Publications by authors named "Mojtaba Shakibaie"

45 Publications

Bioactive anti-oxidative polycaprolactone/gelatin electrospun nanofibers containing selenium nanoparticles/vitamin E for wound dressing applications.

J Biomater Appl 2021 Mar 15:8853282211001359. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

In this study, polycaprolactone/gelatin (PCL/GEL) electrospun nanofibers containing biogenic selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) and Se NPs/vitamin E (VE) with average diameters of 397.8 nm and 279.5 nm, respectively (as determined by SEM inspection) were prepared and their effect on wound healing was evaluated using in-vivo studies. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping, TEM micrograph, and FTIR spectra of the prepared nanofibers strongly demonstrated well entrapment of Se NPs and VE into scaffolds. An amount of 57% Se NPs and 43% VE were gradually released from PCL/GEL/Se NPs/VE scaffold after 4 days immersion in PBS solution (pH 7.4). The both PCL/GEL/Se NPs and PCL/GEL/Se NPs/VE scaffolds supported 3T3 cell proliferation and attachment as confirmed by MTT assay and SEM imaging. Complete re-epithelialization, low level of edema and inflammatory cells in coordination with high level of oriented collagens demonstrated the wound healing activity of PCL/GEL/Se NPs/VE. Besides, significant antioxidant efficacy of PCL/GEL/Se NPs and PCL/GEL/Se NPs/VE scaffolds was demonstrated according to GSH and MDA assays. To sum up, the prepared PCL/GEL/Se NPs/VE scaffold in the present study represented suitable healing effect on animal model which candidate it for further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08853282211001359DOI Listing
March 2021

Optimization of immobilization conditions of Bacillus atrophaeus FSHM2 lipase on maleic copolymer coated amine-modified graphene oxide nanosheets and its application for valeric acid esterification.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Nov 16;162:1790-1806. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cosmetic Products Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The thermoalkalophilic lipase from Bacillus atrophaeus (BaL) was immobilized onto amine-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets coated with the poly (maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) copolymer (GO-NH-PMAO) and activated with glutaraldehyde as spacer arm through interfacial activation and subsequent multipoint covalent attachment. Experimental design method was applied for optimization of immobilization conditions including GO-NH-PMAO concentration, buffer concentration, pH, sonication time, enzyme concentration, glutaraldehyde concentration, time, and temperature. The optimum specific activity of the immobilized BaL (105.95 ± 2.37 U/mg) reached at 5 mg/mL for GO-NH-PMAO, 25 mM of buffer, pH 6.0, 60 min sonication time, 100 mM glutaraldehyde, 60 U/mL of enzyme, and 4 h of immobilization time at 25 °C, which was very close to the predicted amount (106.08 ± 1.42 U/mg). Maximum immobilization yield (81.35%) and efficiency (277.63%) were determined in optimal immobilization conditions. The obtained results clearly indicated that the immobilized BaL exhibited better stability at extreme temperature and pH than the free BaL. At temperature of 90 °C and pH 11, more than 90% of the initial activity of the immobilized BaL was retained. Furthermore, the immobilized BaL retained about 90% of its initial activity after 10 days of storage and 6 cycles of application. The esterification studies showed that maximum bioconversion of valeric acid to pentyl valerate using the free BaL (34.5%) and the immobilized BaL (96.3%) occurred in the xylene medium after 48 h of incubation at 60 °C. Therefore, the BaL immobilized on GO-NH-PMAO was introduced as an effective biocatalyst to synthesize green apple flavour ester.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.101DOI Listing
November 2020

Prophylactic Activity of Biogenic Selenium Nanoparticles Against Chronic Infection.

Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2020 ;15(1):75-84

Research Center for Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Studies showed that biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have a number of pharmacological properties, such as antimicrobial ones.

Objective: The present investigation assesses the efficacy of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) as a new patent against latent toxoplasmosis in a mice model.

Methods: Male BALB/c mice were orally treated with SeNPs at the doses of 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg once a day for 14 days. On the 15th day, the mice were infected with the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from the Tehran strain of Toxoplasma gondii. The mean numbers of brain tissue cysts and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, IFN-γ, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mice of each tested group were measured. Moreover, serum clinical chemistry factors in treated mice were examined to determine the safety of SeNPs.

Results: The mean number of the brain tissue cysts was significantly (P<0.001) decreased in mice treated with SeNPs at doses 2.5 (n=37), 5 (n=11), and 10 mg/kg (n=3) based on a dose dependent manner compared with the control group (n=587). The mRNA levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, and iNO were significantly increased in mice treated with SeNPs at the doses 10 mg/kg compared with control subgroups (p<0.05). No significant variation (p>0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry parameters among the mice in the control subgroups compared with groups treated with SeNPs.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed a new patent in the treatment of toxoplasmosis; so that taking the biogenic selenium nanoparticles in concentrations of 2.5-10 mg/kg for 2 weeks was able to prevent severe symptoms of the toxoplasmosis in a mice model. This indicated the prophylactic effects of SeNPs with no considerable toxicity against latent toxoplasmosis. However, more studies are required to elucidate the correct anti-Toxoplasma mechanisms of SeNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574891X15666200604115001DOI Listing
January 2020

Prophylactic effects of biogenic selenium nanoparticles on acute toxoplasmosis: An in vivo study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2020 Jun 29;54:85-88. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: In this investigation, the in vivo efficacy and safety of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are assessed against acute toxoplasmosis caused by (Sarcocystidae) in the mice.

Methods: Male NMRI mice were orally treated with normal saline (control group) and SeNPs at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg once a day for 14 days On the 15th day, the mice were infected with 10 tachyzoites of RH strain by the intraperitoneal route. The mortality rate and parasite load were determined in the infected mice. The mRNA levels of IFN-γ, IL10, IL12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the infected mice by quantitative real-time PCR.

Results: The rate of mortality in the infected mice receiving SeNPs at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg compared with the mice in the control group was 100% on the 9 and 10 days after the administration. The mean number of tachyzoites in the infected mice receiving SeNPs was significantly lower than that in the control group. No significant difference ( > 0.05) was found in the biochemical parameters between the mice treated with SeNPs and the mice in the control group. The results revealed that mRNA levels significantly improved in the infected mice treated with SeNPs compared with those in the control group.

Conclusion: Findings of the present investigation showed the considerable efficacy of SeNPs with no important toxicity for curing acute toxoplasmosis in the mice model. However, further studies are needed to clarify the accurate anti-Toxoplasma mechanisms of SeNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2020.04.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212177PMC
June 2020

Biogenic selenium nanoparticles target chronic toxoplasmosis with minimal cytotoxicity in a mouse model.

J Med Microbiol 2020 Jan;69(1):104-110

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Nanoparticles (NPs) have numerous biological benefits due to their large surface-volume ratio and convenient entry into cells compared to other particles. Previous research has shown the antimicrobial properties of biogenic selenium NPs (SeNps) and their effects on cellular immunomodulatory cytokines that play a key role in controlling infections. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of SeNPs against chronic toxoplasmosis in mice. Infected mice with (Tehran strain) were orally treated with SeNPs at doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg once a day for 14 days. On the fifthteenth day, the mean number of brain-tissue cysts and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the mice of each group were recorded. Moreover, serum clinical chemistry factors in the treated mice were examined to determine the safety of SeNPs. The mean number of tissue cysts was significantly (<0.001) decreased in mice treated with SeNPs in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in mice treated with SeNPs at a dose of 10 mg kg compared with the control subgroup (<0.05). No significant variation (>0.05) observed in clinical chemistry parameters among the mice in the control subgroup compared with those treated with SeNPs. The findings demonstrated the therapeutic effects of SeNPs with no considerable toxicity against latent toxoplasmosis in the mouse model. Nevertheless, further studies are obligatory to reveal the exact anti-Toxoplasma mechanisms of SeNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001111DOI Listing
January 2020

Immobilization of Thermoalkalophilic Lipase from Bacillus atrophaeus FSHM2 on Amine-Modified Graphene Oxide Nanostructures: Statistical Optimization and Its Application for Pentyl Valerate Synthesis.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2020 Jun 10;191(2):579-604. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Synthesis of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, statistical optimization of conditions for immobilization of Bacillus atrophaeus lipase (BaL) on as-synthesized support, and application of the immobilized BaL for esterification of valeric acid were carried out in this investigation. The optimum specific activity of the immobilized BaL (81.60 ± 0.28 U mg) was achieved at 3 mg mL of GO-NH, 50 mM of phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 60 min sonication time, 100 mM glutaraldehyde, 25 U mL of enzyme, and 8 h immobilization time at 4 °C. The immobilized BaL retained about 90% of its initial activity after 10 days of storage. Moreover, about 70% of the initial activity of the immobilized BaL was retained after 10 cycles of application. The results of esterification studies exhibited that maximum pentyl valerate synthesis using the free BaL (34.5%) and the immobilized BaL (92.7%) occurred in the organic solvent medium (xylene) after 48 h of incubation at 60 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-019-03180-1DOI Listing
June 2020

Antioxidant, cytotoxic and hyperalgesia-suppressing activity of a native Shilajit obtained from Bahr Aseman mountains.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Sep;32(5):2167-2173

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Shilajit, a blackish-brown exudation obtained from steep rocks of different mountains, has been longly used as a therapeutic agent in traditional medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, cytotoxic and hyperalgesia-suppressing activity of the aqueous and DMSO extracts of a native Shilajit. The antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of Shilajit extracts was determined using DPPH scavenging activity and MTT assay methods, respectively. In order to examine the hyperalgesia-suppressing activity of the Shilajit aqueous extract the STZ-induced diabetic animals were subjected to oral administration of the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg daily) for six weeks followed by evaluating the behavioral examination (hot plate and tail flick tests) compared to those of diabetic control (Sham) and vehicle groups. The obtained results of antioxidant evaluation of Shilajit represented scavenging activity of 50% at concentration of 2500 μg/mL and 6000 μg/mL in the case of aqueous and DMSO extracts, respectively. Cytotoxic study of water extract of Shilajit revealed IC50 of 727.5±1.9 μg/mL and 1103±3.2 μg/mL on cell lines of MCF-7 (breast cancer) and A549 (lung cancer), respectively. Thermal pain response examination of diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of Shilajit (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) for six weeks reduced hyperalgesia compared to vehicle and Sham groups. To sum up, considering the moderate antioxidant and hyperalgesia-suppressing activity of this native Shilajit make it as a suitable candidate for further investigation after isolation and characterization of the active compounds.
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September 2019

Rapid and Facile Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Properties and Cytotoxic Effects Against Fibroblast-Like (HSkMC) and Human Lung Carcinoma (A549) Cell Lines.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Sep 28;197(1):132-140. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cosmetic Products Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

We report here a simple microwave irradiation method (850 W, 3 min) for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) using ascorbic acid (as reducing agent) and sodium alginate (as stabilizer agent). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects of as-synthesized Pd NPs and Pd (II) acetate were also assessed. UV-Vis study showed the formation of Pd NPs with maximum absorption at 345 nm. From TEM analysis, it was observed that the Pd NPs had spherical shape with particle size distribution of 13-33 nm. Based on DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay, the antioxidant activities of Pd NPs were significantly higher than the Pd (II) acetate (p < 0.05). At the same concentration of 640 μg/mL, the scavenging activities were 32.9 ± 3.2% (Pd (II) acetate) and 27.2 ± 2.1% (Pd NPs). For A549 cells treated 48 h with Pd NPs, Pd (II) acetate, and cisplatin, the measured concentration necessary causing 50% cell death (IC) was 7.2 ± 1.7 μg/mL, 32.1 ± 2.1 μg/mL, and 206.2 ± 3.5 μg/mL, respectively. On HSkMC cells, the IC of the Pd NPs (320 μg/mL) was higher compared to Pd (II) acetate (228.7 ± 3.6 μg/mL), which confirmed lower cytotoxicity of the Pd NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01984-0DOI Listing
September 2020

Antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-proliferative activities of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Acinetobacter junii B6.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jan 17;138:103806. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Lipopeptide biosurfactants (LPBs) are amphiphilic compounds produced by microorganisms exhibiting various biological activities. The main aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and cytotoxic effects of LPB produced by Acinetobacter junii (AjL). We determined AjL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as two fungal strains. Also, the anti-biofilm activity of AjL against the biofilm produced by clinically isolated bacterial strains was investigated. The AjL non-selectively showed activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The obtained results of the present study exhibited that the AjL in concentrations nearly below critical micelle concentration (CMC) has an effective antibacterial activity. It was found that the MIC values of AjL were lower than standard antifungal and it exhibited nearly 100% inhibition against Candida utilis. The attained results of the biofilm formation revealed that AjL disrupted the biofilm of Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1250 μg/ml and 2500 μg/ml concentrations. The attained results of cytotoxic effect (determined by WST-1 assay) of the AjL revealed IC of 7.8 ± 0.4 mg/ml, 2.4 ± 0.5 mg/ml, and 5.7 ± 0.1 mg/ml, against U87, KB, and HUVEC cell lines, respectively. The results indicated that AjL has a potential application in the relatively new field of biomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103806DOI Listing
January 2020

Preparation and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles Containing Gentamicin: A Preliminary Study.

Iran J Biotechnol 2018 Dec 12;16(4):e1559. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) loaded by various active compounds can be used for targeted drug delivery. Objectives: In the present study, the FeO magnetic nanoparticles that contained gentamicin were prepared and their antibacterial activities were studied.

Materials And Methods: MNPs containing gentamicin (G@SA-MNPs) were prepared using sodium alginate (SA) as a surface modifier. After and before coating, the prepared MNPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Finally, the antibacterial effect of the MNPs was investigated by a conventional serial agar dilution method.

Results: Particle size distribution analysis showed that the size of MNPs, before and after coating, was in the range of 1-18 nm and 12-40 nm, respectively. The magnetization curve of G@SA-MNPs (with saturation magnetization of 27.9 emu.g) confirmed ferromagnetic property. Loading gentamicin on the surface of MNPs was qualitatively verified by FTIR spectrum. Quantitative analysis measurements indicated the gentamicin loading on SA-MNPs as 56.7 ± 5.4%. The measured MICs of G@SA-MNPs for (PTTC 1574) was 1.28 µg.mL. The sub-MIC (0.64 µg.mL) concentration of G@SA-MNPs in nutrient broth could successfully inhibit the growth of for 14 hours.

Conclusions: Loading gentamicin on the SA-MNPs exhibited reasonable antibacterial effects against .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697835PMC
December 2018

Ondansetron enhanced diclofenac-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2019 Sep 23;33(9):e22378. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

This study was performed to investigate the effect of ondansetron, a serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonist, in the alleviation of diclofenac-induced kidney injuries. NMRI mice were randomly divided into six groups and treated with (A) untreated control group, (B) diclofenac (100 mg/kg), (C) ondansetron (1 mg/kg), (D to F) ondansetron (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, respectively) and diclofenac (100 mg/kg) for last 3 days of experiment. The oxidative stress tests strongly demonstrated the negative synergistic effects of diclofenac and ondansetron, regarding the observation of dose-dependent enhancement of malondialdehyde concentration, and reduction of glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. Histopathological analyses revealed dose-dependent tubular epithelial cells degeneration, outstanding mononuclear cells infiltration, clear necrosis at the papillary region of kidney, dilation, and vascular hyperemia in mice kidney tissues treated with ondansetron and diclofenac. Conclusively, these findings suggested the possible ondansetron-diclofenac interaction through the induction of oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22378DOI Listing
September 2019

Statistical optimization of cultural medium composition of thermoalkalophilic lipase produced by a chemically induced mutant strain of FSHM2.

3 Biotech 2019 Jul 15;9(7):268. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Extremophilic microbial derived lipases have been widely applied in different biotechnological processes due to their resistance to harsh conditions such as high salt concentration, elevated temperature, and extreme acidic or alkaline pH. The present study was designed to overproduce the halophilic, thermoalkalophilic lipase of FSHM2 through chemically induced random mutagenesis and optimization of cultural medium components assisted by statistical experimental design. At first, improvement of lipase production ability of FSHM2 was performed through exposure of the wild bacterial strain to ethidium bromide for 5-90 min to obtain a suitable mutant of lipase producer (designated as EB-5, 4301.1 U/l). Afterwards, Plackett-Burman experimental design augmented to D-optimal design was employed to optimize medium components (olive oil, maltose, glucose, sucrose, tryptone, urea, (NH)SO, NaCl, CaCl, and ZnSO) for lipase production by the EB-5 mutant. A maximum lipase production of 14,824.3 U/l was predicted in the optimum medium containing 5% of olive oil, 0.5% of glucose, 0.5% of sucrose, 2% of maltose, 2.5 g/l of yeast extract, 1.75 g/l of urea, 1.75 g/l of (NH)SO, 2.5 g/l of tryptone, 2 g/l of NaCl, 1 g/l of CaCl, and 1 g/l of ZnSO. A mean value of 14,773 ± 576.9 U/l of lipase was acquired from real experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1789-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571094PMC
July 2019

Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of Bi subnitrate and BiNPs produced by sp. SFG against clinical isolates of , , and .

IET Nanobiotechnol 2019 Jun;13(4):377-381

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

In the present study sp. Shakibaie, Forootanfar, and Ghazanfari (SFG), was applied for preparation of biogenic Bi nanoparticles (BiNPs) and antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of the purified BiNPs were investigated by microdilution and disc diffusion methods. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the produced nanostructures were spherical with a size range of 40-120 nm. The measured minimum inhibitory concentration of both the Bi subnitrate and BiNPs against three biofilms producing bacterial pathogens of , , and were found to be above 1280 µg/ml. Addition of BiNPs (1000 µg/disc) to antibiotic discs containing tobramycin, nalidixic acid, ceftriaxone, bacitracin, cefalexin, amoxicillin, and cefixime significantly increased the antibacterial effects against methicillin-resistant (MRSA) in comparison with Bi subnitrate ( < 0.05). Furthermore, the biogenic BiNPs decreased the biofilm formation of , , and to 55, 85, and 15%, respectively. In comparison to Bi subnitrate, BiNPs indicated significant anti-biofilm activity against ( < 0.05) while the anti-biofilm activity of BiNPs against and was similar to that of Bi subnitrate. To sum up, the attained results showed that combination of biogenic BiNPs with commonly used antibiotics relatively enhanced their antibacterial effects against MRSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5102DOI Listing
June 2019

Toxicity of microwave-assisted biosynthesized zinc nanoparticles in mice: a preliminary study.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2019 Dec;47(1):1846-1858

c Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy , Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman , Iran.

This study was designed to describe the oral acute and subacute toxicities and underlying toxicological mechanisms of biogenic Zn NPs in mice. The Zn NPs were prepared by a green microwave-assisted synthesis method in the presence of Lavandula vera leaf extract. Determination of median lethal dose (LD) of Zn NPs and the subacute toxicity after 14 days of exposure was performed as a measurement of substance toxicity through general toxicological, hematological, serum, and histopathological investigations. The western blotting was used to determine the cleaved-caspase-3 expression in the sampled tissues. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was applied to estimate the Zn levels in tissues. The SEM analyses revealed that the biogenic Zn NPs were spherical-shaped with the size range of 30-80 nm. The LD value above 5 g/kg indicated that biogenic Zn NPs could be classified as non-toxic chemicals. In subacute toxicity, no significant differences were found in the body weight as well as hematological and oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers after exposure to Zn NPs at the dose of 1 g/kg in comparison to the control. The AAS results indicated that Zn NPs were mainly distributed in the testis, liver, and brain. The findings of histology images of Zn NPs at the dose of 1 g/kg were similar to those of the control. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in cleaved-caspase-3 expression after exposure to Zn NPs at the dose of 5 g/kg. The results demonstrated that changes in the OS were not related to caspase pathway and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of biogenic Zn NPs in 14-days subacute toxicity study was lower than 1 g/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1611592DOI Listing
December 2019

Cytotoxicity investigations of biogenic tellurium nanorods towards PC12 cell line.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2018 Dec;12(8):1144-1149

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

The authors evaluated the cytotoxicity underlying mechanisms of biogenic tellurium (Te) nanorods (NRs) produced by the strain Te on the PC12 cell line. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) value was estimated at 5.05 ± 0.07 ng/ml for biogenic Te NRs and 2.44 ± 0.38 ng/ml for KTeO, respectively. The viability of PC12 was inhibited concentration dependent at doses of 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 ng/ml. Te NRs principally induced late apoptosis or necrosis at IC concentration, without effect on caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, Te NRs reduced glutathione and enhanced malondialdehyde levels, and also reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These findings revealed that biogenic Te NRs were less toxic than KTeO. Additionally, they induced cytotoxity towards the PC12 cell line through the activation of late apoptosis independent of the caspase pathway, and may also enhance oxidative stress in the nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5137DOI Listing
December 2018

Overproduction of thermoalkalophilic lipase secreted by Bacillus atrophaeus FSHM2 using UV-induced mutagenesis and statistical optimization of medium components.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2019 3;49(2):184-191. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

a Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology , Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman , Iran.

Microbial enzymes of extremophilic origin serve as a vital source of stable industrial enzymes. The present study focused on overproduction of a thermoalkalophilic lipase produced by Bacillus atrophaeus FSHM2 through UV-induced random mutagenesis (5-45 min exposure to UV light) and factorial experimental design augmented to response surface methodology. Firstly, a UV-induced mutant (designated as UV-45) was developed after the exposure of wild strain to UV irradiation for 45 min which was able to secrete 3484.8 U/L lipase. Afterward, Plackett-Burman experimental approach augmented to central composite design was employed to optimize medium components (olive oil, maltose, glucose, sucrose, yeast extract, tryptone, urea, (NH)SO, NaCl, CaCl, and ZnSO) for lipase production by the UV-45 mutant strain. The maximum lipase production of 5505.3 U/L were predicted in medium containing 5% of olive oil, 0.69% of glucose, 0.69% of sucrose, 2.5% of maltose, yeast extract (0.7 g/L), urea (0.44 g/L), (NH)SO (2.44 g/L), tryptone (1.19 g/L), NaCl (1.61 g/L), CaCl (3.81 g/L), and ZnSO (1.42 g/L). A mean value of 5161.3 ± 83.3 U/L of lipolytic activity was acquired from real experiments. To sum up, the lipolytic activity of wild type strain (1720.4 U/L) increased by 3-fold after UV-induced mutagenesis and medium components optimization (5161.3 U/L).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2019.1566148DOI Listing
March 2019

Cytotoxicity of biologically synthesised bismuth nanoparticles against HT-29 cell line.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2018 08;12(5):653-657

Sudent Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

This study was purposed to examine the cytotoxicity and functions of biologically synthesised bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) produced by sp. SFG on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line of HT-29. The structural properties of Bi NPs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The cytotoxic effects of Bi NPs were analysed using flow cytometry cell apoptosis while western blot analyses were applied to analyse the cleaved caspase-3 expression. Oxidative stress (OS) damage was determined using the measurement of the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) value of Bi NPs was measured to be 28.7 ± 1.4 µg/ml on HT-29 cell line. The viability of HT-29 represented a concentration-dependent pattern (5-80 µg/ml). The mode of Bi NPs induced apoptosis was found to be mainly related to late apoptosis or necrosis at IC concentration, without the effect on caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, Bi NPs reduced the GSH and increased the MDA levels and decreased the SOD and CAT activities. Taken together, biogenic Bi NPs induced cytotoxicity on HT-29 cell line through the activation of late apoptosis independent of caspase pathway and may enhance the OS biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2017.0295DOI Listing
August 2018

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Biologically Synthesized Tellurium Nanorods; A Preliminary Study.

Iran J Biotechnol 2017 29;15(4):268-276. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Recent theranostic (therapeutic or diagnostic) applications of tellurium nanoparticles have attracted a great interest for development of different methods for synthesis of this valuable nanostructure, especially via biological resources. In the present study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of the tellurium nanorods (Te NRs) biosynthesized by a bacterial strain strain Te were evaluated. The antimicrobial effect of Te NRs and potassium tellurite against different bacterial and fungal pathogens was assessed by microdilution method. Furthermore, the disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of the biogenic Te NRs and potassium tellurite against , alone or in combination with various antibiotics. Also, the biogenic Te NRs were investigated for antioxidant activity using 2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and reducing power assay. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the purified Te NRs showed individual and rod-shaped nanostructure (~22 nm diameter by 185 nm in length). Based on the data obtained from both microdilution and disk diffusion method the K TeO exhibited a higher antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to the Te NRs. The measured IC for the biogenic Te NRs (i.e. DPPH radical scavenging activity) was found to be 24.9 μg.mL, while, K TeO has represented only 17.6 ± 0.8 % DPPH radical scavenging effect at the concentration of 160 μg.mL. The reducing power assay revealed a higher electron-donating activity for Te NRs compared to KTeO. Based on the data obtained from both microdilution and disk diffusion method the KTeO exhibited a higher antimicrobial and antifungal activity than Te NRs. Te NRs didn't show the antibacterial effect against the tested bacterial strain: MRSA and showed an inhibitory effect and antibacterial activity of the effective antibiotics. However, more studies should be performed to explore the action mechanism of the produced biogenic Te NRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijb.1580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903914PMC
December 2017

Statistical optimization of kojic acid production by a UV-induced mutant strain of Aspergillus terreus.

Braz J Microbiol 2018 Oct - Dec;49(4):865-871. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The ability of four Aspergillus strains for biosynthesis of kojic acid was evaluated among which Aspergillus terreus represented the highest level (2.21g/L) of kojic acid production. Improvement kojic acid production ability of A. terreus by random mutagenesis using different exposure time to ultraviolet light (5-40min) was then performed to obtain a suitable mutant of kojic acid production (designated as C, 7.63g/L). Thereafter, design of experiment protocol was employed to find medium components (glucose, yeast extract, KHPO (NH)SO, and pH) influences on kojic acid production by the C mutant. A 2 fractional factorial design augmented to central composite design showed that glucose, yeast extract, and KHPO were the most considerable factors within the tested levels (p<0.05). The optimum medium composition for the kojic acid production by the C mutant was found to be glucose, 98.4g/L; yeast extract, 1.0g/L; and KHPO, 10.3mM which was theoretically able to produce 120.2g/L of kojic acid based on the obtained response surface model for medium optimization. Using these medium compositions an experimental maximum Kojic acid production (109.0±10g/L) was acquired which verified the efficiency of the applied method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2018.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175716PMC
December 2018

Investigation of the structural, physicochemical properties, and aggregation behavior of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Acinetobacter junii B6.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Jun 6;112:712-719. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

In the present study the produced biosurfactant of Acinetobacter junii B6 (recently isolated from Iranian oil excavation site) were partially purified and identified by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR). Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. The physiochemical properties of the lipopeptide biosurfactant were evaluated by determination of its critical micelle concentration (CMC) and hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB). The produced biosurfactant decreased the surface tension of water to 36mNm with the CMC of approximately 300mg/l. Furthermore, the solubility properties of the biosurfactant (dissolved in phosphate-buffer saline solution, pH7.4) were investigated by turbidity examination, dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) inspection. It could be concluded that the biosurfactant showed the spherical-shaped vesicles at a concentration higher than its CMC and the circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the secondary structure of the biosurfactant vesicles is dominated by the β sheet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.01.209DOI Listing
June 2018

Antioxidant Potential and Wound Healing Activity of Biosurfactant Produced by Acinetobacter junii B6.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2017 ;18(11):900-908

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Recently, the development of a safe bioactive material with antioxidant properties, which can improve healing activity are focusing. Biosurfactants are very famous for their antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities. Thereof, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and wound healing activity of the lipopeptide biosurfactant (LBS) produced by Acinetobacter junii B6. DPPH radical scavenging activities and FRAP assays were used to measure the antioxidant properties.

Methods: For evaluation of the wound healing activity, 36 rats (previously wounded in depilated thoracic region) were randomly distributed into six groups and chromatic, wound contraction, and histopathological feature were examined. The assessment levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after LBS exposure were determined using malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and glutathione (GSH) assay kits.

Results: DPPH assay showed notable scavenging activities at the corresponding concentrations with IC50 value of 0.7 mg/ml. The reductive potency of the LBS showed lower performance at low concentration, while exhibited a remarkable increase at higher concentration. The best histopathological remission was achieved following treatment by 5 mg/ml of the LBS. Scar wounds at day 13 showed the lowest lesion sizes, increased re-epithelialization, hair follicle detection, and decreased amounts of neutrophilic inflammation, immaturity of the wound bed, erythema, edema, capillary, and retention of necrotic tissue.

Conclusion: Results from MDA, H2O2, and GSH levels of the treated sample confirmed the scavenging property of the bacterial derived LBS through ROS. It could be concluded that the pharmaceutical formula encourages the wound healing because of its notable antioxidant capacity.

Highlights: • DPPH and FRAP assays showed notable scavenging activity. • MDA, H2O2, and GSH; confirmed the scavenging property of the derived biosurfactant through ROS. • Synthesized formula encourages the healing of the wound because of its antioxidant capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201018666171122121350DOI Listing
June 2018

Acute and subacute toxicities of biogenic tellurium nanorods in mice.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Nov 18;90:222-230. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The current study was performed to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicities of biogenic tellurium nanorods (Te NRs). The Te NRs were prepared using Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain Te in a culture medium containing KTeO (1 mM) and their physiochemical properties were investigated using TEM, EDX and XRD. The median lethal dose (LD) of Te NRs and potassium tellurite (KTeO) were determined in mice and the subacute toxicity was also evaluated. The experimental design involved certain general toxicological, haematological, serum and histopathological investigations. The TEM and XRD analyses showed that the biogenic nanoparticles were rod-shaped and hexagonal. The toxicological evaluation showed that the LD values of Te NRs and KTeO were 60 and 12.5 mg/kg, respectively. Higher doses of Te NRs (6 mg/kg) and KTeO (1.25 mg/kg) were accompanied by signs of toxicity, including lower body weight, elevation in MDA and depletion in GSH content, SOD and CAT activity, and changes in biochemistry parameters. No obvious histopathological changes were observed in the treatment with Te NRs. In conclusion, the biogenic Te NRs were less toxic as compared to KTeO, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of Te NRs in 14 days subacute toxicity study was lower than 1.2 mg/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.09.014DOI Listing
November 2017

New racemic annulated pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazines as tacrine-like AChE inhibitors with potential use in Alzheimer's disease.

Eur J Med Chem 2017 Oct 31;139:280-289. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

A novel series of tacrine-like compounds 7a-u possessing a fused pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine structure were designed and synthesized as potent and selective inhibitors of AChE. The in-vitro biological assessments demonstrated that several compounds had high anti-AChE activity at nano-molar level. The more promising compound 7l with IC of 49 nM was 7-fold more potent than tacrine and unlike tacrine, it was highly selective against AChE over BuChE. The cell-based assays against hepatocytes (HepG2) and neuronal cell line (PC12) revealed that 7l had significantly lower hepatotoxicity compared to tacrine, with additional neuroprotective activity against HO-induced damage in PC12 cells. This compound could also inhibit AChE-induced and self-induced Aβ peptide aggregation. The advantages including synthetic accessibility, high potency and selectivity, low toxicity, adjunctive neuroprotective and Aβ aggregation inhibitory activity, make this compound as a new multifunctional lead for Alzheimer's disease drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.07.072DOI Listing
October 2017

Probiotic and antioxidant properties of selenium-enriched Lactobacillus brevis LSe isolated from an Iranian traditional dairy product.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Mar 23;40:1-9. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The present study was designed to isolate a highly selenium-tolerant lactobacillus strain from an Iranian traditional dairy product named as Spar. Different criteria such as tolerance to the low pH, simulated gastric juice (SGJ), simulated intestinal juice (SIJ) and bile salts tolerance as well as Caco-2 cell adhesion assay were examined to evaluate the probiotic potentials of the selected isolate. Furthermore, the antioxidant properties of the isolate cultivated in medium containing and free of SeO ions were evaluated using DPPH scavenging and reducing power assays. The isolate was identified using conventional identification and 16S rDNA gene sequencing methods as Lactobacillus brevis LSe. The obtained results showed that the isolate was able to tolerate high concentration of sodium selenite (3.16mM). By decreasing the pH of the SGJ from 6 to 3, the survival percent of L. brevis LSe was not significantly changed over the time (p>0.05). In addition, the survival percent of the isolate in the SIJ (pH 6 and pH 8) was not statistically altered after 3h, 6h and 24h of incubation (p>0.05). In the presence of bile salts (0.3% and 0.6%) the survival rate of L. brevis LSe was not significantly decreased (p>0.05).L. brevis LSe also demonstrated the satisfactory ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells which were similar to that of the reference strain L. plantarum. The obtained results of antioxidant evaluation showed that L. brevis LSe containing elemental Se exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging ability (36.5±1.31%) and reducing power (OD, 0.14) than L. brevis LSe cultured in selenite-free medium (p<0.05). To sum up, further investigations should be conducted to merit the probable potential health benefit of Se-enriched L. brevis LSe and its application as Se-containing supplements or fermented foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.11.013DOI Listing
March 2017

Microwave-assisted biosynthesis of zinc nanoparticles and their cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Jan 3;39:116-123. Epub 2016 Sep 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The present study was designed for microwave assisted synthesis of zinc nanoparticles (Zn NPs) using Lavandula vera leaf extract in the presence of ZnSO (1mM). The biogenic Zn NPs were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Thereafter, the cytotoxic effect of ZnSO and Zn NPs on different cell lines was investigated by MTT-based cytotoxicity assay and their antioxidant properties were assessed using DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The SEM micrograph showed that the Zn NPs had spherical shape with the size range of 30-80nm. For A549, MCF-7, HT-29, and Caco-2 cell lines treated with Zn NPs, the concentration necessary causing 50% cell death (IC) was found to be 22.3±1.1μgmL, 86±3.7μgmL, 10.9±0.5μgmL, and 56.2±2.8μgmL, respectively. In the case of ZnSO, the same results (IC) were observed at concentration of 81.6±1.3μgmL (A549), 121.0±2.4μgmL (MCF-7), 43.0±1.4μgmL (HT-29), and 85.7±2.3μgmL (Caco-2). The obtained results of antioxidant activity showed that the IC values of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Zn NPs were 44μgmLand 65.3μgmL, respectively, while ZnSO at concentration of 200μgmL exhibited only 10.9% DPPH radical scavenging effect. Moreover, the reducing power of Zn NPs and BHA were significantly higher than ZnSO (p<0.05). To sum up, application of L. vera leaf extract combined with microwave heating energy led to simple and fast formation of Zn nanostructures exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activity compared to soluble Zn ions. However, identification of the related mechanisms merit further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.09.001DOI Listing
January 2017

Efficacy of Myrtus communis L. to Inactivate the Hydatid Cyst Protoscoleces.

J Invest Surg 2016 Jun 18;29(3):137-43. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

f Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center , Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman , Islamic Republic of Iran.

Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the scolicidal effects of Myrtus communis L. essential oil against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and also its toxicity in mice model.

Materials And Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (12.5-100 μl/ml) were used for 5-30 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). Moreover, 48 male NMRI mice were used to determine the acute and sub-acute toxicity of M. communis essential oil. One-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test was used to assess differences between experimental groups.

Results: Findings of the present study demonstrated that the M. communis essential oil at the concentration of 100 μl/ml after 5 min of exposure killed 100% protoscoleces. Similarly, the mean mortality rate of protoscoleces after 10 min of exposure to concentration of 50 μl/ml was 100%. However, lower concentrations (12.5 and 25 μl/ml) of M. communis essential oil provoked a delayed protoscolicidal effects. The LD50 values of intraperitoneal injection of the M. communis essential oil was 2.23 mL/kg body wt. No significant difference (p > .05) was observed in the clinical chemistry and hematological parameters following oral administrations of M. communis essential oil at the doses 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/kg for 14 days.

Conclusion: The results showed potent scolicidal activity of M. communis with no significant toxicity, which might be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08941939.2015.1088601DOI Listing
June 2016

Antifungal Activity of Selenium Nanoparticles Synthesized by Bacillus species Msh-1 Against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015 Sep 8;8(9):e26381. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran.

Background: Fungal infections affect various parts of the body and can be difficult to treat. Aspergillus infection causes a spectrum of diverse diseases particularly in lung according to host immunity. The two major entities are invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Candida infections can be superficial or invasive. Superficial infections often affect the skin or mucous membranes. However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs.

Objectives: In the present study, the antifungal activity of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans was investigated.

Materials And Methods: Se-reducing bacteria previously identified as Bacillus sp. MSh-1 were used for the intracellular biosynthesis of elemental Se NPs. The shape, size, and purity of the extracted NPs were determined with various instrumental techniques. The nanoparticles antifungal characterization mainly derives from the following pathways: (i) to generate sustained flux of nano-ions from the compounds that deposited on special substrates or imbedded in colloidal or semisolid matrices. (ii) To transport active those ions to sensitive targets on plasma membrane of fungi.

Results: The results of energy-dispersive X-ray demonstrated that the purified NPs consisted of only Se. In addition, transmission electron micrographs showed that 120- to 140-nm spherical Se NPs were the most common. An antifungal assay was performed with a standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements of the antifungal activity of the Se NPs against C. albicans (70 μg/mL) and A. fumigatus (100 μg/mL) showed that yeast cells were more sensitive than mold cells.

Conclusions: The MICs against A. fumigatus (100 μg/mL) and C. albicans (70 μg/mL) showed that biogenic Se NPs are useful antifungal agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.26381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4609177PMC
September 2015

In Vitro Study of Leishmanicidal Activity of Biogenic Selenium Nanoparticles against Iranian Isolate of Sensitive and Glucantime-Resistant Leishmania tropica.

Iran J Parasitol 2014 Oct-Dec;9(4):452-60

Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Sensitive and glucantime (MA) resistance Leishmania tropica are referred to those isolates, which are responsive, or non-responsive to one or two full courses of treatment by MA systematically and/or intra-lesionally, respectively. In this study, we evaluated the antileishmanial activity of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) alone and in combination with MA against sensitive and glucantime-resistant L. tropica on in vitro model.

Methods: The Se NPs were synthesized by employing the Bacillus sp. MSh-1. The antileishmanial effects of Se NPs alone and in combination with MA on promastigote and amastigote stages of sensitive and glucantime-resistant L. tropica strains have been investigated using a colorimetric MTT assay and in a macrophage model. In addition hemolytic activity in type O+ human red blood cells and infectivity rate of the promastigotes before and after treatment with the Se NPs was evaluated.

Results: In the promastigote stage, various concentrations of Se NPs significantly inhibited (P<0.05) the growth of promastigotes of both strains in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, Se NPs especially in combination with MA significantly reduced the mean number of amastigotes of both strains in each macrophage. Se NPs showed no hemolytic effect on human RBCs at low concentrations. Moreover, infection rate of macrophages by promastigotes significantly (P<0.05) was reduced when promastigotes pre-treated with Se NPs.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest a first step in the search of Se NPs as a new antileishmanial agent. Further experiments are needed to investigate antileishmanial effects of biogenic Se NPs on L. tropica using a clinical setting.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4345083PMC
March 2015

Microbial-assisted synthesis and evaluation the cytotoxic effect of tellurium nanorods.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2015 Apr 24;49:183-189. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The present study was designed to isolate bacterial strain capable of tellurium nanorods' (Te NRs) production followed by purification and evaluation of the cytotoxic effect of Te NRs. Among 25 environmental samples collected for screening of Te NR-producer bacterial strains one bacterial colony (isolated from hot spring and identified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain Te) was selected and applied for biosynthesis of Te NRs. Thereafter, an organic-aqueous partitioning system was applied for the purification of the biogenic Te NRs and the purified Te NRs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized Te NRs and potassium tellurite on four cell lines of MCF-7, HT1080, HepG2 and A549 was then determined using the MTT assay method. The obtained results revealed lower toxicity for the rod-shaped biogenic tellurium nanostructures (~22nm diameter by 185nm length) compared to K2TeO3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2014.12.078DOI Listing
April 2015

Anti-biofilm activity of biogenic selenium nanoparticles and selenium dioxide against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2015 Jan 9;29:235-41. Epub 2014 Aug 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Research Center for Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Environmental Health Engineering Research Centers, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) against the biofilm produced by clinically isolated bacterial strains compared to that of selenium dioxide. Thirty strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis were isolated from various specimens of the patients hospitalized in different hospitals (Kerman, Iran). Quantification of the biofilm using microtiter plate assay method introduced 30% of S. aureus, 13% of P. aeruginosa and 17% of P. mirabilis isolates as severely adherent strains. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the purified Se NPs (produced by Bacillus sp. MSh-1) showed individual and spherical nano-structure in the size range of 80-220nm. Obtained results of the biofilm formation revealed that selenium nanoparticles inhibited the biofilm of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and P. mirabilis by 42%, 34.3%, and 53.4%, respectively, compared to that of the non-treated samples. Effect of temperature and pH on the biofilm formation in the presence of Se NPs and SeO2 was also evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2014.07.020DOI Listing
January 2015