferase, which recognises as protein substrate any given Rab in a 1:1 complex with Rab Escort Protein (REP). REP is therefore able to bind many distinct Rab proteins but the molecular basis for this activity is still unclear. We recently identified conserved motifs in Rabs termed RabF motifs, which we proposed to mediate a conserved mode of interaction between Rabs and REPs. Here, we tested this hypothesis. We first used REP1 as a bait in the yeast two-hybrid system and isolated strictly full-length Rabs, suggesting that REP recognises multiple regions within and properly folded Rabs. We introduced point mutations in Rab3a as a model Rab and assessed the ability of the mutants to interact with REP using the yeast two-hybrid system and an in vitro prenylation assay. We identified several residues that affect REP:Rab binding in the RabF1, RabF3, and RabF4 regions (which include parts of the switch I and II regions), but not other RabF regions. These results support the hypothesis that Rabs bind REP via conserved RabF motifs and provide a molecular explanation for the preferential recognition of the GDP-bound conformation of Rab by REP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(02)02963-7DOI Listing
January 2003

A family of Rab27-binding proteins. Melanophilin links Rab27a and myosin Va function in melanosome transport.

J Biol Chem 2002 Jul 29;277(28):25423-30. Epub 2002 Apr 29.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

The Rab27a GTPase regulates diverse processes involving lysosome-related organelles, including melanosome motility in melanocytes, and lytic granule release in cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Toward an understanding of Rab27a function, we searched for proteins that interact with Rab27a(GTP) using the yeast two-hybrid system and identified JFC1/Slp1, a protein of unknown function. JFC1/Slp1 and related proteins, including melanophilin, contain a conserved amino-terminal domain similar to the Rab3a-binding domain of Rabphilin-3. We used several methods to demonstrate that this conserved amino-terminal domain is a Rab27-binding domain. We show that this domain interacts directly, and in a GTP-dependent manner with Rab27a. Furthermore, overexpression of this domain in melanocytes results in perinuclear clustering of melanosomes, suggesting that this region is sufficient for interaction with, and perturbation of function of, Rab27a in a physiological context. Thus, we identified a novel family of Rab27-binding proteins. We also show that melanophilin associates with Rab27a and myosin Va on melanosomes in melanocytes, and present evidence that a domain within the carboxyl-terminal region of melanophilin interacts with the carboxyl-terminal tail of the melanocyte-specific splice isoform of myosin Va. Thus, melanophilin can associate simultaneously with activated Rab27a and myosin Va via distinct regions, and serve as a linker between these proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M202574200DOI Listing
July 2002

The leaden gene product is required with Rab27a to recruit myosin Va to melanosomes in melanocytes.

Traffic 2002 Mar;3(3):193-202

Cell and Molecular Biology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

The function of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes in melanocytes, and lytic granules in cytotoxic T lymphocytes is disrupted in Griscelli syndrome and related diseases. Griscelli syndrome results from loss of function mutations in either the RAB27A (type 1 Griscelli syndrome) or MYO5A (type 2 Griscelli syndrome) genes. Melanocytes from Griscelli syndrome patients and respective murine models ashen (Rab27a mutant), dilute (myosin Va mutant), and leaden exhibit perinuclear clustering of melanosomes. Recent work suggests that Rab27a is required to recruit myosin Va to melanosomes, thereby tethering melanosomes to the peripheral actin network and promoting melanosome retention at the tips of melanocytic dendrites. Here, we characterize the function of the leaden gene product. We show that Rab27a, but not myosin Va, can be localized to melanosomes in leaden melanocytes, suggesting that the leaden gene product acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Rab27a in melanocytes to promote recruitment of myosin Va to melanosomes. We also observed reduced levels of myosin Va protein in leaden and ashen melanocytes, suggesting that myosin Va stability is influenced by the leaden and ashen gene products. In leaden cytotoxic T lymphocytes, we observed that lytic granules polarize towards the immunological synapse and kill target cells normally. However, in contrast to melanocytes, we found that neither the leaden gene product (melanophilin) nor myosin Va was detectable in cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These results suggest that Rab27a interacts with different classes of effector proteins in melanocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0854.2002.030305.xDOI Listing
March 2002