Publications by authors named "Moira C McNulty"

12 Publications

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Shared decision making for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with black transgender women.

Cult Health Sex 2021 May 13:1-20. Epub 2021 May 13.

Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Shared decision making is a collaborative process intended to develop a treatment plan that considers both the patient's preferences and the health provider's medical recommendations. It is one approach to reducing healthcare disparities by improving patient-provider communication and subsequent health outcomes. This study examines shared decision making about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with Black transgender women in Chicago, Illinois, USA, given high prevalence of HIV and disparities in PrEP use. Black transgender women were recruited online and in-person to participate in semi-structured interviews ( = 24) and focus groups (2;  = 14 total), conducted between 2016 and 2017. Iterative thematic content analysis took place. Analysis revealed that internalised transphobia and racism, combined with stigma from service providers, prevented disclosure of gender and sexual identity to providers. Stigma about PrEP as it relates to Black transgender women results in stereotype threat, which undermines patient-provider trust and deters shared decision making for PrEP. Shared decision making promotes cultural competence and humility and builds trust within the patient-provider relationship, leading to better communication and less stigma. The involvement of peers may be one way to mitigate stigma for Black transgender women around PrEP, promote cultural competence within organisations, and empower engagement in shared decision making for HIV prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2021.1909142DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparison of effectiveness and cost for different HIV screening strategies implemented at large urban medical centre in the United States.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 10;23(10):e25554

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Introduction: Incident HIV infections persist in the United States (U.S.) among marginalized populations. Targeted and cost-efficient testing strategies can help in reaching HIV elimination. This analysis compares the effectiveness and cost of three HIV testing strategies in a high HIV burden area in the U.S. in identifying new HIV infections.

Methods: We performed a cost analysis comparing three HIV testing strategies in Chicago: (1) routine screening (RS) in an inpatient and outpatient setting, (2) modified partner services (MPS) among networks of the recently HIV infected and diagnosed, and (3) a respondent drive sampling (RDS)-based social network (SN) approach targeting young African-American men who have sex with men. All occurred at the same academic medical centre during the following times: routine testing, 2011 to 2016; MPS, 2013 to 2016; SN: 2013 to 2014. Costs were in 2016 dollars and included personnel, HIV testing, training, materials, overhead. Outcomes included cost per test, HIV-positive test and new diagnosis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of population demographics.

Results: The RS programme completed 57,308 HIV tests resulting in 360 (0.6%) HIV-positive tests and 165 new HIV diagnoses (0.28%). The MPS completed 146 HIV tests, resulting in 79 (54%) HIV-positive tests and eight new HIV diagnoses (5%). The SN strategy completed 508 HIV tests, resulting in 210 (41%) HIV-positive tests and 37 new HIV diagnoses (7.2%). Labour accounted for the majority of costs in all strategies. The estimated cost per new HIV diagnosis was $16,773 for the RS programme, $61,418 for the MPS programme and $15,683 for the SN testing programme. These costs were reduced for the RS and MPS strategies in sensitivity analyses limiting testing efficacy to the highest prevalence patient populations ($2,841 and $33,233 respectively).

Conclusions: The SN strategy yielded the highest proportion of new diagnoses, followed closely by the MPS programme. Both the SN strategy and RS programme were comparable in the cost per new diagnosis. A simultaneous approach that consists of RS in combination with SN testing may be most effective for identifying new HIV infections in settings with heterogeneous epidemics with both high rates of HIV prevalence and HIV testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594703PMC
October 2020

Cording in Disseminated Mycobacterium chelonae Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient.

Lab Med 2021 May;52(3):e50-e52

Department of Pathology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Cording is a phenomenon in which acid fast bacilli grow in parallel and was previously used as a means of presumptive microscopic identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). However, this process has been shown in multiple other nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species. Here we present the case of an immunocompromised adult who presented with wrist pain, weight loss, and cough. A positron emission tomography scan showed uptake in the right ulna, multiple soft tissue sites, and the left lung. Biopsies and cultures were obtained from multiple sites, and the patient was ultimately diagnosed with disseminated Mycobacterium chelonae infection. The organism showed cording in culture. As seen in this patient, cording may occur in multiple NTM species and is not reliable as the sole indicator of the presence of TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/labmed/lmaa082DOI Listing
May 2021

USA300 Staphylococcus aureus persists on multiple body sites following an infection.

BMC Microbiol 2018 12 5;18(1):206. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a community- and hospital-acquired pathogen that frequently causes infections but also can survive on the human body asymptomatically as a part of the normal microbiota. We devised a comparative genomic strategy to track colonizing USA300 at different body sites after an initial infection. We sampled ST8 S. aureus from subjects at the site of a first known MRSA infection. Within 60 days of this infection and again 12 months later, each subject was tested for asymptomatic colonization in the nose, throat and perirectal region. 93 S. aureus strains underwent whole genome shotgun sequencing.

Results: Among 28 subjects at the initial sampling time, we isolated S. aureus from the nose, throat and perirectal sites from 15, 11 and 15 of them, respectively. Twelve months later we isolated S. aureus from 9 subjects, with 6, 3 and 3 strains from the nose, throat and perirectal area, respectively. Genome sequencing revealed that 23 patients (ages 0-66 years) carried USA300 intra-subject lineages (ISLs), defined as having an index infection isolate and closely related colonizing strains. Pairwise distance between strains in different ISLs was 48 to 162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the core regions of the chromosome, whereas within the same ISL it was 0 to 26 SNPs. Strains in ISLs from the same subject differed in plasmid and prophage content, and contained deletions that removed the mecA-containing SCCmec and ACME regions. Five strains contained frameshift mutations in agr toxin-regulating genes. Persistence of an ISL was not associated with clinical or demographic subject characteristics. We inferred that colonization with the ISL occurred about 18 weeks before the first assessment of asymptomatic colonization.

Conclusions: Clonal lineages of USA300 may continue to colonize people at one or more anatomic sites up to a year after an initial infection and experience loss of the SCCmec, loss and gain of other mobile genetic elements, and mutations in the agr operon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-018-1336-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282268PMC
December 2018

Gender Differences in HIV Testing, Diagnosis, and Linkage to Care in Healthcare Settings: Identifying African American Women with HIV in Chicago.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2018 10;32(10):399-407

2 Section of Infectious Diseases and Global Health, University of Chicago , Chicago, Illinois.

Women account for 25% of all people living with HIV and 19% of new diagnoses in the United States. African American (AA) women are disproportionately affected. Yet, differences in the care continuum entry are not well understood between patient populations and healthcare sites. We aim to examine gender differences in diagnosis and linkage to care (LTC) in the Expanded HIV Testing and Linkage to Care (X-TLC) program within healthcare settings. Data were collected from 14 sites on the South and West sides of Chicago. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the differences in HIV diagnoses and LTC by gender and HIV status. From 2011 to 2016, X-TLC performed 281,017 HIV tests; 63.7% of those tested were women. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 0.57%, and nearly one third (29.4%) of HIV-positive patients identified were cisgender women. Of newly diagnosed HIV-positive women, 89% were AA. 58.5% of new diagnoses in women were made at acute care hospitals, with the remainder at community health centers. Women who were newly diagnosed had a higher baseline CD4 count at diagnosis compared with men. Overall, women had lower odds of LTC compared with men (adjusted odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.78) when controlling for patient demographics and newly versus previously diagnosed HIV status. Thus, interventions that focus on optimizing entry into the care continuum for AA women need to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/apc.2018.0066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6909762PMC
October 2018

Misdiagnosis of Bordetella bronchiseptica Respiratory Infection as Bordetella pertussis by Multiplex Molecular Assay.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 11;67(12):1919-1921

Section of Infectious Diseases and Global Health, University of Chicago, Illinois.

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests are useful for the rapid detection of pathogens, though diagnostic challenges may arise. We report 2 immunocompromised patients with Bordetella bronchiseptica respiratory infection misdiagnosed as Bordetella pertussis using PCR, including discussion of transmission, diagnostic testing, clinical implications, and infection control considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy469DOI Listing
November 2018

Care continuum entry interventions: seek and test strategies to engage persons most impacted by HIV within the United States.

AIDS 2018 02;32(4):407-417

Section of Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago.

: The current review re-conceptualizes seek and test strategies, particularly given the changing importance of HIV testing as care continuum entry for persons irrespective of their HIV status. Care continuum entry advances previous seek and test strategies for client engagement with two next-generation functions: use of testing to engage (or re-engage) HIV negative clients in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care; and testing individuals who may already be known positives for care continuum re-entry. We review existing seek and test strategies for most impacted community members with a goal of optimizing care continuum entry as we move towards HIV transmission elimination. These strategies are context, sub-group, community and epidemic-specific. This review is timely, given the initiation of routine PrEP care, which shifts and broadens our conceptualization of care continuum entry triggered by the HIV testing event. In addition, as the epidemic becomes more concentrated, focusing on re-engagement of HIV-infected persons becomes increasingly important given that transmission events involve both those acutely and newly infected as well as the large numbers who may not be virally suppressed. We start with examination of routine testing in healthcare settings, emphasizing its potential role in re-engagement for persons out of care. Subsequently, we describe risk-based testing to identify key populations. We then review network-based approaches and their impact on the epidemic. We close with future directions for individual and combination care continuum entry strategies most relevant to elimination of HIV transmission in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5794224PMC
February 2018

Bacterial and viral co-infections complicating severe influenza: Incidence and impact among 507 U.S. patients, 2013-14.

J Clin Virol 2016 07 14;80:12-9. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States; Department of Medicine, Northshore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, United States.

Background: Influenza acts synergistically with bacterial co-pathogens. Few studies have described co-infection in a large cohort with severe influenza infection.

Objectives: To describe the spectrum and clinical impact of co-infections.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study of patients with severe influenza infection from September 2013 through April 2014 in intensive care units at 33 U.S. hospitals comparing characteristics of cases with and without co-infection in bivariable and multivariable analysis.

Results: Of 507 adult and pediatric patients, 114 (22.5%) developed bacterial co-infection and 23 (4.5%) developed viral co-infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause of co-infection, isolated in 47 (9.3%) patients. Characteristics independently associated with the development of bacterial co-infection of adult patients in a logistic regression model included the absence of cardiovascular disease (OR 0.41 [0.23-0.73], p=0.003), leukocytosis (>11K/μl, OR 3.7 [2.2-6.2], p<0.001; reference: normal WBC 3.5-11K/μl) at ICU admission and a higher ICU admission SOFA score (for each increase by 1 in SOFA score, OR 1.1 [1.0-1.2], p=0.001). Bacterial co-infections (OR 2.2 [1.4-3.6], p=0.001) and viral co-infections (OR 3.1 [1.3-7.4], p=0.010) were both associated with death in bivariable analysis. Patients with a bacterial co-infection had a longer hospital stay, a longer ICU stay and were likely to have had a greater delay in the initiation of antiviral administration than patients without co-infection (p<0.05) in bivariable analysis.

Conclusions: Bacterial co-infections were common, resulted in delay of antiviral therapy and were associated with increased resource allocation and higher mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2016.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185824PMC
July 2016

Development of a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Shared Decision making Among African-American LGBT Patients and their Clinicians.

J Gen Intern Med 2016 06;31(6):677-87

Section of Infectious Diseases, , The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Enhancing patient-centered care and shared decision making (SDM) has become a national priority as a means of engaging patients in their care, improving treatment adherence, and enhancing health outcomes. Relatively little is known about the healthcare experiences or shared decision making among racial/ethnic minorities who also identify as being LGBT. The purpose of this paper is to understand how race, sexual orientation and gender identity can simultaneously influence SDM among African-American LGBT persons, and to propose a model of SDM between such patients and their healthcare providers.

Methods: We reviewed key constructs necessary for understanding SDM among African-American LGBT persons, which guided our systematic literature review. Eligible studies for the review included English-language studies of adults (≥ 19 y/o) in North America, with a focus on LGBT persons who were African-American/black (i.e., > 50 % of the study population) or included sub-analyses by sexual orientation/gender identity and race. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases using MESH terms and keywords related to shared decision making, communication quality (e.g., trust, bias), African-Americans, and LGBT persons. Additional references were identified by manual reviews of peer-reviewed journals' tables of contents and key papers' references.

Results: We identified 2298 abstracts, three of which met the inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, one was cross-sectional and two were qualitative; one study involved transgender women (91 % minorities, 65 % of whom were African-Americans), and two involved African-American men who have sex with men (MSM). All of the studies focused on HIV infection. Sexual orientation and gender identity were patient-reported factors that negatively impacted patient/provider relationships and SDM. Engaging in SDM helped some patients overcome normative beliefs about clinical encounters. In this paper, we present a conceptual model for understanding SDM in African-American LGBT persons, wherein multiple systems of social stratification (e.g., race, gender, sexual orientation) influence patient and provider perceptions, behaviors, and shared decision making.

Discussion: Few studies exist that explore SDM among African-American LGBT persons, and no interventions were identified in our systematic review. Thus, we are unable to draw conclusions about the effect size of SDM among this population on health outcomes. Qualitative work suggests that race, sexual orientation and gender work collectively to enhance perceptions of discrimination and decrease SDM among African-American LGBT persons. More research is needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding of shared decision making and subsequent health outcomes among African-Americans along the entire spectrum of gender and sexual orientation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-016-3616-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4870421PMC
June 2016

Severe Influenza in 33 US Hospitals, 2013-2014: Complications and Risk Factors for Death in 507 Patients.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015 Nov 30;36(11):1251-60. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

1Department of Medicine,University of Chicago,Chicago,Illinois.

Background: Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.

Results: A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4-6.9], P=.006 and 50-64 years, 2.5 [1.3-4.9], P=.007; reference age 18-49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1-3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9-37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2-1.4], P<.001).

Conclusion: Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013-2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2015.170DOI Listing
November 2015