Publications by authors named "Mojtaba Bagherzadeh"

50 Publications

Polymer-Coated NH-UiO-66 for the Codelivery of DOX/pCRISPR.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Herein, the NH-UiO-66 metal organic framework (MOF) has been green synthesized with the assistance of high gravity to provide a suitable and safe platform for drug loading. The NH-UiO-66 MOF was characterized using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential analysis. Doxorubicin was then encapsulated physically on the porosity of the green MOF. Two different stimulus polymers, p(HEMA) and p(NIPAM), were used as the coating agents of the MOFs. Doxorubicin was loaded onto the polymer-coated MOFs as well, and a drug payload of more than 51% was obtained, which is a record by itself. In the next step, pCRISPR was successfully tagged on the surface of the modified MOFs, and the performance of the final nanosystems were evaluated by the GFP expression. In addition, successful loadings and internalizations of doxorubicin were investigated via confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cellular images from the HeLa cell line for the UiO-66@DOX@pCRISPR and GMA-UiO-66@DOX@pCRISPR do not show any promising and successful gene transfections, with a maximum EGFP of 1.6%; however, the results for the p(HEMA)-GMA-UiO-66@DOX@pCRISPR show up to 4.3% transfection efficiency. Also, the results for the p(NIPAM)-GMA-UiO-66@DOX@pCRISPR showed up to 6.4% transfection efficiency, which is the first and superior report of a MOF-based nanocarrier for the delivery of pCRISPR. Furthermore, the MTT assay does not shown any critical cytotoxicity, which is a promising result for further biomedical applications. At the end of the study, the morphologies of all of the nanomaterials were screened after drug and gene delivery procedures and showed partial degradation of the nanomaterial. However, the cubic structure of the MOFs has been shown in TEM, and this is further proof of the stability of these green MOFs for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01460DOI Listing
February 2021

Nanotechnology-assisted microfluidic systems: from bench to bedside.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 02 27;16(3):237-258. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

With significant advancements in research technologies, and an increasing global population, microfluidic and nanofluidic systems (such as point-of-care, lab-on-a-chip, organ-on-a-chip, etc) have started to revolutionize medicine. Devices that combine micron and nanotechnologies have increased sensitivity, precision and versatility for numerous medical applications. However, while there has been extensive research on microfluidic and nanofluidic systems, very few have experienced wide-spread commercialization which is puzzling and deserves our collective attention. For the above reasons, in this article, we review research advances that combine micro and nanotechnologies to create the next generation of nanomaterial-based microfluidic systems, the latest in their commercialization success and failure and highlight the value of these devices both in industry and in the laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2020-0353DOI Listing
February 2021

Development of a nano biosensor for anti-gliadin detection for Celiac disease based on suspension microarrays.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2020 Sep 8;6(5):055015. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Biomaterial Group, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder represented by the ingestion of the gluten protein usually found in wheat, barley and rye. To date, ELISA has been the most accurate method for determining the presence of anti-gliadin, which is cumbersome, expensive (compared to a suspension microarray technique), and requires extensive sample preparation. In this study, in order to establish a more accurate assay to identify gliadin at lower concentrations, optical nano biosensors using an indirect immunoassay method for gliadin detection was designed and fabricated. For this, polycaprolactone (PCL) nano- to micro-beads were fabricated as a platform for the gliadin antigen which were optimized and nano functionalized with amine groups for such purposes. The gliadin antibody, which is selective to gliadin, was then added to the beads. Static light scattering tests were conducted to determine PCL particle size distribution and sizes were found from 0.1 to 30 μm, which is suitable for flowcytometry detection devices. Anti-gliadin detection was performed using an anti IgG mouse antibody conjugated with FITC in a flow cytometry device to detect the smallest particle. Fluorescence intensity was investigated at different concentrations of anti-gliadin and a standard curve used to determine gluten concentration based on fluorescence intensity. Results showed that the fluorescence intensity increased with greater concentrations of anti-gliadin providing a very effective method of detection due to selectivity at a 5 ppm detection limit. This represents a new highly sensitive and fast method for anti-gliadin detection. Further, the disuse of a cross linker and the use of a dedicated antibody at a very low level (1 μl) made this new method very economical to identify anti-gliadin concentrations at the nano level. In summary, this study provides a new, more accurate and sensitive, as well as less expensive system to detect anti-gliadin for the improved diagnosis of celiac disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2057-1976/aba7caDOI Listing
September 2020

The colorful world of carotenoids: a profound insight on therapeutics and recent trends in nano delivery systems.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 5:1-40. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

The therapeutic effects of carotenoids as dietary supplements to control or even treat some specific diseases including diabetic retinopathy, cardiovascular diseases, bacterial infections, as well as breast, prostate, and skin cancer are discussed in this review and also thoughts on future research for their widespread use are emphasized. From the stability standpoint, carotenoids have low bioavailability and bioaccessibility owing to their poor water solubility, deterioration in the presence of environmental stresses such as oxygen, light, and high heat as well as rapid degradation during digestion. Nanoencapsulation technologies as wall or encapsulation materials have been increasingly used for improving food product functionality. Nanoencapsulation is a versatile process employed for the protection, entrapment, and the delivery of food bioactive products including carotenoids from diverse environmental conditions for extended shelf lives and for providing controlled release. Therefore, we present here, recent (mostly during the last five years) nanoencapsulation methods of carotenoids with various nanocarriers. To us, this review can be considered as the first highlighting not only the potential therapeutic effects of carotenoids on various diseases but also their most effective nanodelivery systems. Highlights Bioactive compounds are of deep interest to improve food properties. Carotenoids (such as β-carotene and xanthophylls) play indispensable roles in maintaining human health and well-being. A substantial research effort has been carried out on developing beneficial nanodelivery systems for various carotenoids. Nanoencapsulation of carotenoids can enhance their functional properties. Stable nanoencapsulated carotenoids could be utilized in food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1867958DOI Listing
January 2021

Insight into the Self-Insertion of a Protein Inside the Boron Nitride Nanotube.

ACS Omega 2020 Dec 4;5(49):32051-32058. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Nanotubes have been considered as promising candidates for protein delivery purposes due to distinct features such as their large enough volume of cavity to encapsulate the protein, providing the sustain and target release. Moreover, possessing the properties of suitable cell viabilities, and biocompatibility on the wide range of cell lines as a result of structural stability, chemical inertness, and noncovalent wrapping ability, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have caught further attention as protein nanocarriers. However, to assess the encapsulation process of the protein into the BNNT, it is vital to comprehend the protein-BNNT interaction. In the present work, the self-insertion process of the protein SmtA, metallothionein, into the BNNT has been verified by means of the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation under NPT ensemble. It was revealed that the protein was self-inserted into the BNNT through the protein-BNNT van der Waals (vdW) interaction, which descended and reached the average value of -189.63 kcal·mol at 15 ns of the simulation time. The potential mean force (PMF) profile of the encapsulated protein with increasing trend, which was obtained via the pulling process unraveled that the encapsulation of the protein into the BNNT cavity proceeded spontaneously and the self-inserted protein had reasonable stability. Moreover, due to the strong hydrogen interactions between the nitrogen atoms of BNNT and hydrogen atoms of SmtA, there was no evidence of an energy barrier in the vicinity of the BNNT entrance, which resulted in the rapid adsorption of this protein into the BNNT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745416PMC
December 2020

ZnAl nano layered double hydroxides for dual functional CRISPR/Cas9 delivery and enhanced green fluorescence protein biosensor.

Sci Rep 2020 11 26;10(1):20672. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Evaluation of the effect of different parameters for designing a non-viral vector in gene delivery systems has great importance. In this manner, 2D crystals, precisely layered double hydroxides, have attracted the attention of scientists due to their significant adjustability and low-toxicity and low-cost preparation procedure. In this work, the relationship between different physicochemical properties of LDH, including pH, size, zeta potential, and synthesis procedure, was investigated and optimized for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery and reverse fluorescence response to the EGFP. In this manner, ZnAl LDH and ZnAl HMTA LDH were synthesized and characterized and applied in the HEK-293 cell line to deliver CRISPR/Cas9. The results were optimized by different characterizations as well as Gel Electrophoresis and showed acceptable binding ability with the DNA that could be considered as a promising and also new gold-standard for the delivery of CRISPR/Cas9. Also, the relationship of the presence of tertiary amines (in this case, hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as the templates) in the structure of the ZnAl LDH, as well as the gene delivery application, was evaluated. The results showed more than 79% of relative cell viability in most of the weight ratios of LDH to CRISPR/Cas9; fully quenching the fluorescence intensity of the EGFP/LDH in the presence of 15 µg mL of the protoporphyrins along with the detection limit of below 2.1 µg mL, the transfection efficiency of around 33% of the GFP positive cell for ZnAl LDH and more than 38% for the ZnAl LDH in the presence of its tertiary amine template.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77809-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693303PMC
November 2020

Novel Pt-AgPO/CdS/Chitosan Nanocomposite with Enhanced Photocatalytic and Biological Activities.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Nov 23;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Regional Center of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Šlechtitelů 27, 78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Decorating photocatalysts with noble metal nanoparticles (e.g., Pt) often increases the catalysts' photocatalytic activity and biomedical properties. Here, a simple and inexpensive method has been developed to prepare a Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan composite, which was characterized and used for the visible light-induced photocatalytic and antibacterial studies. This synthesized composite showed superior photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation as a hazardous pollutant (the maximum dye degradation was observed in 90 min of treatment) and killing of Gram positive bacterial ( and ) as well as Gram negative bacteria (, , , and ) under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of CdS, CdS/AgPO, and Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan against , , , , , and showed the zone of inhibition (mm) under visible light and under dark conditions at a concentration of 20 µg mL. Furthermore, the cell viability of the CdS/chitosan, AgPO, AgPO/CdS/chitosan, and Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan were investigated on the human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293), Henrietta Lacks (HeLa), human liver cancer cell line (HepG2), and pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines. In addition, the results indicated that the photodegradation rate for Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan is 3.53 times higher than that of CdS and 1.73 times higher than that of the CdS/AgPO composite. Moreover, Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan with an optimal amount of CdS killed large areas of different bacteria and different cells separately in a shorter time period under visible-light irradiation, which shows significantly higher efficiency than pure CdS and other CdS/AgPO composites. The superb performances of this composite are attributed to its privileged properties, such as retarded recombination of photoinduced electron/hole pairs and a large specific surface area, making Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan a valuable composite that can be deployed for a range of important applications, such as visible light-induced photocatalysis and antibacterial activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10112320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700689PMC
November 2020

Improved green biosynthesis of chitosan decorated Ag- and CoO-nanoparticles: A relationship between surface morphology, photocatalytic and biomedical applications.

Nanomedicine 2020 Nov 10;32:102331. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

AgNPs@Chitosan and CoO-NPs@Chitosan were fabricated with Salvia hispanica. Results showed MZI values of 5 and 30 mm for CoO-NPs- and AgNPs@Chitosan against S. aureus, and 15 and 21 mm for CoO-NPs- and AgNPs@Chitosan against E. coli (24 h, 20 μg/mL), respectively. MTT assays showed up to 80% and 90%, 71% and 75%, and 91% and 94% mammalian cell viability for the green synthesized, chemically synthesized AgNPs and green synthesized AgNPs@Chitosan for HEK-293 and PC12 cells, respectively, and 70% and 71%, 59% and 62%, and 88% and 73% for the related CoO-NPs (24 h, 20 μg/mL). The photocatalytic activities showed dye degradation after 135 and 105 min for AgNPs@Chitosan and CoO-NPs@Chitosan, respectively. FESEM results showed differences in particle sizes (32 ± 3.0 nm for the AgNPs and 41 ± 3.0 nm for the CoONPs) but AFM results showed lower roughness of the AgNPs@Chitosan (7.639 ± 0.85 nm) compared to CoONPs@Chitosan (9.218 ± 0.93 nm), which resulted in potential biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2020.102331DOI Listing
November 2020

High-Gravity-Assisted Green Synthesis of NiO-NPs Anchored on the Surface of Biodegradable Nanobeads with Potential Biomedical Applications.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2020 Apr;16(4):520-530

Here, an unprecedented synthesis method for nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) was facilitated using leaf extracts with the assistance of a high gravity rotating packed bed (RPB) system that enabled fast mass transfer and molecular mixing. The synthesized nanoparticles were anchored on the surface of biodegradable chitosan nanobeads and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue. Additionally, the potential biological activities of NiO-NPs in terms of antibacterial ( and for 24 hours), cytotoxicity (using the PC12 cell line for 24 and 72 hours), and antioxidant activities (based on the discoloration of the methanolic solution of DPPH) were assessed. This novel approach for NiO-NPs@Chitosan synthesis as mediated by a renewable plant extract and facilitated by a high-gravity method, led to the greener synthesis of nanoparticles with significant antibacterial and photocatalytic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2020.2904DOI Listing
April 2020

Green Synthesis of ZnO NPs via : Evaluation of Potential Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Mammalian Cell Viability, H1N1 Influenza Virus Inhibition and Photocatalytic Activities.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2020 Apr;16(4):456-466

Among different forms of metallic nanoparticles (NPs), zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs with a very special bandgap of 3.37 eV and considerable binding energy of excitation (60 meV at room temperature), have been classified as high-tech nanoparticles. This study aimed to synthesize ZnO NPs using the extract from leaves. The synthesized nanoparticles were fully characterized and the photocatalytic activity was evaluated through the degradation of methylene blue. Additionally, the potential biological activities of such ZnO NPs in terms of their antibacterial activity were determined, as well as their antioxidant (30 minutes), antiviral (48 hours) and mammalian cell viability properties (48 and 72 hours). This study is the first investigation into the synthesis of such green ZnO NPs mediated by this plant extract, in which both photocatalytic and biomedical properties were found to be promising. The IC50 values for the antibacterial activities were found to be around 17.4 g mL and 28.5 g mL for and , respectively, and the antioxidant activity was comparable with the standard BHT. However, the H1N1 inhibition rate using the present green ZnO NPs was lower than oseltamivir (up to about 40% for ZnO NPs and above 90% for oseltamivir) which was expected since it is a drug, but was higher than many synthetic nanoparticles reported in the literature. In addition, the mammalian cell viability assay showed a higher than 80% cellular viability in the presence of 5, 10 and 20 g mL nanoparticles, and showed a higher than 50% cellular viability in the presence of 50 and 75 g mL nanoparticles. In this manner, this study showed that these green ZnO NPs should be studied for a wide range of medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2020.2916DOI Listing
April 2020

High-gravity-assisted green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles: the flowering of nanomedicine.

Nanomedicine 2020 11 12;30:102297. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

This study investigated the synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using a high-gravity technique mediated by Salvia hispanica leaf extracts. Biological assays confirmed their antibacterial activity against gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria with significant antioxidant activity in comparison with the standards as well as low cellular toxicity on PC12 and HEK293 cell lines. To the best of our knowledge, this study can be considered as the first investigation of Pd-NPs synthesized by Salvia hispanica leaf extracts assisted by a high-gravity technique. In addition, the mentioned green synthesis procedure led to the formation of nanoparticles with considerable antibacterial properties independent of the morphology and texture of the green media of these nanoparticles. Considering the increasing rate of antimicrobial resistant bacteria deaths worldwide, this study introduces a novel green synthesis method and non-antibiotic nanoparticle which should be studied for a wide range of medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2020.102297DOI Listing
November 2020

Controlled Gene Delivery Systems: Nanomaterials and Chemical Approaches.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2020 May;16(5):553-582

Successful gene therapy depends on the design of effective gene delivery systems. A gene delivery system is considered a powerful tool for the release of genetic material within cells resulting in a change in cell functions and protein production. The release of genes in a controlled manner by using appropriate carriers facilitates their release without side effects and increases the expression of genes at the released site. It is expected that significant changes in the combination of several genes and drugs can be provided by developing treatment systems sensitive to different stimuli such as redox potential, pH variations, temperature gradients, light irradiation, and enzyme activity. The most important advantages for the release of genes and stimuli-responsive therapeutics include delivering vectors locally, reducing side effects and causing no toxicity to distant tissues while at the same time reducing the immune response to the vectors. In this review, we aim to discuss different types of gene carriers involved in the controlled transfer of nucleic acids (non-viral inorganic and organic nanoparticles (NPs) and virus-like particles (VLPs)) as well as the simultaneous transfer of several genes and/or drugs into cells or different tissues, providing for an efficient and safe treatment of numerous diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2020.2927DOI Listing
May 2020

Stimulus-Responsive Sequential Release Systems for Drug and Gene Delivery.

Nano Today 2020 Oct 2;34. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

In recent years, a range of studies have been conducted with the aim to design and characterize delivery systems that are able to release multiple therapeutic agents in controlled and programmed temporal sequences, or with spatial resolution inside the body. This sequential release occurs in response to different stimuli, including changes in pH, redox potential, enzyme activity, temperature gradients, light irradiation, and by applying external magnetic and electrical fields. Sequential release (SR)-based delivery systems, are often based on a range of different micro- or nanocarriers and may offer a silver bullet in the battle against various diseases, such as cancer. Their distinctive characteristic is the ability to release one or more drugs (or release drugs along with genes) in a controlled sequence at different times or at different sites. This approach can lengthen gene expression periods, reduce the side effects of drugs, enhance the efficacy of drugs, and induce an anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells due to the synergistic effects of genes and drugs. The key objective of this review is to summarize recent progress in SR-based drug/gene delivery systems for cancer and other diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2020.100914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416836PMC
October 2020

Point-of-Use Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2: Nanotechnology-Enabled Solutions for the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 20;21(14). Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the COVID-19 pandemic that has been spreading around the world since December 2019. More than 10 million affected cases and more than half a million deaths have been reported so far, while no vaccine is yet available as a treatment. Considering the global healthcare urgency, several techniques, including whole genome sequencing and computed tomography imaging have been employed for diagnosing infected people. Considerable efforts are also directed at detecting and preventing different modes of community transmission. Among them is the rapid detection of virus presence on different surfaces with which people may come in contact. Detection based on non-contact optical techniques is very helpful in managing the spread of the virus, and to aid in the disinfection of surfaces. Nanomaterial-based methods are proven suitable for rapid detection. Given the immense need for science led innovative solutions, this manuscript critically reviews recent literature to specifically illustrate nano-engineered effective and rapid solutions. In addition, all the different techniques are critically analyzed, compared, and contrasted to identify the most promising methods. Moreover, promising research ideas for high accuracy of detection in trace concentrations, via color change and light-sensitive nanostructures, to assist fingerprint techniques (to identify the virus at the contact surface of the gas and solid phase) are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404277PMC
July 2020

Magnetically Recoverable TiO/SiO/γ-FeO/rGO Composite with Significantly Enhanced UV-Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity.

Molecules 2020 Jun 30;25(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20124 Milano, Italy.

In this paper, we report the preparation of a new composite (TiO/SiO/γ-FeO/rGO) with a high photocatalytic efficiency. The properties of the composite were examined by different analyses, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), photoluminescence (PL), UV-Visible light diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), and nitrogen gas physisorption (BET) studies. The photocatalytic efficiency of the proposed composite was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV and visible light, and the results were compared with titanium dioxide (TiO), where degradation increased from 30% to 84% and 4% to 66% under UV and visible light, respectively. The significant increase in photocatalytic activity may be explained by the higher adsorption of dye on the surface of the composite and the higher separation and transfer of charge carriers, which in turn promote active sites and photocatalytic efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25132996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7412534PMC
June 2020

Burgeoning Polymer Nano Blends for Improved Controlled Drug Release: A Review.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 19;15:4363-4392. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Dentistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA.

With continual rapid developments in the biomedical field and understanding of the important mechanisms and pharmacokinetics of biological molecules, controlled drug delivery systems (CDDSs) have been at the forefront over conventional drug delivery systems. Over the past several years, scientists have placed boundless energy and time into exploiting a wide variety of excipients, particularly diverse polymers, both natural and synthetic. More recently, the development of nano polymer blends has achieved noteworthy attention due to their amazing properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and more importantly, their pivotal role in controlled and sustained drug release in vitro and in vivo. These compounds come with a number of effective benefits for improving problems of targeted or controlled drug and gene delivery systems; thus, they have been extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical applications. Additionally, they are quite attractive for wound dressings, textiles, tissue engineering, and biomedical prostheses. In this sense, some important and workable natural polymers (namely, chitosan (CS), starch and cellulose) and some applicable synthetic ones (such as poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly-glycolic acid (PGA)) have played an indispensable role over the last two decades for their therapeutic effects owing to their appealing and renewable biological properties. According to our data, this is the first review article highlighting CDDSs composed of diverse natural and synthetic nano biopolymers, blended for biological purposes, mostly over the past five years; other reviews have just briefly mentioned the use of such blended polymers. We, additionally, try to make comparisons between various nano blending systems in terms of improved sustained and controlled drug release behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S252237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314622PMC
August 2020

Aptamer Hybrid Nanocomplexes as Targeting Components for Antibiotic/Gene Delivery Systems and Diagnostics: A Review.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 17;15:4237-4256. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA.

With the passage of time and more advanced societies, there is a greater emergence and incidence of disease and necessity for improved treatments. In this respect, nowadays, aptamers, with their better efficiency at diagnosing and treating diseases than antibodies, are at the center of attention. Here, in this review, we first investigate aptamer function in various fields (such as the detection and remedy of pathogens, modification of nanoparticles, antibiotic delivery and gene delivery). Then, we present aptamer-conjugated nanocomplexes as the main and efficient factor in gene delivery. Finally, we focus on the targeted co-delivery of genes and drugs by nanocomplexes, as a new exciting approach for cancer treatment in the decades ahead to meet our growing societal needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S248736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314593PMC
August 2020

Biodegradable Nanopolymers in Cardiac Tissue Engineering: From Concept Towards Nanomedicine.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 18;15:4205-4224. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of heart failure and death in the world, and the transplantation of the heart is an effective and viable choice for treatment despite presenting many disadvantages (most notably, transplant heart availability). To overcome this problem, cardiac tissue engineering is considered a promising approach by using implantable artificial blood vessels, injectable gels, and cardiac patches (to name a few) made from biodegradable polymers. Biodegradable polymers are classified into two main categories: natural and synthetic polymers. Natural biodegradable polymers have some distinct advantages such as biodegradability, abundant availability, and renewability but have some significant drawbacks such as rapid degradation, insufficient electrical conductivity, immunological reaction, and poor mechanical properties for cardiac tissue engineering. Synthetic biodegradable polymers have some advantages such as strong mechanical properties, controlled structure, great processing flexibility, and usually no immunological concerns; however, they have some drawbacks such as a lack of cell attachment and possible low biocompatibility. Some applications have combined the best of both and exciting new natural/synthetic composites have been utilized. Recently, the use of nanostructured polymers and polymer nanocomposites has revolutionized the field of cardiac tissue engineering due to their enhanced mechanical, electrical, and surface properties promoting tissue growth. In this review, recent research on the use of biodegradable natural/synthetic nanocomposite polymers in cardiac tissue engineering is presented with forward looking thoughts provided for what is needed for the field to mature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S245936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314574PMC
August 2020

Biosynthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles with Potential Biomedical Applications.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 9;15:3983-3999. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: In recent years, the use of cost-effective, multifunctional, environmentally friendly and simple prepared nanomaterials/nanoparticles have been emerged considerably. In this manner, different synthesizing methods were reported and optimized, but there is still lack of a comprehensive method with multifunctional properties.

Materials And Methods: In this study, we aim to synthesis the copper oxide nanoparticles using leaf extracts for the first time. Catalytic activity was investigated by in situ azide alkyne cycloaddition click and also A coupling reaction, and optimized in terms of temperature, solvent, and time of the reaction. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was screened in terms of degradation methylene blue dye. Biological activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated in terms of antibacterial and anti-fungal assessments against and bacteria's and , , and fungus. In the next step, the biosynthesized CuO-NPs were screened by MTT and NTU assays.

Results: Based on our knowledge, this is a comprehensive study on the catalytic and biological activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesizing from , which presents great and significant results (in both catalytic and biological activities) based on a simple and green procedure.

Conclusion: Comprehensive biomedical and catalytic investigation of the biosynthesized CuO-NPs showed the mentioned method leads to synthesis of more eco-friendly nanoparticles. The in vitro studies showed promising and considerable results, and due to the great stability of these nanoparticles in a green media, effective biological activity considered as an advantageous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S255398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294052PMC
August 2020

Green synthesis of CuO- and CuO-NPs in assistance with high-gravity: The flowering of nanobiotechnology.

Nanotechnology 2020 Jun 30;31(42):425101. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

This study, for the first time, reports the synthesis of CuO- and CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using the Salvia hispanica extract by a high-gravity technique. The original green synthesis procedure led to the formation of nanoparticles with promising catalytic and biological properties. The synthesized nanoparticles were fully characterized and their catalytic activity was evaluated through a typical Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (AAC) reaction. The potential antibacterial activity against gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria were investigated. It was shown that the antibacterial properties were independent of the NP morphology as well as of the texture of the synthesis media. As a result, the presently synthesized nanoparticles showed very good photocatalytic and catalytic activities in comparison with the literature. From a biological perspective, they showed lower cytotoxicity in comparison with the literature, and also showed higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Thus, these present green CuO and CuO nanoparticles deserve further attention to improve numerous medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aba142DOI Listing
June 2020

COVID-19 and picotechnology: Potential opportunities.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Nov 1;144:109917. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Research Center for Immunodefiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Humanity's challenges are becoming increasingly difficult, and as these challenges become more advanced, the need for effective and intelligent action becomes more apparent. Meanwhile, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has plagued the world, could be considered as an opportunity to take a step toward the need for atomic engineering, compared to molecular engineering, as well as to accelerate this type of research. This approach, which can be expressed in terms of picotechnology, makes it possible to identify living cell types or in general, chemical and biological surfaces using their atomic arrays, and applied for early diagnosis even treatment of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263242PMC
November 2020

Heterostructured TiO/SiO/γ-FeO/rGO Coating with Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Induced Self-Cleaning Properties for Metallic Artifacts.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jul 18;12(26):29671-29683. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta", Politecnico di Milano, Milan 20133, Italy.

A novel nanohybrid composite of TiO, SiO, γ-FeO, and reduced graphene oxide (TiO@Si:Fe:rGO) is fabricated by the sol-gel method. The properties of the coated film were examined by structural and self-cleaning analyses using simulated discoloration/soiling and roofing tests. The fabricated transparent TiO@Si:Fe:rGO composite showed excellent photoactivity and wettability, behaving well in self-cleaning applications. The addition of SiO improved the crystalline structure and surface hydroxylation of TiO nanoparticles. γ-FeO decreased the recombination rate of e/h pairs, and significantly improved photocatalytic activity under visible light. Moreover, rGO sheets as excellent electron acceptors and transporters also reduced recombination, as well as affected wettability, achieving superhydrophilicity under irradiation. The coated substrate showed excellent resistance to simulated acid rain and significantly preserved the substrate from soiling in roofing tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c06792DOI Listing
July 2020

Comparison between electrochemical and photoelectrochemical detection of dopamine based on titania-ceria-graphene quantum dots nanocomposite.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Mar 23;151:111977. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study, titania-ceria-graphene quantum dot (TC-GQD) nanocomposite was synthesized by hydrothermal method for the first time. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by XRD, FTIR dynamic light scattering (DLS), FESEM, HRTEM, and EDX spectroscopy along with elemental mapping. The synergistic effect of the nanocomposite components was studied by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and electrical conductivity meter. The results showed that band gap of TC-GQD nanocomposite was shifted to visible lights relative to its components (1.3 eV), and electrical conductivity of the sample was significant increased to 89.5 μS cm. After chemical and physical characterization, prepared new nanocomposites were used to design a new electrochemical (EC) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) dopamine (DA) sensors. In both EC and PEC methods effecting experimental parameters were optimized. Due to the synergic effect of the nanocomposite components, an outstanding photocurrent response was observed for DA based on PEC sensor. A linear calibration curve with a lower detection limit of 22 nM DA, and sensitivity of 13.8 mA/mM, in a wider range of 0.3-750 μM DA, was obtained for TC-GQD/GCE electrode in PEC. While, the TC-GQD/GCE electrode detected DA in the range of 1-500 μM DA, with two linear calibration curve, detection limit of 0.22 μM DA, and sensitivity of 4.9 mA/mM, in the EC. Observed results from EC and PEC sensors are presented and compared.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.111977DOI Listing
March 2020

Epidemiology of facial fractures: incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 8;26(Supp 1):i27-i35. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Background: The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) has historically produced estimates of causes of injury such as falls but not the resulting types of injuries that occur. The objective of this study was to estimate the global incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs) due to facial fractures and to estimate the leading injurious causes of facial fracture.

Methods: We obtained results from GBD 2017. First, the study estimated the incidence from each injury cause (eg, falls), and then the proportion of each cause that would result in facial fracture being the most disabling injury. Incidence, prevalence and YLDs of facial fractures are then calculated across causes.

Results: Globally, in 2017, there were 7 538 663 (95% uncertainty interval 6 116 489 to 9 493 113) new cases, 1 819 732 (1 609 419 to 2 091 618) prevalent cases, and 117 402 (73 266 to 169 689) YLDs due to facial fractures. In terms of age-standardised incidence, prevalence and YLDs, the global rates were 98 (80 to 123) per 100 000, 23 (20 to 27) per 100 000, and 2 (1 to 2) per 100 000, respectively. Facial fractures were most concentrated in Central Europe. Falls were the predominant cause in most regions.

Conclusions: Facial fractures are predominantly caused by falls and occur worldwide. Healthcare systems and public health agencies should investigate methods of all injury prevention. It is important for healthcare systems in every part of the world to ensure access to treatment resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571355PMC
October 2020

Recent advances in porphyrin-based nanocomposites for effective targeted imaging and therapy.

Biomaterials 2020 02 18;232:119707. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA; Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, 2028, South Africa. Electronic address:

Porphyrins are organic compounds that continue to attract much theoretical interest, and have been called the "pigments of life". They have a wide role in photodynamic and sonodynamic therapy, along with uses in magnetic resonance, fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. There is a vast range of porphyrins that have been isolated or designed, but few of them have real clinical applications. Due to the hydrophobic properties of porphyrins, and their tendency to aggregate by stacking of the planar molecules they are difficult to work with in aqueous media. Therefore encapsulating them in nanoparticles (NPs) or attachment to various delivery vehicles have been used to improve delivery characteristics. Porphyrins can be used in a composite designed material with properties that allow specific targeting, immune tolerance, extended tissue lifetime and improved hydrophilicity. Drug delivery, healing and repairing of damaged organs, and cancer theranostics are some of the medical uses of porphyrin-based nanocomposites covered in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008091PMC
February 2020

Epidemiology of injuries from fire, heat and hot substances: global, regional and national morbidity and mortality estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Authors:
Spencer L James Lydia R Lucchesi Catherine Bisignano Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Nathaniel J Henry Darrah McCracken Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Alireza Ahmadi Muktar Beshir Ahmed Fares Alahdab Vahid Alipour Zewudu Andualem Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Ashish D Badiye Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Amrit Banstola Till Winfried Bärnighausen Akbar Barzegar Mohsen Bayati Soumyadeep Bhaumik Ali Bijani Gene Bukhman Félix Carvalho Christopher Stephen Crowe Koustuv Dalal Ahmad Daryani Mostafa Dianati Nasab Hoa Thi Do Huyen Phuc Do Aman Yesuf Endries Eduarda Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Takeshi Fukumoto Ketema Bizuwork Bizuwork Gebremedhin Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Syed Amir Gilani Juanita A Haagsma Samer Hamidi Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Ehimario U Igumbor Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Amaha Kahsay Neeti Kapoor Amir Kasaeian Yousef Saleh Khader Ibrahim A Khalil Ejaz Ahmad Khan Maryam Khazaee-Pool Yoshihiro Kokubo Alan D Lopez Mohammed Madadin Marek Majdan Venkatesh Maled Reza Malekzadeh Navid Manafi Ali Manafi Srikanth Mangalam Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Hagazi Gebre Meles Ritesh G Menezes Tuomo J Meretoja Bartosz Miazgowski Ted R Miller Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Shane Douglas Morrison Ionut Negoi Trang Huyen Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Cuong Tat Nguyen Molly R Nixon Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Jagadish Rao Padubidri Suzanne Polinder Navid Rabiee Mohammad Rabiee Amir Radfar Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Salman Rawaf David Laith Rawaf Aziz Rezapour Jennifer Rickard Elias Merdassa Roro Nobhojit Roy Roya Safari-Faramani Payman Salamati Abdallah M Samy Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney David C Schwebel Subramanian Senthilkumaran Sadaf G Sepanlou Mika Shigematsu Amin Soheili Mark A Stokes Hamid Reza Tohidinik Bach Xuan Tran Pascual R Valdez Tissa Wijeratne Engida Yisma Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Zhi-Jiang Zhang Simon I Hay Ali H Mokdad

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 18;26(Supp 1):i36-i45. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Past research has shown how fires, heat and hot substances are important causes of health loss globally. Detailed estimates of the morbidity and mortality from these injuries could help drive preventative measures and improved access to care.

Methods: We used the Global Burden of Disease 2017 framework to produce three main results. First, we produced results on incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, deaths, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life years from 1990 to 2017 for 195 countries and territories. Second, we analysed these results to measure mortality-to-incidence ratios by location. Third, we reported the measures above in terms of the cause of fire, heat and hot substances and the types of bodily injuries that result.

Results: Globally, there were 8 991 468 (7 481 218 to 10 740 897) new fire, heat and hot substance injuries in 2017 with 120 632 (101 630 to 129 383) deaths. At the global level, the age-standardised mortality caused by fire, heat and hot substances significantly declined from 1990 to 2017, but regionally there was variability in age-standardised incidence with some regions experiencing an increase (eg, Southern Latin America) and others experiencing a significant decrease (eg, High-income North America).

Conclusions: The incidence and mortality of injuries that result from fire, heat and hot substances affect every region of the world but are most concentrated in middle and lower income areas. More resources should be invested in measuring these injuries as well as in improving infrastructure, advancing safety measures and ensuring access to care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571358PMC
October 2020

Microfluidic devices with gold thin film channels for chemical and biomedical applications: a review.

Biomed Microdevices 2019 11 4;21(4):93. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.

Microfluidic systems (MFS) provide a range of advantages in biomedical applications, including improved controllability of material characteristics and lower consumption of reagents, energy, time and money. Fabrication of MFS employs various materials, such as glass, silicon, ceramics, paper, and metals such as gold, copper, aluminum, chromium and titanium. In this review, gold thin film microfluidic channels (GTFMFC) are discussed with reference to fabrication methods and their diverse use in chemical and biomedical applications. The advantages of gold thin films (GTF) include flexibility, ease of manufacture, adhesion to polymer surfaces, chemical stability, good electrical conductivity, surface plasmon resonance effects, ability to be chemically functionalized, etc. Various electroactuators and electroanalytical devices can incorporate GTF. GTF-based MFS have been used in environmental monitoring, assays of biomarkers, immunoassays, cell culture studies and pathogen identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10544-019-0439-0DOI Listing
November 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Evaluation of antibacterial property of hydroxyapatite and zirconium oxide-modificated magnetic nanoparticles against and .

IET Nanobiotechnol 2019 Jun;13(4):449-455

Biology Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran, Iran.

In the first section of this research, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) (FeO) modified with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and zirconium oxide (ZrO) and thereby FeO/HAP and FeO/ZrO NPs were synthesised through co-precipitation method. Then FeO/HAP and FeO/ZrO NPs characterised with various techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, Fourier transform infrared, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Observed results confirmed the successful synthesis of desired NPs. In the second section, the antibacterial activity of synthesised magnetic NPs (MNPs) was investigated. This investigation performed with multiple microbial cultivations on the two bacteria; () and (). Obtained results proved that although both MNPs have good antibacterial properties, however, FeO/HAP NP has greater antibacterial performance than the other. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration evaluations, bacteria are more sensitive to both NPs. These nanocomposites combine the advantages of MNP and antibacterial effects, with distinctive merits including easy preparation, high inactivation capacity, and easy isolation from sample solutions by the application of an external magnetic field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5029DOI Listing
June 2019