Publications by authors named "Mohsin Raza"

55 Publications

Double diffusive convection and Hall effect in creeping flow of viscous nanofluid through a convergent microchannel: a biotechnological applications.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2021 Feb 24:1-18. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Current analysis presents the mathematical modeling for peristaltic transport of nanofluid with applications of double-diffusive convection and Hall features. The flow has been induced by a convergent channel due to peristaltic propulsion. These rheological equations are transformed from fixed to wave frames by using a linear mathematical relation between these two frames. The dimensionless variables are used to transform these rheological equations into nondimensional forms. The flow analysis is carried out under two distinct scientific biological assumptions, one is known as long wavelength and the second one is low Reynolds number. The analytical solutions of these rheological equations are obtained with the help of a rigorous analytical method known as integration in the term of stream function. The physical effects of magnetic and Hall devices, respectively, on the flow features are also considered in the present analysis. The physical influences of dominant hydro-mechanical parameters on the axial velocity, pressure gradient, trapping, volumetric fraction of nanofluid, heat and mass transfer phenomena are studied. The complex scenario of biomimetic propulsions are considered in boundary walls to boost the proficiency of peristaltic micropumps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10255842.2021.1888373DOI Listing
February 2021

Grain Fe and Zn contents linked SSR markers based genetic diversity in rice.

PLoS One 2020 28;15(9):e0239739. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Molecular Breeding Laboratory, Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Sheikhupura, Punjab, Pakistan.

Rice is critical for sustainable food and nutritional security; however, nominal micronutrient quantities in grains aggravate malnutrition in rice-eating poor populations. In this study, we evaluated genetic diversity in grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents using trait-linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the representative subset of a large collection of local and exotic rice germplasm. Results demonstrated that aromatic fine grain accessions contained relatively higher Fe and Zn contents in brown rice (BR) than coarse grain accessions and a strong positive correlation between both mineral elements. Genotyping with 24 trait-linked SSR markers identified 21 polymorphic markers, among which 17 demonstrated higher gene diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC) values, strongly indicating that markers used in current research were moderate to highly informative for evaluating the genetic diversity. Population structure, principal coordinate and phylogenetic analyses classified studied rice accessions into two fine grain specific and one fine and coarse grain admixture subpopulations. Single marker analysis recognized four ZnBR and single FeBR significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) contributing 15.41-39.72% in total observed phenotypic variance. Furthermore, high grain Fe and Zn contents linked marker alleles from significant MTAs were also identified. Collectively, these results indicate a wide genetic diversity exist in grain Fe and Zn contents of studied rice accessions and reveal perspective for marker-assisted biofortification breeding.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239739PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521695PMC
November 2020

Novel functional antimicrobial and biocompatible arabinoxylan/guar gum hydrogel for skin wound dressing applications.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2020 10 17;14(10):1488-1501. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

It is a challenging task to develop active biomacromolecular wound dressing materials that are biocompatible and possesses antibacterial properties against the bacterial strains that cause severe skin disease. This work is focused on the preparation of a biocompatible and degradable hydrogel for wound dressing application using arabinoxylan (ARX) and guar gum (GG) natural polymers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed that both ARX and GG interacted well with each other, and their interactions further increased with the addition of crosslinker tetraethyl orthosilicate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed uniform porous morphologies of the hydrogels. The porous morphologies and uniform interconnected pores are attributed to the increased crosslinking of the hydrogel. Elastic modulus, tensile strength, and fracture strain of the hydrogels significantly improved (from ATG-1 to ATG-4) with crosslinking. Degradability tests showed that hydrogels lost maximum weight in 7 days. All the samples showed variation in swelling with pH. Maximum swelling was observed at pH 7. The hydrogel samples showed good antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) in PBS, good drug release profile (92% drug release), and nontoxic cellular behavior. The cells not only retained their cylindrical morphologies onto the hydrogel but were also performing their normal activities. It is, therefore, believed that as-developed hydrogel could be a potential material for wound dressing application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.3115DOI Listing
October 2020

Wireless E-Nose Sensors to Detect Volatile Organic Gases through Multivariate Analysis.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Jun 18;11(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Energy and Environment Institute, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Hull, Hull 7RX, UK.

Gas sensors are critical components when adhering to health safety and environmental policies in various manufacturing industries, such as the petroleum and oil industry; scent and makeup production; food and beverage manufacturing; chemical engineering; pollution monitoring. In recent times, gas sensors have been introduced to medical diagnostics, bioprocesses, and plant disease diagnosis processes. There could be an adverse impact on human health due to the mixture of various gases (e.g., acetone (A), ethanol (E), propane (P)) that vent out from industrial areas. Therefore, it is important to accurately detect and differentiate such gases. Towards this goal, this paper presents a novel electronic nose (e-nose) detection method to classify various explosive gases. To detect explosive gases, metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors are used as reliable tools to detect such volatile gases. The data received from MOS sensors are processed through a multivariate analysis technique to classify different categories of gases. Multivariate analysis was done using three variants-differential, relative, and fractional analyses-in principal components analysis (PCA). The MOS sensors also have three different designs: loading design, notch design, and Bi design. The proposed MOS sensor-based e-nose accurately detects and classifies three different gases, which indicates the reliability and practicality of the developed system. The developed system enables discrimination of these gases from the mixture. Based on the results from the proposed system, authorities can take preventive measures to deal with these gases to avoid their potential adverse impacts on employee health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi11060597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345365PMC
June 2020

Performance Analysis of Boosting Classifiers in Recognizing Activities of Daily Living.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 8;17(3). Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

Physical activity is essential for physical and mental health, and its absence is highly associated with severe health conditions and disorders. Therefore, tracking activities of daily living can help promote quality of life. Wearable sensors in this regard can provide a reliable and economical means of tracking such activities, and such sensors are readily available in smartphones and watches. This study is the first of its kind to develop a wearable sensor-based physical activity classification system using a special class of supervised machine learning approaches called boosting algorithms. The study presents the performance analysis of several boosting algorithms (extreme gradient boosting-XGB, light gradient boosting machine-LGBM, gradient boosting-GB, cat boosting-CB and AdaBoost) in a fair and unbiased performance way using uniform dataset, feature set, feature selection method, performance metric and cross-validation techniques. The study utilizes the Smartphone-based dataset of thirty individuals. The results showed that the proposed method could accurately classify the activities of daily living with very high performance (above 90%). These findings suggest the strength of the proposed system in classifying activity of daily living using only the smartphone sensor's data and can assist in reducing the physical inactivity patterns to promote a healthier lifestyle and wellbeing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7038216PMC
February 2020

Effects of Chromium-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles on the Intestinal Electrophysiological Indices and Glucose Transporters in Broilers.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Oct 17;9(10). Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Physiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chromium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Cr-CNPs) on the electrophysiological indices, gene expression of glucose transporters, and tissue glycogen in broilers. A total of 200 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into five groups, with each having five replicates (n = 8). Group A was fed a corn-soybean meal diet, while the diets of groups B, C, D, and E were supplemented with 200, 400, 800, and 1200 µg/kg of Cr as Cr-CNPs, respectively. On day 35, the jejunum was collected for electrophysiological study, gene expression of glucose transporters, and tissues glycogen determination. The basal short-circuit current and tissue conductance before the addition of glucose was the same in all groups. Following the addition of glucose, the change in short-circuit current decreased ( < 0.05) in the jejunal tissues of birds supplemented with 400 and 1200 µg Cr-CNPs compared with the control group. Gene expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 remained unaffected with supplementation. The serum glucose and liver glycogen concentration decreased ( < 0.05) linearly with supplementation, while no effect was observed on muscle glycogen. In conclusion, Cr-CNPs supplementation decreases the glucose absorption and liver glycogen content, without affecting the gene expression of glucose transporters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9100819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6826477PMC
October 2019

TAEO-A Thermal Aware & Energy Optimized Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Jul 25;19(15). Epub 2019 Jul 25.

School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK.

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are in the spotlight of researchers and engineering industries due to many applications. Remote health monitoring for general as well as military purposes where tiny sensors are attached or implanted inside the skin of the body to sense the required attribute is particularly prominent. To seamlessly accomplish this procedure, there are various challenges, out of which temperature control to reduce thermal effects and optimum power consumption to reduce energy wastage are placed at the highest priority. Regular and consistent operation of a sensor node for a long-time result in a rising of the temperature of respective tissues, where it is attached or implanted. This temperature rise has harmful effects on human tissues, which may lead to the tissue damage. In this paper, a Temperate Aware and Energy Optimized (TAEO) routing protocol is proposed that not only deals with the thermal aspects and hot spot problem, but also extends the stability and lifetime of a network. Analytical simulations are conducted, and the results depict better performance in terms of the network lifetime, throughput, energy preservation, and temperature control with respect to state of the art WBAN protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19153275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696412PMC
July 2019

An Internet of Things Based Bed-Egress Alerting Paradigm Using Wearable Sensors in Elderly Care Environment.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 May 31;19(11). Epub 2019 May 31.

School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.

The lack of healthcare staff and increasing proportions of elderly population is alarming. The traditional means to look after elderly has resulted in 255,000 reported falls (only within UK). This not only resulted in extensive aftercare needs and surgeries (summing up to £4.4 billion) but also in added suffering and increased mortality. In such circumstances, the technology can greatly assist by offering automated solutions for the problem at hand. The proposed work offers an Internet of things (IoT) based patient bed-exit monitoring system in clinical settings, capable of generating a timely response to alert the healthcare workers and elderly by analyzing the wireless data streams, acquired through wearable sensors. This work analyzes two different datasets obtained from divergent families of sensing technologies, i.e., smartphone-based accelerometer and radio frequency identification (RFID) based accelerometer. The findings of the proposed system show good efficacy in monitoring the bed-exit and discriminate other ambulating activities. Furthermore, the proposed work manages to keep the average end-to-end system delay (i.e., communications of sensed data to Data Sink (DS)/Control Center (CC) + machine-based feature extraction and class identification + feedback communications to a relevant healthcare worker/elderly) below 1 10 th of a second.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19112498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6603575PMC
May 2019

Ionophores as Potent Anti-malarials: A Miracle in the Making.

Curr Top Med Chem 2019 ;18(23):2029-2041

Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021, India.

Plasmodium has a complex life cycle that spans between mosquito and human. For survival and pathogenesis it banks upon dynamic alterations in ionic transport across organelle and plasma membrane. Being a fundamental contributor of crucial biological processes in parasite, ionic balance facilitates parasite invasion, augmentation and transmission. Past few decades have witnessed tremendous advancement in understanding the relevance of ionic transit in parasites. Perhaps, not surprisingly, disruption of ionic homeostasis was thought to be detrimental for parasite. Compounds like ionophores are known to facilitate ionic transport across membrane down their electrochemical gradient. Despite continuous effort, malaria treatment is still a challenge particularly due to the development of resistance among parasites against existing therapeutic options. However, repurposing the existing drugs can be advantageous over de novo drug development programs in terms of cost and associated risk factors. Ionophores, being used in coccidiosis have proven to be of significance in the treatment of experimental models of malaria. Several recent reports have highlighted the attractive potential of ionophores such as Monensin, Maduramicin, Valinomycin, etc., that can act against multiple stages of malarial parasite's life cycle. Improved variety of these molecules may help in mitigating the drug resistance problems as well. This review is an attempt to examine the relevant literature and provide insight into the mechanism and prospects of different classes of ionophores as promising anti-malarial potpourri.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026619666181129125950DOI Listing
January 2019

Functionalized graphene oxide coating on Ti6Al4V alloy for improved biocompatibility and corrosion resistance.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 Jan 11;94:920-928. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, USA; Science of Advanced Materials, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, USA. Electronic address:

The present study focused on the development of magnesium-functionalized graphene oxide (FGO) coating on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) by electrophoretic deposition. Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by modified Hummers' method and functionalized with magnesium ions. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to confirm the synthesis of GO and GO-coatings on Ti6Al4V. Functionalization of GO with Mg ions was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The surface morphology of coated samples was examined through scanning electron microscopy. Reduction of FGO coating (labelled as rFGO) by heating at 200 °C was confirmed by IR. The rFGO coated Ti6Al4V was found to be hydrophilic in nature as determined by contact angle measurement which showed reduction in the contact angle of Ti6Al4V from 95.4° to 42.1°. The percent cell viability over the coated sample was appreciably improved compared to as-received Ti6Al4V sample owing to hydrophilicity of the former. The positive shift in open circuit potential and increase in polarization resistance was observed after coating Ti6Al4V samples with FGO. The significant decrease in the corrosion current density and negative polarization loop in the reverse scan of samples also confirmed the improved corrosion resistance of rFGO-coated Ti6Al4V over uncoated Ti6Al4V in the PBS solution. Furthermore, the impedance spectroscopy revealed that the preferential adsorption of ionic species (indicated by large R) at the surface improved the barrier characteristics of rFGO coated samples and exhibited an order of magnitude higher R compared to as-received samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.046DOI Listing
January 2019

Near interface ionic transport in oxygen vacancy stabilized cubic zirconium oxide thin films.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Nov 11;20(41):26068-26071. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.

The cubic phase of pure zirconia (ZrO) is stabilized in dense thin films through a controlled introduction of oxygen vacancies (O defects) by cold-plasma-based sputtering deposition. Here, we show that the cubic crystals present at the film/substrate interface near-region exhibit fast ionic transport, which is superior to what is obtained with similar yttrium-stabilized cubic zirconia thin films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cp05465gDOI Listing
November 2018

The Neurobiology and Pharmacotherapy of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2019 01 14;59:171-189. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Clinical Neuroscience Division, Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA; email:

New approaches to the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed to address the reported crisis in PTSD drug development. These new approaches may require the field to move beyond a narrow fear-based perspective, as fear-based medications have not yet demonstrated compelling efficacy. Antidepressants, particularly recent rapid-acting antidepressants, exert complex effects on brain function and structure that build on novel aspects of the biology of PTSD, including a role for stress-related synaptic dysconnectivity in the neurobiology and treatment of PTSD. Here, we integrate this perspective within a broader framework-in other words, a dual pathology model of ( a) stress-related synaptic loss arising from amino acid-based pathology and ( b) stress-related synaptic gain related to monoamine-based pathology. Then, we summarize the standard and experimental (e.g., ketamine) pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD and discuss their putative mechanism of action and clinical efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010818-021701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326888PMC
January 2019

Long circulatory liposomal maduramicin inhibits the growth of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages in culture and cures murine models of experimental malaria.

Nanoscale 2018 Jul;10(28):13773-13791

Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021, India.

Malaria continues to be one of the deadliest infectious diseases and a global health menace. The emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains of malaria parasites have further made the process of disease management grimmer. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify promising antimalarial strategies that can target the blood stages as well as block parasite transmission. Maduramicin is one such ionophore selected out of a recent screen of gametocytocidal compounds that exhibit potent antiplasmodial activity. However, maduramicin's strong hydrophobic nature and associated toxicity restrict its application in chemotherapy. To alleviate this problem, we have developed a liposomal formulation loaded with the ionophore maduramicin for the treatment of chloroquine sensitive and resistant Plasmodium infections. Here, we show that maduramicin in PEGylated liposomal formulations displayed enhanced antiplasmodial activity in vitro compared to free maduramicin. Significantly, four consecutive doses of 1.5 mg kg-1 body weight of PEGylated maduramicin loaded lipid vesicles completely cured cerebral and chloroquine resistant murine models of malaria without any obvious toxic effects and suppressed the key inflammatory markers associated with the progression of the disease. PEGylated liposomal maduramicin also exhibited a prolonged plasma clearance rate, implying a greater chance of interaction and uptake by infected RBCs. Furthermore, we also provide evidence that the detrimental effect of liposomal maduramicin on parasite survival is mediated by increased ROS generation and subsequent perturbation of parasite mitochondrial membrane potential. This study presents the first report to demonstrate the potent antimalarial efficacy of maduramicin liposomes, a strategy that holds promise for the development of successful therapeutic intervention against malaria in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr02442aDOI Listing
July 2018

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): Exploring its implications in infectious diseases.

Biomol Concepts 2018 May 30;9(1):64-79. Epub 2018 May 30.

From the Infectious Disease Immunology Lab, Dr. B R Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India.

A key player in driving cellular immunity, IFN-γ is capable of orchestrating numerous protective functions to heighten immune responses in infections and cancers. It can exhibit its immunomodulatory effects by enhancing antigen processing and presentation, increasing leukocyte trafficking, inducing an anti-viral state, boosting the anti-microbial functions and affecting cellular proliferation and apoptosis. A complex interplay between immune cell activity and IFN-γ through coordinated integration of signals from other pathways involving cytokines and Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) such as Interleukin (IL)-4, TNF-α, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Type-I Interferons (IFNS) etc. leads to initiation of a cascade of pro-inflammatory responses. Microarray data has unraveled numerous genes whose transcriptional regulation is influenced by IFN-γ. Consequently, IFN-γ stimulated cells display altered expression of many such target genes which mediate its downstream effector functions. The importance of IFN-γ is further reinforced by the fact that mice possessing disruptions in the IFN-γ gene or its receptor develop extreme susceptibility to infectious diseases and rapidly succumb to them. In this review, we attempt to elucidate the biological functions and physiological importance of this versatile cytokine. The functional implications of its biological activity in several infectious diseases and autoimmune pathologies are also discussed. As a counter strategy, many virulent pathogenic species have devised ways to thwart IFN-γ endowed immune-protection. Thus, IFN-γ mediated host-pathogen interactions are critical for our understanding of disease mechanisms and these aspects also manifest enormous therapeutic importance for the annulment of various infections and autoimmune conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bmc-2018-0007DOI Listing
May 2018

Validation of the Internet Addiction Test in Students at a Pakistani Medical and Dental School.

Psychiatr Q 2018 03;89(1):235-247

Centre for Mental Health Research, School of Health Sciences, City University London, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB, UK.

Despite growing concerns over pathological internet usage, studies based on validated psychometric instruments are still lacking in Pakistan. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in a sample of Pakistani students. A total of 522 students of medicine and dentistry completed the questionnaire, which consisted of four sections: (a) demographics, (b) number of hours spent on the Internet per day, (c) English version of the IAT, and (d) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40. Maximum likelihood analysis and principal axis factoring were used to validate the factor structure of the IAT. Convergent and criterion validity were assessed by correlating IAT scores with number of hours spent online and defense styles. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis reflected the goodness of fit of a unidimensional structure of the IAT, with a high alpha coefficient. The IAT had good face and convergent validity and no floor and ceiling effects, and was judged easy to read by participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11126-017-9528-5DOI Listing
March 2018

Stearylamine Liposomal Delivery of Monensin in Combination with Free Artemisinin Eliminates Blood Stages of Plasmodium falciparum in Culture and P. berghei Infection in Murine Malaria.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Dec 14;60(3):1304-18. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi, India

The global emergence of drug resistance in malaria is impeding the therapeutic efficacy of existing antimalarial drugs. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop an efficient drug delivery system to circumvent drug resistance. The anticoccidial drug monensin, a carboxylic ionophore, has been shown to have antimalarial properties. Here, we developed a liposome-based drug delivery of monensin and evaluated its antimalarial activity in lipid formulations of soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) cholesterol (Chol) containing either stearylamine (SA) or phosphatidic acid (PA) and different densities of distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine-methoxy-polyethylene glycol 2000 (DSPE-mPEG-2000). These formulations were found to be more effective than a comparable dose of free monensin in Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) cultures and established mice models of Plasmodium berghei strains NK65 and ANKA. Parasite killing was determined by a radiolabeled [(3)H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay (in vitro) and microscopic counting of Giemsa-stained infected erythrocytes (in vivo). The enhancement of antimalarial activity was dependent on the liposomal lipid composition and preferential uptake by infected red blood cells (RBCs). The antiplasmodial activity of monensin in SA liposome (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.74 nM) and SPC:Chol-liposome with 5 mol% DSPE-mPEG 2000 (IC50, 0.39 nM) was superior to that of free monensin (IC50, 3.17 nM), without causing hemolysis of erythrocytes. Liposomes exhibited a spherical shape, with sizes ranging from 90 to 120 nm, as measured by dynamic light scattering and high-resolution electron microscopy. Monensin in long-circulating liposomes of stearylamine with 5 mol% DSPE-mPEG 2000 in combination with free artemisinin resulted in enhanced killing of parasites, prevented parasite recrudescence, and improved survival. This is the first report to demonstrate that monensin in PEGylated stearylamine (SA) liposome has therapeutic potential against malaria infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01796-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775978PMC
December 2015

Duration of nasal packs in the management of epistaxis.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2015 Mar;25(3):202-5

Department of ENT, Heavy Industries Taxilla Hospital, Taxilla.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of nasal packs for 12 and 24 hours in the management of epistaxis.

Study Design: Quasi experimental study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Nowshera and Heavy Industries Taxilla Hospital, from October 2012 to April 2013.

Methodology: A total of 60 patients presenting with epistaxis were selected and were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Patients in both the groups were managed by nasal packs. In group-A packs were removed after 12 hours while in group-B after 24 hours. Symptoms of headache, lacrimation and recurrence of bleeding were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis and p-value less than 0.01 was considered significant.

Results: There was significant difference for headache between removal of nasal packs after 12 hours and 24 hours (p < 0.001). There was significant difference for excessive lacrimation at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for recurrence of bleed when nasal packs were removed at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.317).

Conclusion: Duration in removal of nasal packs after 12 or 24 hours made a difference in the management of epistaxis. Symptoms of headache and excessive lacrimation were significantly higher when nasal packs were removed after 24 hours. It is recommended that patient could be managed with lesser duration of packs after episode of epistaxis to avoid inconvenience.
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http://dx.doi.org/03.2015/JCPSP.202205DOI Listing
March 2015

Cellular iron homeostasis and therapeutic implications of iron chelators in cancer.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2014 ;15(12):1125-40

Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi- 110021, India.

Iron metabolism and homeostasis are imperative for the maintenance of normal physiological activities due to the element's critical involvement in a wide variety of crucial biological processes like cellular respiration, metabolic pathways, DNA replication, repair, detoxification, neurotransmission and cellular signaling. Being a key contributor of crucial machineries regulating cellular proliferation and survival, it facilitates the process of tumor growth and development. Thus, tumor cells strive to acquire higher amount of iron than non-malignant cells to satisfy their elevated rate of metabolism. Perhaps, not surprisingly chelation of this metal ion was thought to be effective in treating cancer, but due to a variety of side effects, the use of iron chelators was clinically insignificant. However, discovery of various new classes of iron chelators with lesser side effects and selective toxicity towards cancer cells has revived the possibilities of using iron chelators in anti-cancer therapy. In this review, we have discussed the role of iron in promoting malignant mechanisms and the prospects of usage of different classes of iron chelators in cancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920101512141202111915DOI Listing
August 2015

Mechanisms of hippocampal astrocytes mediation of spatial memory and theta rhythm by gliotransmitters and growth factors.

Cell Biol Int 2014 Dec 2;38(12):1355-66. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Department of Bioelectrics, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, IR, Iran.

Our knowledge about encoding and maintenance of spatial memory emphasizes the integrated functional role of the grid cells and the place cells of the hippocampus in the generation of theta rhythm in spatial memory formation. However, the role of astrocytes in these processes is often underestimated in their contribution to the required structural and functional characteristics of hippocampal neural network operative in spatial memory. We show that hippocampal astrocytes, by the secretion of gliotransmitters, such as glutamate, d-serine, and ATP and growth factors such as BDNF and by the expression of receptors and channels such as those of TNFα and aquaporin, have several diverse fuctions in spatial memory. We specifically focus on the role of astrocytes on five phases of spatial memory: (1) theta rhythm generation, (2) theta phase precession, (3) formation of spatial memory by mapping data of entorhinal grid cells into the place cells, (4) storage of spatial information, and (5) maintenance of spatial memory. Finally, by reviewing the literature, we propose specific mechanisms mentioned in the form of a hypothesis suggesting that astrocytes are important in spatial memory formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.10326DOI Listing
December 2014

Interaction and UV-Stability of Various Organic Capping Agents on the Surface of Anatase Nanoparticles.

Materials (Basel) 2014 Apr 10;7(4):2890-2912. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Saarland University, Inorganic Solid State Chemistry, Am Markt Zeile 3, Saarbrücken 66125, Germany.

Anatase nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method were surface-functionalized with long alkyl chain coupling agents as compatibilizers for a nonpolar environment, containing different anchor groups for surface interaction namely phosphonate (dodecyl phosphonate), carboxylate (dodecanoic acid), sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and amine (dodecyl amine). It was shown that the surface of the nanoparticles can be functionalized with the various surface groups applying similar reaction conditions. The kind of surface interaction was analyzed applying FTIR spectroscopy. The phosphonate and the carboxylate groups interact with the surface via quite strong covalent or coordinative interactions, respectively. The sulfate and amine based coupling agents on the other hand exhibit electrostatic interactions. UV stability studies of the surface bound groups revealed different degradation mechanisms for the various functionalities and moreover showed that phosphonates are the most stable among the investigated surface capping groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma7042890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5453362PMC
April 2014

Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula.

ISRN Pharmacol 2013 19;2013:256934. Epub 2013 Aug 19.

Department of Pharmacy, Hazara University, Havelian Campus, Havelian, Abbottabad 22500, Pakistan.

Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500 mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60 min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10 mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10 mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265 mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3 mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3 mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/256934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3760113PMC
September 2013

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

J Pak Med Assoc 2013 Apr;63(4):490-4

Tabba Heart Institute, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine the outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Tabba Heart Institute, a private-sector facility in Karachi. It reviewed the medical records of 56 consecutive patients between January 2009 and June 2011 with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and subjected to primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary end point was in-hospital mortality and its predictors. SPSS 14 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: The mean age of the study patients was 63 +/- 11.7 years; 38 (68%) were male; 32 (57%) were hypertensive; and 39 (69%) were diabetic. Most infarcts were anterior in location (n = 36; 64%). Besides, 33 (59%) required ventilatory support. Intra-aortic balloon pump was placed in 30 (54%), and 33 (59%) patients had multivessel coronary artery disease. In-hospital mortality occurred in 26 (46%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age > 60 years (p < 0.05), diabetes (p < 0.01) and left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% (p < 0.01) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: Results emphasise the need of aggressive management of patients with cardiogenic shock utilising primary percutaneous coronary intervention as a reperfusion strategy to improve clinical outcomes.
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April 2013

Transradial primary percutaneous coronary intervention - experience from a tertiary care cardiac centre.

J Pak Med Assoc 2013 Jun;63(6):731-4

Tabba Heart Institute, Karachi.

Objective: To determine the outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention via transradial approach in a tertiary care cardiac centre.

Methods: The study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 160 consecutive patients who presented to Tabba Heart Institute, a private-sector facility in Karachi, between January 2009 and January 2011 with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention via transradial approach. The primary end-points were in-hospital mortality and procedural success. Secondary end-points were access site bleeding complication and 30-day outcomes (mortality, myocardial infarction and congestive cardiac failure).

Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.9+/-11.7 years and 126 (79%) were males. The procedural success was 98% (n=157). Three (1.8%) patients died during hospitalisation. Forearm haematoma (>5cm) was observed in three (1.8%) patients. No mortality was observed in 30-day follow-up after discharge, while myocardial infarction and congestive cardiac failure were 1.25% (n=2) and 4% (n=6) respectively.

Conclusions: High procedural success and favourable clinical outcomes matching the international data can be achieved in our patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention via transradial approach.
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June 2013

Characterization of new exopolysaccharides produced by coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with yoghurt strains.

Int J Biol Macromol 2013 Aug 7;59:377-83. Epub 2013 May 7.

Department of Home & Health Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan.

This project was designed to study the coculturing affect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strains Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens (L.k) ZW3, with non EPS producing strains L. bulgaricus (L.b) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S.t) in three different combinations: L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, and L.k+L.b+S.t. FTIR analysis revealed presence of strong stretch in regions of 3400, 2900 and 1647cm(-1) which is characteristic of a typical polysaccharide. Co-cultured EPSs were composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose; and their sugar compositions were different from ZW3 polysaccharide that was mainly composed of gluco-galactan. Peak temperature for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers were 90.59, 87.61, 95.18 and 97.38°C, respectively. Thermal analysis revealed degradation temperature of 326.44, 294.6, 296.7 and 299.62°C for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers, respectively. SEM and AFM analysis divulged that three cocultured EPSs had different surface morphology than ZW3 polymer. Since co-cultured polymers have different structure than the polymer produced exclusively by EPS producing strain, it can be safely concluded from the study that co-culturing can be one way to change the structure of polymers. Coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with non-EPS producing strains resulted in yoghurt with increased viscosity and delayed syneresis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.04.075DOI Listing
August 2013

Non operative management of abdominal trauma - a 10 years review.

World J Emerg Surg 2013 5;8:14. Epub 2013 Apr 5.

Surgery Department, Khoula Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Introduction: Due to high rate of operative mortality and morbidity non-operative management of blunt liver and spleen trauma was widely accepted in stable pediatric patients, but the general surgeons were skeptical to adopt it for adults. The current study is analysis of so far largest sample (1071) of hemodynamically stable blunt liver, spleen, kidney and pancreatic trauma patients managed non operatively irrespective of severity of a single /multiple solid organ injury or other associated injuries with high rate of success.

Methods: Experience of 1071 blunt abdominal trauma patients treated by NOM at a tertiary care National Trauma Centre in Oman (from Jan 2001 to Dec 2011) was reviewed, analyzed to determine the indications, methods and results of NOM. Hemodynamic stability along with ultra sound, CT scan and repeated clinical examination were the sheet anchors of NOM. The patients were grouped as (1) managed by NOM successfully, (2) failure of NOM and (3) directly subjected to surgery.

Results: During the 10 year period, 5400 polytrauma patients were evaluated for abdominal trauma of which 1285 had abdominal injuries, the largest sample study till date. Based on initial findings 1071 patients were admitted for NOM. Out of 1071 patients initially selected 963 (89.91%) were managed non operatively, the remaining 108 (10.08%) were subjected to laparotomy due to failure of NOM. Laparotomy was performed on 214(19.98%) patients as they were unstable on admission or had evidence of hollow viscous injury.

Conclusion: NOM for blunt abdominal injuries was found to be highly successful in 89.98% of the patients in our study. Management depended on clinical and hemodynamic stability of the patient. A patient under NOM should be admitted to intensive care / high dependency for at least 48-72 hours for close monitoring of vital signs, repeated clinical examinations and follow up investigations as indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1749-7922-8-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636075PMC
May 2014

Graphite nanoplatelets produced by oxidation and thermal exfoliation of graphite and electrical conductivities of their epoxy composites.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2012 Dec;12(12):9259-70

Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Graphite nanoplatelets were produced by sonication of thermally reduced graphite oxide produced from three precursor graphites. The thicknesses of the resulting graphite nanoplatlets were measured by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The type and size of the precursor graphite plays an important role in the final graphite nanoplatelet quality. The thinnest graphite nanoplatelets (average thickness of 4-7 nm) were obtained from Sri Lankan powdered graphite (average particle size of 0.1-0.2 mm). Thicker graphite nanoplatelets (average thickness of 30-60 nm), were obtained from a Canadian graphite (with an average flake size of 0.5-2 mm). Graphite nanoplatelets obtained by acid intercalation of Sri Lankan graphite were much thicker (an average thickness of 150 nm). Graphite nanoplatelet/epoxy composites containing 4 wt.% graphite nanoplatelets derived from Canadian or Sri Lankan natural graphite have electrical conductivities significantly above the percolation conductivity threshold. In contrast, corresponding composites, produced with (4 wt.%) commercial graphite nanoplatelets, either as-received or re-exfoliated, were electrically insulating. This behaviour is attributed to the highly wrinkled morphology, folded edges and abundant surface functional groups of the commercial graphite nanoplatelets. Thermal reduction of graphite oxide produced from natural flake graphite is therefore a promising route for producing graphite nanoplatelets fillers for electrically-conducting polymer composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2012.6778DOI Listing
December 2012

Arabinoxylan-mediated synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles having exceptional high stability.

Carbohydr Polym 2013 Feb 28;92(2):1896-900. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan.

A green synthesis of highly stable gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) using arabinoxylan (AX) from ispaghula (Plantago ovata) seed husk is being reported. The NPs were synthesized by stirring a mixture of AX and HAuCl(4)·H(2)O or AgNO(3), separately, below 100 °C for less than an hour, where AX worked as the reducing and the stabilizing agent. The synthesized NPs were characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The particle size was (silver: 5-20 nm and gold: 8-30 nm) found to be dependent on pH, temperature, reaction time and concentrations of AX and the metal salts used. The NPs were poly-dispersed with a narrow range. They were stable for more than two years time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.11.056DOI Listing
February 2013

New role for astroglia in learning: formation of muscle memory.

Med Hypotheses 2012 Dec 17;79(6):770-3. Epub 2012 Sep 17.

Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Avenue, Tehran, Iran.

Muscle memory can be described as gradual adaptation of muscles over a period of time to perform a new movement or action. Its precise mechanism is unknown; however, it is now known that when a motor skill is learned it leads to significant brain activity. Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell types in the CNS that play an associative active role with neurons in learning and memory. They are interconnected to neurons via gap junctions forming astroglial network for fast communication and synchronization. We hypothesize that astroglial cells play main role in the formation of muscle memory and evaluate it by the experimental evidence published so far that indicates role of astroglia on various cellular and molecular aspects of muscle memory. The basis of our hypothesis is the fact that during training or motor learning period, neuronal output data related to learning lead to certain specific pattern for stimulating target muscles over a period of time and partly these data are stored in astroglial network. This stored data fine tune glial parameters that affect synaptic space and neuronal output used to perform rapid motor actions. For the validation of our hypothesis, we have generated a computational model for a section of neural pathway with astroglial network and have shown that the astroglial network by using inhibitory and stimulatory neurotransmitters can generate certain patterns, modulate and balance synaptic space across the neural pathway during acquisition of muscle memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2012.08.025DOI Listing
December 2012

Conceptualization of category-oriented likelihood ratio: a useful tool for clinical diagnostic reasoning.

BMC Med Educ 2011 Nov 17;11:94. Epub 2011 Nov 17.

Evidence-Based Medicine & Critical Thinking Working Team, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran.

Background: In the diagnostic reasoning process medical students and novice physicians need to be made aware of the diagnostic values of the clinical findings (including history, signs, and symptoms) to make an appropriate diagnostic decision. Diagnostic reasoning has been understood in light of two paradigms on clinical reasoning: problem solving and decision making. They advocate the reasoning strategies used by expert physicians and the statistical models of reasoning, respectively. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) applies decision theory to the clinical diagnosis, which can be a challenging topic in medical education.This theoretical article tries to compare evidence-based diagnosis with expert-based strategies in clinical diagnosis and also defines a novel concept of category-oriented likelihood ratio (LR) to propose a new model combining both aforementioned methods.

Discussion: Evidence-based medicine advocates the use of quantitative evidence to estimate the probability of diseases more accurately and objectively; however, the published evidence for a given diagnosis cannot practically be utilized in primary care, especially if the patient is complaining of a nonspecific problem such as abdominal pain that could have a long list of differential diagnoses. In this case, expert physicians examine the key clinical findings that could differentiate between broader categories of diseases such as organic and non-organic disease categories to shorten the list of differential diagnoses. To approach nonspecific problems, not only do the experts revise the probability estimate of specific diseases, but also they revise the probability estimate of the categories of diseases by using the available clinical findings.

Summary: To make this approach analytical and objective, we need to know how much more likely it is for a key clinical finding to be present in patients with one of the diseases of a specific category versus those with a disease not included in that category. In this paper, we call this value category-oriented LR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-11-94DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341573PMC
November 2011