Publications by authors named "Mojtaba Afsharnia"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preparing the optimal emergency response protocols by MOPSO for a real-world water distribution network.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 29;27(24):30625-30637. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

Water security is considered as one of the critical subjects that can arise from different issues, for instance, the injection of a poisonous pollutant into the drinking water system of a city followed by a terrorist attack. If the network lacks optimal operation to provide security against this threat, the whole population of the city can be affected by such an incident. This study aimed at preparing the optimal emergency response protocols by multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Furthermore, it calculates the risk of contaminants entering the network. The problem consists of three main objectives: 1) minimizing the number of operational interventions, 2) minimizing the number of polluted nodes, and 3) minimizing the number of exposed individuals. The location of closed valves and opened hydrants was chosen as decision variables. The proposed method is demonstrated using a benchmark and a real network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08892-0DOI Listing
August 2020

Data on efficient removal of acid orange 7 by zeolitic imidazolate framework-8.

Data Brief 2019 Apr 25;23:103783. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

A water stable and hybrid nonporous adsorbent, cubic zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), was synthesized for Acid orange 7 (AO7) removal from aqueous solutions in batch mode. Central composite design was utilized to explore the individual and interaction effects of pH, AO7 concentration, ZIF-8 dosage and contact time on dye adsorption. A second order polynomial equation (R = 0.9852, LOF = 0.1419) developed for prediction of the AO7 removal. Sorption model revealed that the adsorbent dosage and the dye concentration are major factors that controlled the AO7 removal efficiency. AO7 removal increased from 55 to 80% by increasing ZIF-8 dosage from 0.2 to 1 g/L. The dye removal, on the other hand, decreased from 84 to 70% with increasing AO7 concentration from 10 to 100 mg/L and increased from 60% to 80% by decreasing pH from 12 to 4. The dye removal followed the pseudo second order kinetic and the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 80.47 mg dye/g of ZIF-8 was obtained according to the Langmuir model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.103783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660572PMC
April 2019

Calibration of water quality model for distribution networks using genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and hybrid methods.

MethodsX 2019 16;6:540-548. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Chlorine reacts with both organic and inorganic matters in water. That is why water quality modeling has received great attention in recent years. The serious issue in municipal water quality modeling is gathering the essential input parameters of the model, particularly bulk decay (k) and wall decay (k) coefficients as well as their calibrations. Therefore, this study first thoroughly formulates the problem in the form of a heuristic optimization and then utilizes Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Hybrid GA-PSO as the model optimizers in order to best calibrate k for minimizing the difference of residual chlorine concentrations that exist between the simulated and observed values. These three algorithms are linked to EPANET, the hydraulic and water quality simulator. The method is then applied to a real-world water distribution network. Here, is considered as a decision variable. The objective function is to minimize both the Sum of Square Error and Root Mean Square Error between the observed and simulated chlorine concentrations. According to the simulation results obtained, the optimal value of wall decay coefficient is 1.233 m/day during the calibration process while the minimum and maximum differences between the measured and simulated chlorine rates were 0 and 0.18, respectively. •The method presented in this article can be useful for managers of water and wastewater companies, water resources facilities and operators and operation manager of water distribution system to manage chlorine dosing rate.•Due to adverse health effect of disinfection by product and poor microbial water quality as results of inefficient chlorination, control chlorine concentration in water distribution networks and its consequence on human health effect is necessary.•Hybrid PSO and GA methods are used to cope with their falling in local optimum and requiring highly computational effort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441747PMC
March 2019

Chemical and microbial quality of bottled drinking water in Gonabad city, Iran: Effect of time and storage conditions on microbial quality of bottled waters.

MethodsX 2019 5;6:273-277. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

Reports from bottled water (BW) industries show a rapidly increasing rate of global bottled water consumption. The present paper contains data on chemical and microbial quality of bottled waters marketed in Gonabad city, Iran. The data on the effect of time and storing conditions on microbial quality of bottled water also is reported. The physical and chemical parameters of all 9 studied BW brands meet well with those mentioned on the labels. All BW sampled also were free of pathogenic indicators (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and clostridium perfringens). BWs kept in refrigerator have minimal heterotrophic and pathogenic bacterial count. The highest bacterial count was observed when BWs were exposed to indirect sunlight at room temperature. Presence of heterotrophic and especially pathogenic bacteria reduced significantly when the samples were placed to direct sunlight. In all samples, apart from where they were kept, the heterotrophic and pathogenic bacterial counts showed an increasing trend after bottling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374610PMC
February 2019

Cadmium in Groundwater Consumed in the Rural Areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, Iran: Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 Dec 8;192(2):106-115. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

Evidences show that high levels of cadmium intake may be contributing to a wide range of deleterious health effects. This study was performed to estimate the concentration of cadmium and the health risk to human by cadmium through the ingestion of groundwater in 39 rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, eastern Iran. The mean cadmium concentrations in groundwater in the studied rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan ranged from 0.087 to 14.32 μg/L and from 0.417 to 18.36 μg/L, respectively. Health risk quotient for cadmium contamination for 16 and 38% of children and infants in rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, respectively, was more than 1 which causes non-carcinogenic risk to the local population. The carcinogenic risk of cadmium in drinking water for adults, children, and infants in 16, 33, and 33% of studied rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, respectively, was higher than the safe limit of 1.0 × 10. For rural areas of Bajestan, the cancer risk in 42, 52, and 52% of adults, children, and infants was above the safe limit. It was strongly suggested that the accessible procedures of treatment should be taken for a portion of contaminated rural areas before the distribution of the groundwater for the local population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-1660-7DOI Listing
December 2019

Comparison of DNA damages in blood lymphocytes of indoor swimming pool lifeguards with non-lifeguards athletes.

Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2019 Jan 24;837:29-33. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Hematology and Blood Banking, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Chlorination has been used as a major disinfectant process for swimming pool water in many countries. The purpose of this study is to compare the DNA damage of the blood lymphocytes in indoor pool lifeguards with non-lifeguards athletes. We performed a study in which the participants were Gonabad's lifeguards. We chose 30 participants (15 male and 15 female) for each group. We collected vein blood samples from each participant in both exposed and control group. The lymphocytes were isolated from the whole blood by ficoll, and the cell viability was determined by the trypan blue. The alkaline Comet assay was also performed on lymphocytes in order to measure the DNA damage. All the parameters indicated that the DNA damage was significantly greater in lifeguards group than control group (p < 0.001). Also, the results revealed a statistically significant higher level of DNA damage in females as evident by an increase in the tail length (μm) [8.97 ± 4.21 for females as compared to 4.32 ± 1.33 for males (p = 0.001)], tail DNA (%) [4.18 ± 1.27 for females as compared to 3.14 ± 0.94 for males (p = 0.016)] and tail moment (μm) [0.68 ± 0.53 for females and 0.26 ± 0.14 for males (p = 0.010)]. There was also a significant positive correlation between DNA damage and the duration of work (P < 0.001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2018.09.005DOI Listing
January 2019

Data on heavy metal concentration in common carp fish consumed in Shiraz, Iran.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 14;21:1890-1894. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

Food contamination by heavy metals can lead to the accumulation of these elements in the body of consumers and the contraction of diseases. Accordingly, heavy metal concentration in common carp fishes consumed in Shiraz, Iran was determined in the present study. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu were 0.23, 0.07, 0.47, and 0.59 mg/kg (dry weight), respectively. The average concentration of heavy metals in the muscle of common carps consumed in Shiraz was less than the permissible standard of the WHO and FAO. The estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the studied metals was below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The maximum and minimum relative risk (RR) equaled 48.93 and 0.55% of the total risk for Cd and Zn, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.11.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260411PMC
December 2018

The data of strains genes in different types of wastewater.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 31;21:763-766. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

From April 2016 to March 2017, a number of 99 isolates of were collected from three types of wastewater including urban wastewater (33 isolates), livestock slaughterhouse wastewater (33 isolates) and poultry slaughterhouse wastewater (33 isolate). The specimens were cultured on microbiological media. The bacterial identification was performed by morphological and biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was carried out to detect 2 virulence genes (, and ) and 4 antibiotic resistance genes ( , and ). The data showed that the prevalence rate of genes were 89.9%, 91.9%, 79.8%, 40.4%, 6.1%, and 91.9%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.08.167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6216088PMC
December 2018

Data on cadmium removal from synthetic aqueous solution using garbage ash.

Data Brief 2018 Oct 1;20:1115-1123. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

This data article investigates cadmium removal efficiency using garbage ash as a cheap and effective adsorbent. Influence of different parameters, such as initial cadmium (II) concentration (mg/L), contact time (min), adsorbent dose (gr/L), pH and temperature (°C) were investigated. The characterization data of the garbage ash was determined using SEM analysis. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption of cadmium on garbage ash follows pseudo second order model and Langmuir isotherm model with = 0.99. Also, the maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent was 100.25 mg/g. Thermodynamic data showed that cadmium adsorption on garbage ash was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Based on acquired data, garbage ash could be proposed as an efficient and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.08.163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139894PMC
October 2018

Phenol removal from aqueous solution using waste ash.

Data Brief 2018 Jun 19;18:620-628. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Phenol is a hazardous organic chemical that introduced into the environment by industrial and pharmaceutical discharges. As a versatile option for phenol removal, adsorption would be viable if it accompanying with low cost adsorbents. This article described a natural, very cheap and local available adsorbent for phenol removal. Phenol showed a high affinity to waste ash which mainly composed of SiO (41.6%), AlO (17.3%) and MgO (15.9%). Up to 70% of phenol adsorbed in the first 30 min of agitation. The phenol removal was increased by increasing adsorbent dose (0.5-10 g/L) and decreasing pH (2-12) and pollutant concentration (10-100 mg/L). The positive value of in thermodynamic data (0.06) revealed that the process is endothermic. The high and positive value of ∆° (13.01) and negative values of ∆° (- 5.36 to - 7.28), showed a high affinity of phenol to the adsorbent and the spontaneous nature of the adsorption. Isotherm modelling revealed that the phenol molecules adsorbed in multilayer with the maximum adsorption capacity of 173.2 mg/g. The rate limiting step in the sorption process was chemisorption, based on the kinetic data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.03.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996314PMC
June 2018

Feasibility of applying the LED-UV-induced TiO/ZnO-supported HPMoO nanoparticles in photocatalytic degradation of aniline.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Mar 3;190(4):188. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

In the present study, TiO/ZnO-supported phosphomolybdic acid nanoparticles are investigated by the impregnation method, followed by analyzing their photocatalytic activity under UV-LED light and degradation kinetics degrading aniline as an organic pollutant model. Nanoparticle characteristics and the remaining Keggin structure in the nanocomposites were confirmed by means of FESEM, FTIR, and XRD analyses. Heterogenization of phosphomolybdic acid on TiO and ZnO nanoparticles resulted in the improved light absorption intensity and decreased band gap of nanocomposites. Photocatalytic degradation of aniline was also improved for composite nanoparticles and reached to 25.62, 43.48, and 38.25% for TiO/HPMo, ZnO/HPMo, and TiO/ZnO/HPMo, respectively. Overall, the results showed a good fit to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6565-yDOI Listing
March 2018

Phenol Removal from Aqueous Environment by Adsorption onto Pomegranate Peel Carbon.

Electron Physician 2016 Nov 25;8(11):3248-3256. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

M.Sc. of Environmental Health, Senior Lecturer, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Science, Gonabad, Iran.

Introduction: Phenol and its derivatives are the most common poisonous compounds which are stable in aqueous media and lead to many health issues. In this study, application of the carbon resulted from pomegranate peel is investigated in removal of phenol by adsorption method.

Methods: to perform this cross-sectional study, first, samples of phenol with concentrations of 10 to 100 mg/L were prepared for six months in 2016. Then, the impacts of parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial concentration of phenol in adsorption process were investigated independently in Gonabad Chemistry Lab using a spectrophotometer at 505 nm as the wavelength. Furthermore, adherence of the samples to the isotherm models of Langmuir and Freundlich was determined by Excel 2016 and descriptive statistical methods were then reported.

Results: The obtained results demonstrated a maximum adsorption capacity (ash) of 148.38 mgg-1 at pH 7, initial concentration of 100 mg L, and temperature of 23 ± 2 °C. The phenol removal rate was found to correlate directly to the adsorbent dosage and contact time, and inversely to the initial concentration of phenol. In addition, the investigations showed that the adsorption of phenol on the pomegranate peel ash follows the Freundlich model well with a correlation coefficient of R2 0.9056.

Conclusion: Pomegranate peel ash could be used as an efficient and low-cost adsorbent for phenol removal from aqueous media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/3248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5217818PMC
November 2016

A review and investigation of the effect of nanophotocatalytic ozonation process for phenolic compound removal from real effluent of pulp and paper industry.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Feb 8;24(4):4105-4116. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Phenol and its derivatives are the major environmental pollutants discharged from paper and pulp industries into water bodies. All these compounds and chlorinated phenolic compounds in particular are very toxic to fauna and flora, even at relatively low concentration. This study aimed to investigate the removal rate of phenolic compounds from the effluent of pulp and paper industries using a combination of ozonation and photocatalytic processes. Firstly, a certain volume from the effluent of paper and pulp industries containing certain phenol concentrations was obtained and fed into a prefabricated reactor at laboratory scale. Then, the combined and separate effects of zinc oxide dosage (ZnO), ozone flow rate (O), and pH under ultra violet radiation for 30 min were evaluated. The concentration of phenolic compounds and the produced ozone gas flow rate were measured by a spectrophotometry and iodometric method, respectively. The results showed that the phenolic removal rate increased at acidic PHs compared with alkaline PHs; it was also decreased with the increase in ZnO dosages. Furthermore, the highest phenolic compound's removal rate was 99% at the optimal condition (pH 5, ZnO dosage of 0.1 g L at the 30 min with UV-C illumination of 125 W). Finally, Daphnia toxicity test showed that treated effluent was safe and met the standards to the extent that it can be discharged into the receiving waters. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8079-xDOI Listing
February 2017