Publications by authors named "Moira Crosier"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Author Correction: Segregation of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy through a developmental genetic bottleneck in human embryos.

Nat Cell Biol 2018 08;20(8):991

MRC-Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

In the version of this Letter originally published, an author error led to the affiliations for Brendan Payne, Jonathan Coxhead and Gavin Hudson being incorrect. The correct affiliations are: Brendan Payne: Wellcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Research, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; this is a new affiliation 6 and subsequent existing affiliations have been renumbered. Jonathan Coxhead: Genomic Core Facility, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; this is a new affiliation 11 and subsequent existing affiliations have been renumbered. Gavin Hudson: Wellcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Research, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. In addition, in Fig. 2d, the numbers on the x-axis of the left plot were incorrectly labelled as negative; they should have been positive. These errors have now been corrected in all online versions of the Letter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-018-0064-9DOI Listing
August 2018

Segregation of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy through a developmental genetic bottleneck in human embryos.

Nat Cell Biol 2018 02 15;20(2):144-151. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

MRC-Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause inherited diseases and are implicated in the pathogenesis of common late-onset disorders, but how they arise is not clear. Here we show that mtDNA mutations are present in primordial germ cells (PGCs) within healthy female human embryos. Isolated PGCs have a profound reduction in mtDNA content, with discrete mitochondria containing ~5 mtDNA molecules. Single-cell deep mtDNA sequencing of in vivo human female PGCs showed rare variants reaching higher heteroplasmy levels in late PGCs, consistent with the observed genetic bottleneck. We also saw the signature of selection against non-synonymous protein-coding, tRNA gene and D-loop variants, concomitant with a progressive upregulation of genes involving mtDNA replication and transcription, and linked to a transition from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism. The associated metabolic shift would expose deleterious mutations to selection during early germ cell development, preventing the relentless accumulation of mtDNA mutations in the human population predicted by Muller's ratchet. Mutations escaping this mechanism will show shifts in heteroplasmy levels within one human generation, explaining the extreme phenotypic variation seen in human pedigrees with inherited mtDNA disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-017-0017-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6551220PMC
February 2018

The formation of endoderm-derived taste sensory organs requires a Pax9-dependent expansion of embryonic taste bud progenitor cells.

PLoS Genet 2014 Oct 9;10(10):e1004709. Epub 2014 Oct 9.

Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

In mammals, taste buds develop in different regions of the oral cavity. Small epithelial protrusions form fungiform papillae on the ectoderm-derived dorsum of the tongue and contain one or few taste buds, while taste buds in the soft palate develop without distinct papilla structures. In contrast, the endoderm-derived circumvallate and foliate papillae located at the back of the tongue contain a large number of taste buds. These taste buds cluster in deep epithelial trenches, which are generated by intercalating a period of epithelial growth between initial placode formation and conversion of epithelial cells into sensory cells. How epithelial trench formation is genetically regulated during development is largely unknown. Here we show that Pax9 acts upstream of Pax1 and Sox9 in the expanding taste progenitor field of the mouse circumvallate papilla. While a reduced number of taste buds develop in a growth-retarded circumvallate papilla of Pax1 mutant mice, its development arrests completely in Pax9-deficient mice. In addition, the Pax9 mutant circumvallate papilla trenches lack expression of K8 and Prox1 in the taste bud progenitor cells, and gradually differentiate into an epidermal-like epithelium. We also demonstrate that taste placodes of the soft palate develop through a Pax9-dependent induction. Unexpectedly, Pax9 is dispensable for patterning, morphogenesis and maintenance of taste buds that develop in ectoderm-derived fungiform papillae. Collectively, our data reveal an endoderm-specific developmental program for the formation of taste buds and their associated papilla structures. In this pathway, Pax9 is essential to generate a pool of taste bud progenitors and to maintain their competence towards prosensory cell fate induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4191947PMC
October 2014

Abnormal retinal development associated with FRMD7 mutations.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 Aug 31;23(15):4086-93. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Ophthalmology Group, School of Medicine, University of Leicester, RKCSB, PO Box 65, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK

Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, often associated with FRMD7 mutations. As the appearance of the retina is reported to be normal based on conventional fundus photography, IIN is postulated to arise from abnormal cortical development. To determine whether the afferent visual system is involved in FRMD7 mutations, we performed in situ hybridization studies in human embryonic and fetal stages (35 days post-ovulation to 9 weeks post-conception). We show a dynamic retinal expression pattern of FRMD7 during development. We observe expression within the outer neuroblastic layer, then in the inner neuroblastic layer and at 9 weeks post-conception a bilaminar expression pattern. Expression was also noted within the developing optic stalk and optic disk. We identified a large cohort of IIN patients (n = 100), and performed sequence analysis which revealed 45 patients with FRMD7 mutations. Patients with FRMD7 mutations underwent detailed retinal imaging studies using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. The tomograms were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). The foveal pit was significantly shallower in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). The optic nerve head morphology was abnormal with significantly decreased optic disk area, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, cup area and cup depth in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). This study shows for the first time that abnormal afferent system development is associated with FRMD7 mutations and could be an important etiological factor in the development of nystagmus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddu122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4082370PMC
August 2014

The tissue-specific RNA binding protein T-STAR controls regional splicing patterns of neurexin pre-mRNAs in the brain.

PLoS Genet 2013 Apr 25;9(4):e1003474. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

The RNA binding protein T-STAR was created following a gene triplication 520-610 million years ago, which also produced its two parologs Sam68 and SLM-1. Here we have created a T-STAR null mouse to identify the endogenous functions of this RNA binding protein. Mice null for T-STAR developed normally and were fertile, surprisingly, given the high expression of T-STAR in the testis and the brain, and the known infertility and pleiotropic defects of Sam68 null mice. Using a transcriptome-wide search for splicing targets in the adult brain, we identified T-STAR protein as a potent splicing repressor of the alternatively spliced segment 4 (AS4) exons from each of the Neurexin1-3 genes, and exon 23 of the Stxbp5l gene. T-STAR protein was most highly concentrated in forebrain-derived structures like the hippocampus, which also showed maximal Neurexin1-3 AS4 splicing repression. In the absence of endogenous T-STAR protein, Nrxn1-3 AS4 splicing repression dramatically decreased, despite physiological co-expression of Sam68. In transfected cells Neurexin3 AS4 alternative splicing was regulated by either T-STAR or Sam68 proteins. In contrast, Neurexin2 AS4 splicing was only regulated by T-STAR, through a UWAA-rich response element immediately downstream of the regulated exon conserved since the radiation of bony vertebrates. The AS4 exons in the Nrxn1 and Nrxn3 genes were also associated with distinct patterns of conserved UWAA repeats. Consistent with an ancient mechanism of splicing control, human T-STAR protein was able to repress splicing inclusion of the zebrafish Nrxn3 AS4 exon. Although Neurexin1-3 and Stxbp5l encode critical synaptic proteins, T-STAR null mice had no detectable spatial memory deficits, despite an almost complete absence of AS4 splicing repression in the hippocampus. Our work identifies T-STAR as an ancient and potent tissue-specific splicing regulator that uses a concentration-dependent mechanism to co-ordinately regulate regional splicing patterns of the Neurexin1-3 AS4 exons in the mouse brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636136PMC
April 2013

Origin of trisomy: no evidence to support the ovarian mosaicism theory.

Prenat Diagn 2012 Jul 9;32(7):668-73. Epub 2012 May 9.

Northern Genetics Service, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Central Parkway, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 3BZ, UK.

Objective: Trisomy is the most common type of chromosome abnormality, affecting 4% of clinically recognised pregnancies, of which, trisomies 16, 21 and 22 are the most prevalent. It has been suggested that a large proportion of maternally derived trisomic pregnancies, specifically trisomy 21, are the result of low-level ovarian mosaicism. In this study, we aimed to reproduce these previously published results on trisomy 21 and investigate the other common maternally derived trisomies (i.e. trisomies 16 and 22) by determining chromosome copy number in fetal ovarian and control skin cells.

Methods: Ovarian and control skin tissue was collected from eight karyotypically normal female fetuses of between 10 and 14 weeks gestation, which were terminated for social reasons. Tissues were dissociated and fluorescence in situ hybridisation was performed with break-apart probes: CBFβ (16q22), RUNX1 (21q22) and EWSR1 (22q12).

Results: A small number of trisomic cells, 13 out of 51,146 cells examined (0.025%), were identified in both ovarian and control skin samples. Only three of these trisomic cells were present in the fetal ovarian tissue.

Conclusion: This study found no evidence of fetal ovarian mosaicism for trisomies 16, 21 and 22.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.3885DOI Listing
July 2012

The essential role of centrosomal NDE1 in human cerebral cortex neurogenesis.

Am J Hum Genet 2011 May 28;88(5):523-35. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Human Genetics and Genomics, and Program on Neurogenetics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

We investigated three families whose offspring had extreme microcephaly at birth and profound mental retardation. Brain scans and postmortem data showed that affected individuals had brains less than 10% of expected size (≤10 standard deviation) and that in addition to a massive reduction in neuron production they displayed partially deficient cortical lamination (microlissencephaly). Other body systems were apparently unaffected and overall growth was normal. We found two distinct homozygous mutations of NDE1, c.83+1G>T (p.Ala29GlnfsX114) in a Turkish family and c.684_685del (p.Pro229TrpfsX85) in two families of Pakistani origin. Using patient cells, we found that c.83+1G>T led to the use of a novel splice site and to a frameshift after NDE1 exon 2. Transfection of tagged NDE1 constructs showed that the c.684_685del mutation resulted in a NDE1 that was unable to localize to the centrosome. By staining a patient-derived cell line that carried the c.83+1G>T mutation, we found that this endogeneously expressed mutated protein equally failed to localize to the centrosome. By examining human and mouse embryonic brains, we determined that NDE1 is highly expressed in neuroepithelial cells of the developing cerebral cortex, particularly at the centrosome. We show that NDE1 accumulates on the mitotic spindle of apical neural precursors in early neurogenesis. Thus, NDE1 deficiency causes both a severe failure of neurogenesis and a deficiency in cortical lamination. Our data further highlight the importance of the centrosome in multiple aspects of neurodevelopment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.03.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146716PMC
May 2011

The clinical and molecular genetic features of idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus.

Brain 2011 Mar 8;134(Pt 3):892-902. Epub 2011 Feb 8.

Ophthalmology Group, School of Medicine, University of Leicester, RKCSB, PO Box 65, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK.

Periodic alternating nystagmus consists of involuntary oscillations of the eyes with cyclical changes of nystagmus direction. It can occur during infancy (e.g. idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus) or later in life. Acquired forms are often associated with cerebellar dysfunction arising due to instability of the optokinetic-vestibular systems. Idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus can be familial or occur in isolation; however, very little is known about the clinical characteristics, genetic aetiology and neural substrates involved. Five loci (NYS1-5) have been identified for idiopathic infantile nystagmus; three are autosomal (NYS2, NYS3 and NYS4) and two are X-chromosomal (NYS1 and NYS5). We previously identified the FRMD7 gene on chromosome Xq26 (NYS1 locus); mutations of FRMD7 are causative of idiopathic infantile nystagmus influencing neuronal outgrowth and development. It is unclear whether the periodic alternating nystagmus phenotype is linked to NYS1, NYS5 (Xp11.4-p11.3) or a separate locus. From a cohort of 31 X-linked families and 14 singletons (70 patients) with idiopathic infantile nystagmus we identified 10 families and one singleton (21 patients) with periodic alternating nystagmus of which we describe clinical phenotype, genetic aetiology and neural substrates involved. Periodic alternating nystagmus was not detected clinically but only on eye movement recordings. The cycle duration varied from 90 to 280 s. Optokinetic reflex was not detectable horizontally. Mutations of the FRMD7 gene were found in all 10 families and the singleton (including three novel mutations). Periodic alternating nystagmus was predominantly associated with missense mutations within the FERM domain. There was significant sibship clustering of the phenotype although in some families not all affected members had periodic alternating nystagmus. In situ hybridization studies during mid-late human embryonic stages in normal tissue showed restricted FRMD7 expression in neuronal tissue with strong hybridization signals within the afferent arms of the vestibulo-ocular reflex consisting of the otic vesicle, cranial nerve VIII and vestibular ganglia. Similarly within the afferent arm of the optokinetic reflex we showed expression in the developing neural retina and ventricular zone of the optic stalk. Strong FRMD7 expression was seen in rhombomeres 1 to 4, which give rise to the cerebellum and the common integrator site for both these reflexes (vestibular nuclei). Based on the expression and phenotypic data, we hypothesize that periodic alternating nystagmus arises from instability of the optokinetic-vestibular systems. This study shows for the first time that mutations in FRMD7 can cause idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus and may affect neuronal circuits that have been implicated in acquired forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awq373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125620PMC
March 2011

Expression of PLA2G6 in human fetal development: Implications for infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy.

Brain Res Bull 2010 Nov 9;83(6):374-9. Epub 2010 Sep 9.

Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd., Portland, OR 97239, United States.

Mutations in PLA2G6, which encodes calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) group VIA (iPLA2-VIA), underlie the autosomal recessive disorder infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). INAD typically presents in the first year of life, and leads to optic atrophy and psychomotor regression. We have examined PLA2G6 expression in early human embryonic development by in situ hybridization. At Carnegie Stage (CS) 19 (approximately 7 post-conception weeks [PCW]), strong expression is evident in the ventricular zone (VZ) of midbrain and forebrain suggestive of expression in neural stem and progenitor cells. At CS23 (8PCW) expression is also detectable in the VZ of the hindbrain and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing neocortex, ganglionic eminences and diencephalon. By 9PCW strong expression in the post-mitotic cells of the cortical plate can be seen in the developing neocortex. In the eye, expression is seen in the lens and retina at all stages examined. PLA2G6 expression is also evident in the alar plate of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, the retina and lens in the eye and several non-neuronal tissues, including developing bones, lung, kidney and gut. These findings suggest a role for PLA2G6 in neuronal proliferation throughout the developing brain and in maturing neurons in the cortical plate and hindbrain. Although widespread PLA2G6 expression is detected in neuronal tissues, the pattern shows dynamic changes with time and indicates that INAD pathogenesis may begin prior to birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2975838PMC
November 2010

A truncating mutation of TRAPPC9 is associated with autosomal-recessive intellectual disability and postnatal microcephaly.

Am J Hum Genet 2009 Dec;85(6):897-902

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Although autosomal genes are increasingly recognized as important causes of intellectual disability, very few of them are known. We identified a genetic locus for autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability associated with variable postnatal microcephaly through homozygosity mapping of a consanguineous Israeli Arab family. Sequence analysis of genes in the candidate interval identified a nonsense nucleotide change in the gene that encodes TRAPPC9 (trafficking protein particle complex 9, also known as NIBP), which has been implicated in NF-kappaB activation and possibly in intracellular protein trafficking. TRAPPC9 is highly expressed in the postmitotic neurons of the cerebral cortex, and MRI analysis of affected patients shows defects in axonal connectivity. This suggests essential roles of TRAPPC9 in human brain development, possibly through its effect on NF-kappaB activation and protein trafficking in the postmitotic neurons of the cerebral cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.10.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2790576PMC
December 2009

The nystagmus-associated FRMD7 gene regulates neuronal outgrowth and development.

Hum Mol Genet 2010 Jan 5;19(2):342-51. Epub 2009 Nov 5.

MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Mutations in the gene encoding FERM domain-containing 7 protein (FRMD7) are recognized as an important cause of X-linked idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN). However, the precise role of FRMD7 and its involvement in the pathogenesis of IIN are not understood. In the present study, we have explored the role of FRMD7 in neuronal development. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we reveal that FRMD7 expression is spatially and temporally regulated in both the human and mouse brain during embryonic and fetal development. Furthermore, we show that FRMD7 expression is up-regulated upon retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma NEURO2A cells, suggesting FRMD7 may play a role in this process. Indeed, we demonstrate, for the first time, that knockdown of FRMD7 during neuronal differentiation results in altered neurite development. Taken together, our data suggest that FRMD7 is involved in multiple aspects of neuronal development, and have direct importance to further understanding the pathogenesis of IIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddp500DOI Listing
January 2010

Human CHN1 mutations hyperactivate alpha2-chimaerin and cause Duane's retraction syndrome.

Science 2008 Aug 24;321(5890):839-43. Epub 2008 Jul 24.

Department of Medicine (Genetics), Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Duane's retraction syndrome (DRS) is a complex congenital eye movement disorder caused by aberrant innervation of the extraocular muscles by axons of brainstem motor neurons. Studying families with a variant form of the disorder (DURS2-DRS), we have identified causative heterozygous missense mutations in CHN1, a gene on chromosome 2q31 that encodes alpha2-chimaerin, a Rac guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (RacGAP) signaling protein previously implicated in the pathfinding of corticospinal axons in mice. We found that these are gain-of-function mutations that increase alpha2-chimaerin RacGAP activity in vitro. Several of the mutations appeared to enhance alpha2-chimaerin translocation to the cell membrane or enhance its ability to self-associate. Expression of mutant alpha2-chimaerin constructs in chick embryos resulted in failure of oculomotor axons to innervate their target extraocular muscles. We conclude that alpha2-chimaerin has a critical developmental function in ocular motor axon pathfinding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1156121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2593867PMC
August 2008

Genomic sequence and transcriptional profile of the boundary between pericentromeric satellites and genes on human chromosome arm 10p.

Genome Res 2003 Feb;13(2):159-72

The Institute of Human Genetics, The International Centre for Life, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 3BZ, UK.

Contiguous finished sequence from highly duplicated pericentromeric regions of human chromosomes is needed if we are to understand the role of pericentromeric instability in disease, and in gene and karyotype evolution. Here, we have constructed a BAC contig spanning the transition from pericentromeric satellites to genes on the short arm of human chromosome 10, and used this to generate 1.4 Mb of finished genomic sequence. Combining RT-PCR, in silico gene prediction, and paralogy analysis, we can identify two domains within the sequence. The proximal 600 kb consists of satellite-rich pericentromerically duplicated DNA which is transcript poor, containing only three unspliced transcripts. In contrast, the distal 850 kb contains four known genes (ZNF248, ZNF25, ZNF33A, and ZNF37A) and up to 32 additional transcripts of unknown function. This distal region also contains seven out of the eight intrachromosomal duplications within the sequence, including the p arm copy of the approximately 250-kb duplication which gave rise to ZNF33A and ZNF33B. By sequencing orthologs of the duplicated ZNF33 genes we have established that ZNF33A has diverged significantly at residues critical for DNA binding but ZNF33B has not, indicating that ZNF33B has remained constrained by selection for ancestral gene function. These results provide further evidence of gene formation within intrachromosomal duplications, but indicate that recent interchromosomal duplications at this centromere have involved transcriptionally inert, satellite rich DNA, which is likely to be heterochromatic. This suggests that any novel gene structures formed by these interchromosomal events would require relocation to a more open chromatin environment to be expressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.644503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC420363PMC
February 2003

Human paralogs of KIAA0187 were created through independent pericentromeric-directed and chromosome-specific duplication mechanisms.

Genome Res 2002 Jan;12(1):67-80

The Institute of Human Genetics, The International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 3BZ, United Kingdom.

KIAA0187 is a gene of unknown function that maps to 10q11 and has been subject to recent duplication events. Here we analyze 18 human paralogs of this gene and show that paralogs of exons 14-23 were formed through satellite-associated pericentromeric-directed duplication, whereas paralogs of exons 1-9 were created via chromosome-specific satellite-independent duplications. In silico, Northern, and RT-PCR analyses indicate that nine paralogs are transcribed, including four in which KIAA0187 exons are spliced onto novel sequences. Despite this, no new genes appear to have been created by these events. The chromosome 10 paralogs map to 10q11, 10q22, 10q23.1, and 10q23.3, forming part of a complex family of chromosome-specific repeats that includes GLUD1, Cathepsin L, and KIAA1099 pseudogenes. Phylogenetic analyses and comparative FISH indicates that the 10q23.1 and 10q23.3 repeats were created in 10q11 and relocated by a paracentric inversion 13 to 27 Myr ago. Furthermore, the most recent duplications, involving the KIAA1099 pseudogenes, have largely been confined to 10q11. These results indicate a simple model for the evolution of this repeat family, involving multiple rounds of centromere-proximal duplication and dispersal through intrachromosomal rearrangement. However, more complex events must be invoked to account for high sequence identity between some paralogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.213702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC155266PMC
January 2002