Publications by authors named "Mohsen Norouzian"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The effect of CRISPR constructs microinjection on the expression of developmental genes in Rag1 knocked-out mice embryo.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Gametes and Cloning, Research Institute of Animal Embryo Technology, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Despite all the advances in the production of transgenic mice, the production efficiency of these animal models is still low. Given that the expression of developmental genes has a critical role in growth and development of embryo, we determined the expression pattern of pluripotency, trophectoderm and imprinting genes in the Rag1 (recombination-activating gene 1) knocked-out blastocysts resulting from microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) constructs into the zygote cytoplasm of C57bl6 mice. Following microinjection, the embryos were cultured and the gene expression of developed blastocysts and natural blastocysts (Sham and control groups) were evaluated using real-time PCR. The agarose gel to confirm the deletion in the Rag1 gene in Rag1 knocked-out blastocyst. Our results showed that the expression of trophectoderm genes (-TEAD-4 and Cdx2), pluripotency genes (Nanog and Oct-4) and imprinting gene (H19) in the Rag1 knocked-out group was significantly lower compared with the embryos obtained from Natural fertilization. According to these findings, manipulation, embryo culture and microinjection of CRISPR constructs into the zygote cytoplasm of mice led to reduced expression of imprinting, pluripotency and trophectoderm genes. Therefore, the Rag1 knocked-out embryos produced by the CRISPR/Cas9 system are of low quality, which reduces the chances of live birth in these animals and may cause various abnormalities in fetuses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.380DOI Listing
May 2021

Expression and Methylation of Histone 3 in Mice Chimeric Blastocysts.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2020 Oct;9(3):357-365

Reproductive Biotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Currently, the efficient production of chimeric mice and their survival are still challenging. Recent researches have indicated that preimplantation embryo culture media and manipulation lead to abnormal methylation of histone in the promotor region and consequently alter their gene expression pattern. This investigation was designed to evaluate the relationship between the methylation state of histone H3 and expression in mice chimeric blastocysts.

Methods: Mouse 129/Sv embryonic stem cells (mESCs) expressing the green fluorescent protein (mESCs-GFP) were injected into the perivitelline space of 2.5 days post-coitis (dpc) embryos (C57BL/6) using a micromanipulator. H3K4 and H3K9 methylation, and H19 and expression was measured by immunocytochemistry and q-PCR, respectively, in blastocysts.

Results: Histone H3 trimethylation in H3K4 and H3K9 in chimeric blastocysts was significantly less and greater, respectively (p< 0.05), than in controls. expression was significantly less (p< 0.05), while expression was less, but not significantly so, in chimeric than in control blastocysts.

Conclusion: Our results showed, that the alteration ofH3K4me3 and H3K9me3 methylation, change expression in chimeric blastocysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/rbmb.9.3.357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816783PMC
October 2020

Therapeutics effects of [Pyr1] apelin-13 on rat contusion model of spinal cord injury: An experimental study.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Apr 7;113:101924. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Biology and Anatomical sciencese, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Hearing Disorders Research Center, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause various symptoms, including pain, complete or incomplete loss of autonomic, sensory, motor and functions inferior to the site of the damage. Despite wondrous advances in medicine, treating spinal cord injuries remains a thorny issue yet. Recently, the control of inflammatory processes after damage to the nervous system has been noticed as a promising therapeutic target. The goal of the present experiment was to identify the effects of apelin-13 on the histological outcome, inflammatory factors, and functional recovery in the animal contusion model of SCI were analyzed. 40 Female Wistar rats were randomly but equally assigned in laminectomy, contusion, PBS (1 mL PBS, i.p), control group which received apelin-13 (control + apelin, 100 μg/kg, i.p), and apelin-13 treatment groups. In the treatment group, apelin-13 (100 μg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min after injury. The weight-dropping contusion model was used for inducing SCI. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale (BBB), narrow beam test (NBT), rotarod test, and the open-field test was applied to evaluate locomotor and behavioral activity. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ELISA technique was accomplished eight weeks after inducing SCI to measure the level of fibroblast growth factor FGF-1, FGFR1 and the inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10. Furthermore, histological change was estimated by H&E staining. Our results showed that apelin-13 treatment after SCI led to a significant increase in functional recovery and behavioral tests. Stereological estimation illustrated that apelin-13 could reduce significantly central cavity volume and number of glial cells, and also increase significantly spinal cord volume and number of neural cells. PCR and ELISA evaluation shows a significant increase in IL-10 level and decrease in levels of FGF-1, FGF-R1, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC). This study suggested that apelin-13 has neuroprotective effects by regulating the inflammatory process after SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.101924DOI Listing
April 2021

Combined therapy of adipose-derived stem cells and photobiomodulation on accelerated bone healing of a critical size defect in an osteoporotic rat model.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 09 12;530(1):173-180. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Price Institute of Surgical Research, University of Louisville, Noveratech LLC, Louisville, KY, USA. Electronic address:

We investigated the impact of human demineralized bone matrix (hDBM) plus adipose-derived stem cells (hADS) plus photobiomodulation (PBM) on a critical-sized femoral defect (CSFD) in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis in rats. There were 6 groups as follows. In group 1 (control, C), only CSFDs were created. Groups 2-6 were implanted with DBM into the CSFD (DBM-CSFD). In group 2 (S), only DBM was transplanted into the CSFD. In group 3 (S + PBM), the DBM-CSFDs were treated with PBM. In group 4, the DBM-CSFDs were treated with alendronate (S + ALN). In group 5, ADSs were seeded into DBM-CSFD (S + ADS). In group 6, ADSs were seeded into DBM-CSFD and the CSFDs were treated with PBM (S + PBM + ADS). At week eight (catabolic phase of bone repair), the S + ALN, S + PBM + ADS, S + PBM, and S + ADS groups all had significantly increased bone strength than the S group (ANOVA, p = 0.000). The S + PBM, S + PBM + ADS, and S + ADS groups had significantly increased Hounsfield unit than the S group (ANOVA, p = 0.000). ALN, ADS, and PBM significantly increased healed bone strength in an experimental model of DBM-treated CSFD in the catabolic phase of bone healing in osteoporotic rats. However, ALN alone and PBM plus ADS were superior to the other protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.06.023DOI Listing
September 2020

Curcumin-Loaded Iron Particle Improvement of Spermatogenesis in Azoospermic Mouse Induced by Long-Term Scrotal Hyperthermia.

Reprod Sci 2021 02 11;28(2):371-380. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Spermatogenesis process is sensitive to heat stress because the testicular temperature is 2 to 4 °C lower than the core body temperature. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles containing curcumin on spermatogenesis in mice induced by long-term scrotal hyperthermia. In this experimental study, 18 mice were equally divided into the following three groups: control, scrotal hyperthermia, and scrotal hyperthermia + curcumin-loaded iron particles (NPs) (240 μL) (mice were treated for 20 days). Hyperthermia was induced by exposure to the temperature of 43 °C for 20 min every other day for 5 weeks. Afterward, the animals were euthanized; sperm samples were collected for sperm parameters analysis, and testis samples were taken for histopathology experiments, evaluation of serum testosterone level, and RNA extraction in order to examine the expression of c-kit, STRA8 and PCNA genes. Our study showed that curcumin-loaded iron particles could notably increase the volume of testis, length of seminiferous tubules, sperm parameters, and stereological parameters (i.e., spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, round spermatid, and Leydig cells) thereby increasing serum testosterone level; in addition, TUNEL-positive cells showed a significant decrease in curcumin-loaded iron particle group. Thus, based on the obtained results, the expression of c-kit, STRA8, and PCNA genes was significantly increased in treatment groups by curcumin-loaded iron particles compared with scrotal hyperthermia-induced mice. In conclusion, curcumin-loaded iron particles can be considered an alternative treatment for improving the spermatogenesis process in scrotal hyperthermia-induced mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00288-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Combined effects of photobiomodulation and curcumin on mast cells and wound strength in wound healing of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Mar 21;36(2):375-386. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We investigated the probable involvement of mast cell degranulation and their numbers in the remodeling step of wound healing in a diabetic ischemic skin wound model treated with photobiomodulation plus curcumin. A total of 108 adult male Wistar rats were randomized into one healthy control and five diabetic groups. Type I diabetes was inflicted in 90 of the 108 rats. After 1 month, an excisional wound was generated in each of the 108 rats. There were one healthy group (group 1) and five diabetic groups as follows: group 2 was the untreated diabetic control group and group 3 rats were treated with sesame oil. Rats in group 4 were treated with photobiomodulation (890 nm, 890 ± 10 nm, 80 Hz, 0.2 J/cm) and those in group 5 received curcumin dissolved in sesame oil. Group 6 rats were treated with photobiomodulation and curcumin. We conducted stereological and tensiometric tests on days 4, 7, and 15 after treatment. The results indicated that photobiomodulation significantly improved wound strength in the diabetic rats and significantly decreased the total numbers of mast cells. The diabetic control group had significantly reduced tensiometric properties of the healing wounds and a significant increase in the total numbers of mast cells. Photobiomodulation significantly improved the healing process in diabetic animals and significantly decreased the total number of mast cells. The increased numbers of mast cells in the diabetic control group negatively affected tensiometric properties of the ischemic skin wound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-020-03053-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Spatial arrangement of testicular cells disrupted by transient scrotal hyperthermia and subsequent impairment of spermatogenesis.

Andrologia 2020 Oct 9;52(9):e13664. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University Tehran, Iran.

The spermatogenesis is temperature-dependent and heat stress have destructive effects on spermatogenesis and reduces sperm quality. Sixteen adult mice were allocated to two groups: hyperthermia and control groups. Scrotal hyperthermia was induced by water bath with 43°C for 30 min. Then, the spermatozoon was isolated through the tail region of epididymis for sperm parameters analysis. The testicular tissues were taken for stereological studies, hormonal assay, TUNEL assay and molecular studies. We found a marked decrease in sperm parameters and serum testosterone level in mice induced by scrotal hyperthermia as well as stereological analysis indicated a significant reduction in testicular cells and changes in the spatial arrangement of testicular cells in the scrotal hyperthermia groups compared to the control groups. Moreover, the TUNEL assay results showed that apoptotic cells were enhanced significantly in the group of scrotal hyperthermia compared to the control groups. Furthermore, scrotal hyperthermia caused a reduction in the expression of retinoic acid 8 (STRA8), c-kit and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) genes in the scrotal hyperthermia groups compared to the control. According to results, induction of transient scrotal hyperthermia leads to a fluctuation in the spatial arrangement of testicular cells, which finally influences the normal function of spermatogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13664DOI Listing
October 2020

Photobiomodulation restores spermatogenesis in the transient scrotal hyperthermia-induced mice.

Life Sci 2020 Aug 11;254:117767. Epub 2020 May 11.

Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: Heat stress shock affects the generation of free radicals and can have a harmful effect on spermatogenesis. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is very effective in andrology for treating male infertility. This research aimed at the evaluation of the impacts of PBM on spermatogenesis on the transient scrotal hyperthermia-induced oligospermia mouse model.

Materials And Methods: This experimental research divided 24 mice into the following four groups: (1) Control, (2) Scrotal hyperthermia, (3) Scrotal hyperthermia receiving laser 0.03 J/cm for 30 s for each testis, 35 days after induction of scrotal hyperthermia every other day for 35 days, and (4) Scrotal hyperthermia receiving laser 0.03 J/cm for 30 s for each testis, immediately after induction of scrotal hyperthermia every other day for 35 days. Scrotal hyperthermia was induced by water bath with 43 °C for 30 min. Then, the mice were euthanized, and their sperm samples were collected for sperm parameters analysis. Then, we took the testis samples for histopathological experimentations, serum testosterone level, reactive oxygen species (ROS), RNA extraction for the examination of IL1-α, IL6 and TNF-α genes expression as well as production and glutathione disulfide (GSH) activity.

Key Findings: Our outputs indicated that PBM could largely improve the sperms parameters and stereological parameters, like spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, round spermatid and Leydig cells together with an increasing level of the serum testosterone and GSH activity compared to the scrotal hyperthermia induced mice. In addition, it was found that the diameter of seminiferous tubules, ROS production, as well as the expression of IL1-α, IL6, and TNF-α genes significantly decreased in the treatment groups by PBM compared to the scrotal hyperthermia induced mice, but there was not a significant difference in terms of testis weight and Sertoli cells between the studied groups.

Significance: It could be concluded that PBM may be regarded as an alternative treatment for improving the spermatogenesis process in the scrotal hyperthermia induced mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117767DOI Listing
August 2020

Histone Modifications of H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and Lineage Gene Expressions in Chimeric Mouse Embryo.

Cell J 2020 Apr 8;22(1):96-105. Epub 2019 Sep 8.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Chimeric animal exhibits less viability and more fetal and placental abnormalities than normal animal. This study was aimed to determine the impact of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) injection into the mouse embryos on H3K9me3 and H3K4me3 and cell lineage gene expressions in chimeric blastocysts.

Materials And Methods: In our experiment, at the first step, incorporation of the GFP positive mESCs (GFP-mESCs) 129/Sv into the inner cell mass (ICM) of pre-compacted and compacted morula stage embryos was compared. At the second and third steps, H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 status as well as the expression of genes were determined in the following groups: i. blastocyst derived from morula subjected to mESCs injection (blast/chimeric), ii. derived blastocyst (blast/), iii. blastocyst derived from culture of morula (blast/morula), and iv. blastocyst derived from morula subjected to sham injection (blast/sham).

Results: Subzonal injection of GFP-mESCs at the pre-compacted embryos produced more chimeric blastocysts than compacted embryos (P<0.05). The number of trophectoderm (TE), ICM, ICM/TE and total cells in chimeric blastocysts were less than the corresponding numbers in blastocysts derived from other groups (P<0.05). In ICM and TE of chimeric blastocysts, the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 were respectively decreased and increased compared to the blastocysts of the other groups (P<0.05). Expressions of were decreased in chimeric blastocysts compared to the blastocysts of the other groups (P<0.05), while this was not observed for .

Conclusion: In the present study, embryo compaction significantly reduced the rate of incorporation of injected mESCs into the ICM. Moreover, in chimeric blastocysts, the levels of H3K9me3 and H3K4me3 were altered. In addition, the expressions of pluripotency and cell fate genes were decreased compared to blastocysts of the other groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2020.6443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791070PMC
April 2020

Correlation of Anthropometric Measurements of Proximal Tibia in Iranian Knees with Size of Current Tibial Implants.

Arch Bone Jt Surg 2019 Jul;7(4):339-345

Department of biology and anatomical sciences, faculty of medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The results of clinical studies have reported that Asian knee anatomical aspects are smaller than those of the Caucasian population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphometry of the proximal tibia in the standard resected surface of total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: In this descriptive study, the anthropometric data of the proximal tibia were measured in 132 knees (80 males and 52 females) using magnetic resonance imaging in 2015. The collected data included anteroposterior (AP) length, mediolateral (ML) width, medial AP, lateral AP, and aspect ratio (ML/AP). The medial and lateral AP distance to bone center was calculated for symmetry analysis. The morphometric data were also compared with the same dimensions of four current tibial implants.

Results: The mean age of the subjects was 38.26±11.45 year (age range: 20-60 years). The mean AP length and mean ML width in the resected surface of the bone, as well as the mean aspect ratio (ML/AP) of tibial bone in all the subjects, were 46.53±4.05 mm, 73.36±6.86 mm, and 1.58±0.11, respectively. The mean values of medial and lateral AP distance up to bone center were 13.40±6.17 and 17.09±6.83 mm, respectively, indicating asymmetric proximal tibia in the study population.

Conclusion: The measurements of anatomic shapes and dimensions of the proximal tibia revealed that women have smaller dimensions than their male counterparts. Prostheses with smaller AP size tended to be undersized and larger AP size had a tendency towards overhang in the mediolateral dimension. The data and obtained results of this study can be used as guidance on designing tibial implant components suitable for TKA in the Iranian population.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686072PMC
July 2019

Serum and Peritoneal Fluid Cytokine Profiles in Infertile Women with Endometriosis.

Iran J Immunol 2019 Jun;16(2):151-162

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,Iran.

Background: Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with the growth of endometrial cells out of uterus and in the peritoneal cavity. T cell subsets participate in the establishment and progress of the disease by producing different cytokines.

Objective: To investigate a group of cytokines related to Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg subsets within both peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) samples from infertile endometriosis women.

Methods: Peripheral blood and PF samples were collected from 30 infertile endometriosis and 30 non-endometriosis fertile women during laparoscopy. Concentration of cytokines, including TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 were evaluated using ELISA method.

Results: Results indicated that the concentration of IFN-γ within serum was significantly reduced in endometriosis group (p=0.001). Regarding PF cytokines, TGF-β1 was increased in endometriosis group (p=0.030). Furthermore, the ratios of IFN-γ/TGF-β1 and IL-17/IL-23 were significantly different between endometriosis and non-endometriosis women in serum samples (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively). The ratios of TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-17/IL-10 were also significantly different regarding PF samples between the two studied groups (p<0.04 and p<0.03 respectively). Finally, significant correlations were observed between the levels of IL-17 and IL-23, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, in both samples and serum to PF inflammatory cytokines.

Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, in women with endometriosis, the disturbance of cytokines network might gradually activate the inflammatory responses and tissue repair, resulting in endometriosis development after several years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/IJI.2019.80258DOI Listing
June 2019

The Combined Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Media and Low-Level Laser on Stereological and Biomechanical Parameter in Hypothyroidism Rat Model.

J Lasers Med Sci 2018 17;9(4):243-248. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Many studies have shown the positive effect of laser radiation and application of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their secretion in stimulating bone regeneration. The aim of this study was determining effects of MSC conditioned media (CM) and low-level laser (LLL) on healing bone defects in the hypothyroid male rat. We assigned 30 male Wistar rats randomly to 3 groups: control, hypothyroidism, CM+LLL. Four weeks after surgery, the right tibia was removed. Biomechanical examination and histological examinations were performed immediately. Our results showed significant increase in bending stiffness (116.09±18.49), maximum force (65.41±8.16), stress high load (23.30±7.14), energy absorption (34.57±4.10), trabecular bone volume (1.34±0.38) and the number of osteocyte, osteoblast, and osteoclast (12.77±0.54, 6.19±0.80, 1.12±0.16 respectively) in osteotomy site in the LLL+CM group compared to the hypothyroidism group (<0.05). The results indicated that using the LLL + CM may improve fracture regeneration and it may hasten bone healing in the hypothyroid rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jlms.2018.44DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6499561PMC
September 2018

Therapeutic Effects of Laser on Partial Osteotomy in the Rat Model of Hypothyroidism.

J Lasers Med Sci 2018 20;9(2):121-127. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Several experimental studies have displayed positive result for laser radiation on stimulating bone regeneration in recent years. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine low-level laser (LLL) effects on partial bone defects in hypothyroidism male rat. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed as below groups: hypothyroidism + laser (Hypo + laser), hypothyroidism (Hypo), and control. Four weeks after surgery, the tibia bone was removed. Biomechanical and histological examinations were performed immediately. Our results showed significant reduction in the absorption of energy, resistance in bending deformation (bending stiffness), maximum force, high stress load, trabecular bone volume, and number of osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the osteotomy site in hypothyroidism rats compared to hypothyroidism + laser group (P<0.05). The results indicated that using laser may improve fracture regeneration and it may accelerate bone healing in hypothyroidism rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jlms.2018.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046390PMC
March 2018

Measurement of Posterior Tibial Slope Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Arch Bone Jt Surg 2017 Nov;5(6):435-439

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Posterior tibial slope (PTS) is an important factor in the knee joint biomechanics and one of the bone features, which affects knee joint stability. Posterior tibial slope has impact on flexion gap, knee joint stability and posterior femoral rollback that are related to wide range of knee motion. During high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery, proper retaining the mechanical and anatomical axis is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of posterior tibial slope in medial and lateral compartments of tibial plateau and to assess the relationship among the slope with age, gender and other variables of tibial plateau surface.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 132 healthy knees (80 males and 52 females) with a mean age of 38.26±11.45 (20-60 years) at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. All patients, selected and enrolled for MRI in this study, were admitted for knee pain with uncertain clinical history. According to initial physical knee examinations the study subjects were reported healthy.

Results: The mean posterior tibial slope was 7.78± 2.48 degrees in the medial compartment and 6.85± 2.24 degrees in lateral compartment. No significant correlation was found between age and gender with posterior tibial slope (≥0.05), but there was significant relationship among PTS with mediolateral width, plateau area and medial plateau.

Conclusion: Comparison of different studies revealed that the PTS value in our study is different from other communities, which can be associated with genetic and racial factors. The results of our study are useful to PTS reconstruction in surgeries.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5736893PMC
November 2017

Effects of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Conditioned Medium on Tibial Partial Osteotomy Model of Fracture Healing in Hypothyroidism Rats

Iran Biomed J 2018 03 30;22(2):90-8. Epub 2017 Jul 30.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Hypothyroidism is associated with dysfunction of the bone turnover with reduced osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs) secrete various factors and cytokines that may stimulate bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of MSCs-conditioned medium (CM) in hypothyroidism male rats after inducing bone defect.

Methods: : In this study, 24 male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: (I) hypothyroidism+bone defect (HYPO), (II) hypothyroidism+bone defect+CM (HYPO+CM), and (III) no hypothyroidism+bone defect (control). Four weeks after surgery, the right tibia was removed, and immediately, biomechanical and histological examinations were performed.

Results: The results showed a significant reduction in bending stiffness (32.64±3.99), maximum force (14.63±1.89), high stress load (7.59±2.31), and energy absorption (12.68±2.12) at the osteotomy site in hypothyroidism rats in comparison to the control and hypothyroidism+condition medium groups (P<0.05). There was also a significant decrease in the trabecular bone volume (3.86±3.88) and the number of osteocytes (5800±859.8) at the osteotomy site in hypothyroidism rats compared to the control and hypothyroidism+condition medium groups (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively).

Conclusion: The present study suggests that the use of the CM can improve the fracture regeneration and accelerates bone healing at the osteotomy site in hypothyroidism rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5786663PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/ibj.22.2.90DOI Listing
March 2018

Primary Culture of Human Cumulus Cells Requires Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase 1 Activity for Steroidogenesis and Enhancing Oocyte In Vitro Maturation.

Reprod Sci 2018 06 27;25(6):844-853. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

5 UMR INSERM-UPMC 1166 ICAN, Pavillon Benjamin Delessert, Hôpital de la Pitié, Paris, France.

Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism and is expressed in cumulus cells. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SCD1 inhibition in human cumulus cells on triglyceride content, steroidogenesis, and oocyte in vitro maturation. Human cumulus cells were exposed to SCD1 inhibitor CAY10566 (SCDinhib) alone or in combination with oleic acid in primary culture. The SCDinhib markedly suppressed triglyceride accumulation (-47%, P = .01), aromatase gene expression (-36%, P = .02), and estradiol production (-49%, P = .01) even at a dose not affecting cell viability and apoptosis. Human immature oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage were cocultured with pretreated cumulus cells. The rate of oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage was significantly lower in coculture with SCDinhib-treated cumulus cells than with control cumulus cells (-18%, P < .01), which recovered by oleic acid supplementation. This finding on in vitro maturation rate was also reproducible with mouse GV oocytes. The results suggest that SCD1 activity is required for cumulus cell lipid storage and steroidogenesis. In addition, oocyte maturation is negatively affected by SCD1 inhibition in cumulus cells, possibly due to a deficient lipid-mediated paracrine support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1933719117698578DOI Listing
June 2018

Expression of Glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3-β) gene in azoospermic men.

Iran J Reprod Med 2014 May;12(5):313-20

Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The Wnt/β- The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in many developmental processes in both fetal and adult life; its abnormalities can lead to disorders including several types of cancers and malfunction of specific cells and tissues in both animals and humans. Its role in reproductive processes has been proven.

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the expression of the key regulator of this signaling pathway GSK3-β and its presumed role in azoospermia.

Materials And Methods: WNT3a protein concentration and GSK3-β gene expression levels were measured and compared between two groups of infertile men. The test groups consisted of 10 patients with obstructive and 10 non-obstructive azoospermia. The control group was selected among healthy men after vasectomies that were willing to conceive a child using a testicular biopsy technique. Samples were obtained by testicular biopsy and screened for the most common mutations (84, 86 and 255) in the SRY region before analyzing. GSK3-β gene expression was assessed quantitatively by real time-PCR.

Results: The WNT3a protein concentration had no significant difference between the two test groups and controls. Expression of GSK3-β was down-regulated in non-obstructive azoospermia (3.10±0.19) compared with normal (7.12±0.39) and obstructive azoospermia (6.32±0.42) groups (p=0.001).

Conclusion: Down-regulation of GSK-3β may cause to non-obstructive azoospermia. Regulation and modification of GSK-3β gene expression by drugs could be used as a therapeutic solution.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094656PMC
May 2014

Association between increased expression of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the human fallopian tube and tubal ectopic pregnancy.

Iran J Reprod Med 2014 Jan;12(1):19-28

Department of Pathology, Kamkar Arab-Niya Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Background: Tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) is the most common type of extra-uterine pregnancy and the most common cause of maternal mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that incorporates in many physiological processes of female reproductive system. Recent studies have demonstrated the possible role of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in the regulation of many reproductive events that occur in the fallopian tube (FT).

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of eNOS in the FTs of women with tEP.

Materials And Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 30FTs samples were obtained from three groups including: 10 FTs of women that bearing an EP, 10 FTs from the non-pregnant women at luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and 10 FTs of healthy pregnant women (n=10). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and then were evaluated by immunohistochemistry.

Results: Localization of eNOS was seen in secretory and ciliated luminal epithelium and vascular endothelium of all groups. However, we did not observed the expression of eNOS in smooth muscle cells of all groups. Expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium of women with EP compared to non-pregnant women at luteal phase of menstrual cycle and healthy pregnant group showed statistically significant increase (p=0.00). Significant difference in expression of eNOS was not observed in luminal epithelium of FTs of women at luteal phase compared to healthy pregnant groups (p=0.78).

Conclusion: This study indicates that changes in expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium of FT may lead to development of EP. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Leyla Fath Bayati).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4009582PMC
January 2014

Bioceramic-collagen scaffolds loaded with human adipose-tissue derived stem cells for bone tissue engineering.

Mol Biol Rep 2014 Feb 21;41(2):741-9. Epub 2013 Dec 21.

Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The combination of bioceramics and stem cells has attracted the interest of research community for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present study, a combination of Bio-Oss(®) and type 1 collagen gel as scaffold were loaded with human adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) after isolation and characterization, and the capacity of them for bone regeneration was investigated in rat critical size defects using digital mammography, multi-slice spiral computed tomography imaging and histological analysis. 8 weeks after implantation, no mortality or sign of inflammation was observed in the site of defect. According to the results of imaging analysis, a higher level of bone regeneration was observed in the rats receiving Bio-Oss(®)-Gel compared to untreated group. In addition, MSC-seeded Bio-Oss-Gel induced the highest bone reconstruction among all groups. Histological staining confirmed these findings and impressive osseointegration was observed in MSC-seeded Bio-Oss-Gel compared with Bio-Oss-Gel. On the whole, it was demonstrated that combination of AT-MSCs, Bio-Oss and Gel synergistically enhanced bone regeneration and reconstruction and also could serve as an appropriate structure to bone regenerative medicine and tissue engineering application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-013-2913-8DOI Listing
February 2014

Transplantation of schwann cells differentiated from adipose stem cells improves functional recovery in rat spinal cord injury.

Arch Iran Med 2013 Sep;16(9):533-41

Anatomy and Cell Biology Department, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: When the spinal cord is damaged, medical procedures are vital to prevent of improvement of the lesion. Because of poor regeneration ability of central nervous tissue, the most injuries are irreversible. One of encouraging interventions for treatment of spinal cord injury is Schwann cell transplantation. However, isolation of Schwann cell for clinical interventions is complicated approach with low cells yield and purity. Thus, easily accessed sources like Adipose mesenchymal stem cells have been taken notice. Therefore, this study was planned to assess the effect of adipose stromal cell-derived Schwann cell transplantation in functional recovery after lateral hemisection in adult rats.

Methods: After isolation, adipose stem cells were differentiated to Schwann cells. The differentiation was verified by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Then, we loaded the cells into collagen scaffolds with parallel aligned canals and transplanted into rats with 3 mm lesions at T9 - T10 level. Motor and sensory improvement were evaluated by open field locomotor scale, narrow beam, and tail flick tests for 60 days. Subsequently, conventional histology and immunohistochemistry were performed.

Results: In vitro results revealed that mesenchymal stem cells after differentiation gained Schwann cells morphology and markers. Schwann cell-grafted group had significantly higher locomotor and sensory scores in comparison with the control and scaffold without cell groups. Histological observations showed differentiated cells have the ability to improve axonal regeneration and remyelination.

Conclusion: Our study proved that adipose tissue- derived Schwann cells can change the rough environment of damaged spinal cord and support axon regeneration and enhance functional recovery, and possibly be helpful for people suffering from spinal cord injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/013169/AIM.0011DOI Listing
September 2013

The effect of vitrification on ultrastructure of human in vitro matured germinal vesicle oocytes.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013 Mar 21;167(1):69-75. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Department of Anatomy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To describe the possible effects of cryotop vitrification on maturation rate and ultrastructural morphology of human in vitro matured germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes.

Study Design: A total of 301surplus immature GV oocytes obtained from infertile patients were allocated into two groups: (i) GV oocytes (n=150) matured in vitro (fIVM), and (ii) GV oocytes (n=151) that were first vitrified, then matured in vitro (vIVM). Supernumerary fresh in vivo matured oocytes (n=10) were used as controls. The maturation media was Ham's F10 supplemented with FSH+LH and human follicular fluid. After 36h of incubation, the oocytes were investigated for nuclear maturation and ultrastructural changes using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Results: Oocyte maturation rates were reduced (P<0.001) in vIVM (45.92%) in comparison with fIVM oocytes (75.33%). The rate of degeneration was also significantly higher in vIVM than in the fIVM group (44.4% vs. 6.0%). Large and numerous mitochondria and minute vesicles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) complexes (MV complexes) were observed in both fIVM and vIVM groups. In addition, TEM revealed a drastic reduction in amount of cortical granules (CGs) at the cortex of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes, as well as appearance of vacuoles and small mitochondria-SER aggregates in the ooplasm.

Conclusion: The vitrification procedure is associated with ultrastructural alterations in specific oocyte microdomains, presumably related to the reduced competence of cryopreserved oocytes for maturation. This information emphasizes the need for further work on advancing the cryotechnology of human oocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.11.006DOI Listing
March 2013

Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats.

Anat Cell Biol 2012 Sep 30;45(3):170-7. Epub 2012 Sep 30.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.2012.45.3.170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3472143PMC
September 2012

A comparative study of the effects of topical application of Aloe vera, thyroid hormone and silver sulfadiazine on skin wounds in Wistar rats.

Lab Anim Res 2012 Mar 21;28(1):17-21. Epub 2012 Mar 21.

Anatomical and Biological Sciences Department, Medical School of Shahid Beheshti Medical University, Tehran, Iran.

Many research studies report the healing effects of Aloe Vera, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine. However, the effects of these therapeutic agents are not well understood and have not been compared in one study. This study aimed at investigating the effects of topical application of an Aloe vera gel, a thyroid hormone cream and a silver sulfadiazine cream on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats for determining the treatment of choice. In a randomized controlled trial, twelve male rats, aged 120 days and with a mean weight of 250 to 300 g, were divided randomly into 5 groups based on drug treatments: Aloe vera gel (AV), thyroid hormone cream (TC), silver sulfadiazine 1% (S), vehicle (V) and control. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment technique, a biomechanical approach was used to assess tensile stress after 14 days of treatment. Tensile stress was significantly improved in the Aloe vera gel group as compared with the other four groups (P≤0.05). While the other treatment options resulted in better healing than the control group, this difference was not significant. We conclude that Aloe vera topical application accelerated the healing process more than thyroid hormone, silver sulfadiazine and vehicle in surgically induced incisions in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5625/lar.2012.28.1.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3315193PMC
March 2012