Publications by authors named "Mohsen Afarideh"

60 Publications

Association of Sun-Protective Behaviors With Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporotic Bone Fractures in US Adults.

JAMA Dermatol 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Importance: Despite the reassuring emerging evidence on the lack of a causal relationship between sun protection and vitamin D deficiency, there is scarce data on whether multimodal sun protection is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and/or increased prevalence of osteoporotic bone fractures. This lack of data may lead to worry and decreased sun-protective behaviors on the part of patients.

Objective: To investigate the association of sun-protective behaviors with BMD z scores and the prevalence of osteoporotic fractures.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study included data from US adults who participated in the 2017 to 2018 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data were analyzed between September and November 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Definition of sun-protective behaviors (staying in the shade, wearing long sleeves, and sunscreen use), site-specific and total BMD, and osteoporotic fractures (hip, wrist, and spine) in the NHANES data.

Results: Data from 3418 adults 20 years and older (average age, 39.5 [95% CI, 38.6-40.4] years; 1612 [47.2%] men and 1806 [52.9%] women) who completed the NHANES dermatology questionnaire were included in this study. The prevalence of frequent staying in the shade, wearing of long sleeves, and sunscreen use were 31.6% (95% CI, 27.8%-35.7%), 11.8% (95% CI, 10.6%-13.1%), and 26.1% (95% CI, 23.5%-28.8%), respectively. The use of individual sun-protective behaviors was not associated with diminished site-specific and total BMD z scores in the multivariate models (estimate, -0.23 [95% CI, -0.47 to 0.02], P = .18; -0.08 [-0.27 to 0.12], P = .72; and -0.10 [-0.32 to 0.13], P = .15 for frequent staying in the shade, wearing of long sleeves, and sunscreen use, respectively). Moderate to frequent staying in the shade was associated with reduced prevalence of spine fractures in the multivariate model (odds ratio, 0.19 [95% CI, 0.04-0.86], P = 0.02).

Conclusion And Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, routine use of sun-protective behaviors among the US adult population was not associated with decreased BMD or increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Sun protection may be associated with a modest decrease in the prevalence of osteoporotic fractures, possibly owing to risk-averse behaviors. These reassuring findings add to the growing body of evidence on the safety of sun protection, with no considerable negative association with bone health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.4143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8552114PMC
October 2021

Trends in utilization of non-first-line topical acne medications among children, adolescents, and adults in the United States, 2012-2016.

Pediatr Dermatol 2021 Sep 30;38(5):1066-1073. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background/objective: Current knowledge about usage of effective, but non-first-line topical acne medications in the United States is limited. We aimed to investigate utilization patterns and temporal trends for such acne medications in the US ambulatory care.

Methods: Pediatric (≤18 years old) and adult (>18 years old) data from the 2012 to 2016 (inclusive) cycles of the US National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were extracted. Utilization patterns of six non-first-line topical acne medications (ie, azelaic acid, salicylic acid, glycolic acid, sulfur, resorcinol, and zinc) were compared and followed over time.

Results: Data from 218 410 US office-based sampled visits during 2012-2016 were included in the analysis. Across all acne visits (n = 1542), salicylic acid (1.58%), azelaic acid (1.22%), and glycolic acid (0.52%) were the most frequently used agents, while zinc and resorcinol were not used. Sulfur (0.52%) and salicylic acid (0.33%) were the only medications used in preadolescents, and none of these medications were used in the neonatal or infantile group. Temporal trends for using at least one of these medications were insignificant among both pediatric and adult age groups (P = .825 and .136, respectively).

Conclusions: Salicylic acid and azelaic acid are the most frequently used of the studied second-line medications to treat acne, although the use of these and the other non-first-line topical medications overall is uncommon, especially among younger groups of US pediatric patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.14733DOI Listing
September 2021

Predicting the environmental suitability for onchocerciasis in Africa as an aid to elimination planning.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 07 28;15(7):e0008824. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana.

Recent evidence suggests that, in some foci, elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa may be feasible with mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. To achieve continental elimination of transmission, mapping surveys will need to be conducted across all implementation units (IUs) for which endemicity status is currently unknown. Using boosted regression tree models with optimised hyperparameter selection, we estimated environmental suitability for onchocerciasis at the 5 × 5-km resolution across Africa. In order to classify IUs that include locations that are environmentally suitable, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify an optimal threshold for suitability concordant with locations where onchocerciasis has been previously detected. This threshold value was then used to classify IUs (more suitable or less suitable) based on the location within the IU with the largest mean prediction. Mean estimates of environmental suitability suggest large areas across West and Central Africa, as well as focal areas of East Africa, are suitable for onchocerciasis transmission, consistent with the presence of current control and elimination of transmission efforts. The ROC analysis identified a mean environmental suitability index of 0·71 as a threshold to classify based on the location with the largest mean prediction within the IU. Of the IUs considered for mapping surveys, 50·2% exceed this threshold for suitability in at least one 5 × 5-km location. The formidable scale of data collection required to map onchocerciasis endemicity across the African continent presents an opportunity to use spatial data to identify areas likely to be suitable for onchocerciasis transmission. National onchocerciasis elimination programmes may wish to consider prioritising these IUs for mapping surveys as human resources, laboratory capacity, and programmatic schedules may constrain survey implementation, and possibly delaying MDA initiation in areas that would ultimately qualify.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318275PMC
July 2021

Hypoxic preconditioning induces epigenetic changes and modifies swine mesenchymal stem cell angiogenesis and senescence in experimental atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 04 14;12(1):240. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, 200, First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55902, USA.

Background: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is a risk factor for ischemic and hypertensive kidney disease (HKD) for which autologous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) appears to be a promising therapy. However, MSCs from ARAS patients exhibit impaired function, senescence, and DNA damage, possibly due to epigenetic mechanisms. Hypoxia preconditioning (HPC) exerts beneficial effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, and gene and protein expression. We hypothesized that HPC could influence MSC function and senescence in ARAS by epigenetic mechanisms and modulating gene expression of chromatin-modifying enzymes.

Methods: Adipose-derived MSC harvested from healthy control (N = 8) and ARAS (N = 8) pigs were cultured under normoxia (20%O) or hypoxia (1%O) conditions. MSC function was assessed by migration, proliferation, and cytokine release in conditioned media. MSC senescence was evaluated by SA-β-gal activity. Specific pro-angiogenic and senescence genes were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Dot blotting was used to measure global genome 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels on DNA and Western blotting of modified histone 3 (H3) proteins to quantify tri-methylated lysine-4 (H3K4me3), lysine-9 (H3K9me3), and lysine-27 (H3K27me3) residues.

Results: Specific pro-angiogenic genes in ARAS assessed by RT-PCR were lower at baseline but increased under HPC, while pro-senescence genes were higher in ARAS at baseline as compared healthy MSCs. ARAS MSCs under basal conditions, displayed higher H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and 5hmC levels compared to healthy MSCs. During HPC, global 5hmC levels were decreased while no appreciable changes occurred in histone H3 tri-methylation. ARAS MSCs cultured under HPC had higher migratory and proliferative capacity as well as increased vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor expression compared to normoxia, and SA-β-gal activity decreased in both animal groups.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that swine ARAS MSCs have decreased angiogenesis and increased senescence compared to healthy MSCs and that HPC mitigates MSC dysfunction, senescence, and DNA hydroxymethylation in ARAS MSC. Thus, HPC for MSCs may be considered for their optimization to improve autologous cell therapy in patients with nephropathies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02310-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048283PMC
April 2021

Magnetization Transfer Imaging Predicts Porcine Kidney Recovery After Revascularization of Renal Artery Stenosis.

Invest Radiol 2021 02;56(2):86-93

From the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension.

Materials And Methods: Stenotic kidney (STK) and contralateral kidney magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs; Mt/M0) were measured at 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging, at offset frequencies of 600 and 1000 Hz, before and 1 month post-PTRA in 7 RVD pigs. Stenotic kidney MTR was correlated to renal perfusion, renal blood flow (RBF), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), determined using multidetector computed tomography and with ex vivo renal fibrosis (trichrome staining). Untreated RVD (n = 6) and normal pigs (n = 7) served as controls.

Results: Renovascular disease induced hypertension and renal dysfunction. Blood pressure and renal perfusion were unchanged post-PTRA, but GFR and RBF increased. Baseline cortical STK-MTR predicted post-PTRA renal perfusion and RBF, and MTR changes associated inversely with changes in perfusion and normalized GFR. Stenotic kidney MTR at 600 Hz showed closer association with renal parameters, but both frequencies predicted post-PTRA cortical fibrosis.

Conclusions: Renal STK-MTR, particularly at 600 Hz offset, is sensitive to hemodynamic changes after PTRA in swine RVD and capable of noninvasively predicting post-PTRA kidney perfusion, RBF, and fibrosis. Therefore, STK-MTR may be a valuable tool to predict renal hemodynamic and functional recovery, as well as residual kidney fibrosis after revascularization in RVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793546PMC
February 2021

Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty attenuates poststenotic kidney mitochondrial damage in pigs with renal artery stenosis and metabolic syndrome.

J Cell Physiol 2021 05 5;236(5):4036-4049. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) has been used to treat renovascular disease (RVD), a chronic condition characterized by renal ischemia and metabolic abnormalities. Mitochondrial injury has been implicated as a central pathogenic mechanism in RVD, but whether it can be reversed by PTRA remains uncertain. We hypothesized that PTRA attenuates mitochondrial damage, renal injury, and dysfunction in pigs with coexisting renal artery stenosis (RAS) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Four groups of pigs (n = 6 each) were studied after 16 weeks of diet-induced MetS and RAS (MetS + RAS), MetS + RAS treated 4 weeks earlier with PTRA, and Lean and MetS Sham controls. Single-kidney renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed in vivo with multidetector computed tomography, and renal tubular mitochondrial structure and function and renal injury ex vivo. PTRA successfully restored renal artery patency, but mean arterial pressure remained unchanged. Stenotic kidney RBF and GFR, which fell in MetS + RAS compared to MetS, rose after PTRA. PTRA attenuated MetS + RAS-induced mitochondrial structural abnormalities in tubular cells and peritubular capillary endothelial cells, decreased mitochondrial H 0 production, and increased renal cytochrome-c oxidase-IV activity and ATP production. PTRA also improved cortical microvascular and peritubular capillary density and ameliorated tubular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the poststenotic kidney. Importantly, renal mitochondrial damage correlated with poststenotic injury and dysfunction. Renal revascularization attenuated mitochondrial injury and improved renal hemodynamics and function in swine poststenotic kidneys. This study suggests a novel mechanism by which PTRA might be relatively effective in ameliorating mitochondrial damage and improving renal function in coexisting MetS and RAS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920930PMC
May 2021

Global epigenetic alterations of mesenchymal stem cells in obesity: the role of vitamin C reprogramming.

Epigenetics 2021 Jun-Jul;16(7):705-717. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA.

Obesity promotes dysfunction and impairs the reparative capacity of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), and alters their transcription, protein content, and paracrine function. Whether these adverse effects are mediated by chromatin-modifying epigenetic changes remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that obesity imposes global DNA hydroxymethylation and histone tri-methylation alterations in obese swine abdominal adipose tissue-derived MSCs compared to lean pig MSCs. MSCs from female lean (n = 7) and high-fat-diet fed obese (n = 7) domestic pigs were assessed using global epigenetic assays, before and after in-vitro co-incubation with the epigenetic modulator vitamin-C (VIT-C) (50 μg/ml). Dot blotting was used to measure across the whole genome 5-hydroxyemthycytosine (5hmC) residues, and Western blotting to quantify in genomic histone-3 protein tri-methylated lysine-4 (H3K4me3), lysine-9 (H3K9me3), and lysine-27 (H3K27me3) residues. MSC migration and proliferation were studied in-vitro. Obese MSCs displayed reduced global 5hmC and H3K4m3 levels, but comparable H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, compared to lean MSCs. Global 5hmC, H3K4me3, and HK9me3 marks correlated with MSC migration and reduced proliferation, as well as clinical and metabolic characteristics of obesity. Co-incubation of obese MSCs with VIT-C enhanced 5hmC marks, and reduced their global levels of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3. Contrarily, VIT-C did not affect 5hmC, and decreased H3K4me3 in lean MSCs. Obesity induces global genomic epigenetic alterations in swine MSCs, involving primarily genomic transcriptional repression, which are associated with MSC function and clinical features of obesity. Some of these alterations might be reversible using the epigenetic modulator VIT-C, suggesting epigenetic modifications as therapeutic targets in obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2020.1819663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216191PMC
September 2020

Peristenotic Collateral Circulation in Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease: Association With Kidney Function and Response to Treatment.

Hypertension 2020 08 8;76(2):497-505. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Cardiovascular Medicine (A.L.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

The significance of peristenotic collateral circulation (PCC) development around a stenotic renal artery is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that PCC is linked to loss of kidney function and recovery potential in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD). Thirty-four patients with ARVD were assigned to medical-therapy with or without revascularization based on clinical indications. The PCC was visualized using multidetector computed tomography and defined relative to segmental arteries in patients with essential hypertension. PCC number before and 3 months after treatment was correlated with various renal parameters. Thirty-four stenotic kidneys from 30 patients were analyzed. PCC number correlated inversely with kidney volume. ARVD-stenotic kidneys with baseline PCC (collateral ARVD [C-ARVD], n=13) associated with elevated 24-hour urine protein and stenotic kidney vein level of tumor necrosis factor-α, lower single-kidney volume and blood flow, and greater hypoxia than in stenotic kidneys with no PCC (no collateral ARVD [NC-ARVD], n=17). Revascularization (but not medical-therapy alone) improved stenotic kidney function and reduced inflammation in both NC-ARVD and C-ARVD. In C-ARVD, revascularization also increased stenotic kidney volume, blood flow, and oxygenation to levels comparable to NC-ARVD, and induced PCC regression. However, revascularization improved systolic blood pressure, plasma renin activity, and filtration fraction only in NC-ARVD. Therefore, patients with C-ARVD have greater kidney dysfunction, atrophy, hypoxia, and inflammation compared with patients with NC-ARVD, suggesting that PCC does not effectively protect the stenotic kidney in ARVD. Renal artery revascularization improved in C-ARVD stenotic kidney function, but not hypertension or renin-angiotensin system activation. These observations may help direct management of patients with ARVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347430PMC
August 2020

Human Obesity Induces Dysfunction and Early Senescence in Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 26;8:197. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Background: Chronic inflammatory conditions like obesity may adversely impact the biological functions underlying the regenerative potential of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC). Obesity can impair MSC function by inducing cellular senescence, a growth-arrest program that transitions cells to a pro-inflammatory state. However, the effect of obesity on adipose tissue-derived MSC in human subjects remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that obesity induces senescence and dysfunction in human MSC.

Methods: MSC were harvested from abdominal subcutaneous fat collected from obese and age-matched non-obese subjects ( = 40) during bariatric or kidney donation surgeries, respectively. MSC were characterized, their migration and proliferation assessed, and cellular senescence evaluated by gene expression of cell-cycle arrest and senescence-associated secretory phenotype markers. studies tested MSC effect on injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) function.

Results: Mean age was 59 ± 8 years, 66% were females. Obese subjects had higher body-mass index (BMI) than non-obese. MSC from obese subjects exhibited lower proliferative capacities than non-obese-MSC, suggesting decreased function, whereas their migration remained unchanged. Senescent cell burden and phenotype, manifested as , , , and gene expression, were significantly upregulated in obese subjects' MSC. BMI correlated directly with expression of , , and . Furthermore, co-incubation with non-obese, but not with obese-MSC, restored VEGF expression and tube formation that were blunted in injured HUVEC.

Conclusion: Human obesity triggers an early senescence program in adipose tissue-derived MSC. Thus, obesity-induced cellular injury may alter efficacy of this endogenous repair system and hamper the feasibility of autologous transplantation in obese individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113401PMC
March 2020

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Calcific Aortic Valve and Degenerative Mitral Valve Diseases, 1990-2017.

Circulation 2020 05 29;141(21):1670-1680. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartumaa, Estonia (M.J.).

Background: Nonrheumatic valvular diseases are common; however, no studies have estimated their global or national burden. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, mortality, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), degenerative mitral valve disease, and other nonrheumatic valvular diseases were estimated for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017.

Methods: Vital registration data, epidemiologic survey data, and administrative hospital data were used to estimate disease burden using the Global Burden of Disease Study modeling framework, which ensures comparability across locations. Geospatial statistical methods were used to estimate disease for all countries, because data on nonrheumatic valvular diseases are extremely limited for some regions of the world, such as Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Results accounted for estimated level of disease severity as well as the estimated availability of valve repair or replacement procedures. DALYs and other measures of health-related burden were generated for both sexes and each 5-year age group, location, and year from 1990 to 2017.

Results: Globally, CAVD and degenerative mitral valve disease caused 102 700 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 82 700-107 900) and 35 700 (95% UI, 30 500-42 500) deaths, and 12.6 million (95% UI, 11.4 million-13.8 million) and 18.1 million (95% UI, 17.6 million-18.6 million) prevalent cases existed in 2017, respectively. A total of 2.5 million (95% UI, 2.3 million-2.8 million) DALYs were estimated as caused by nonrheumatic valvular diseases globally, representing 0.10% (95% UI, 0.09%-0.11%) of total lost health from all diseases in 2017. The number of DALYs increased for CAVD and degenerative mitral valve disease between 1990 and 2017 by 101% (95% UI, 79%-117%) and 35% (95% UI, 23%-47%), respectively. There is significant geographic variation in the prevalence, mortality rate, and overall burden of these diseases, with highest age-standardized DALY rates of CAVD estimated for high-income countries.

Conclusions: These global and national estimates demonstrate that CAVD and degenerative mitral valve disease are important causes of disease burden among older adults. Efforts to clarify modifiable risk factors and improve access to valve interventions are necessary if progress is to be made toward reducing, and eventually eliminating, the burden of these highly treatable diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043391DOI Listing
May 2020

Single Long Stents versus Overlapping Multiple Stents in the Management of Very Long Coronary Lesions: Comparisons of Procedures and Clinical Outcomes.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2019 Jul;14(3):94-102

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Different percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategies, including the use of single long stents (SLSs) and overlapping multiple stents (OMSs), have been introduced to treat very long coronary lesions (VLCLs). The aim of this study was to compare procedural and long-term clinical outcomes between SLSs and OMSs in patients with VLCLs. In this historical cohort study, 1709 patients who underwent PCI with the new generation of drug-eluting stents (length ≥38 mm) were stratified into the SLS [PROMUS /Resolute/XIENCE (PRX), (=38 mm), n=1121 (65.59%) and BioMime, (≥40 mm), n=124 (7.26%)] and OMS [(59.43±10.80 mm), n=464 (27.2%)] groups and followed up for 440.93±361.32 days. The study endpoints comprised immediate post-PCI outcomes, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), the patient-oriented composite endpoint (POCE), and the device-oriented composite endpoint (DOCE) at the long-term follow-up. The mean age of the patients was 59.28±10.60 years, and 69.6% of them were male. Flow grade 3 (P=0.296) and residual stenosis (P=0.533) were statistically similar between all the groups. A lower level of post-PCI troponin was observed in the BioMime group [14.52 (IQR:10.44-22.42) ng/L; P=0.031] than in the PRX and OMS groups [18.63 (IQR:10.51-34.02) ng/L and 18.96 (IQR:11.17-35.34) ng/L; respectively]. Similarly, the PRX and BioMime groups received lower amounts of the contrast agent [206.29±49.15 mL and 208.06±55.23 mL; respectively] than did the OMS group [265.50±74.69 mL; P<0.001]. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of MACE [81 (7.2%), 7 (5.6%), and 28 (6.0%); P=0.603], the POCE [141 (12.6%), 13 (10.5%), and 54 (11.6%); P=0.731], and the DOCE [51 (4.5%), 4 (3.2%), and 21 (4.5%); P=0.791] between the PRX, BioMime, and OMS groups, respectively. In the treatment of VLCLs, the SLS and OMSs appear to have similar clinical outcomes. BioMime ultra-long stents may have comparable results to PRX coronary stents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981347PMC
July 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Determinants of glycemic control: Phase 2 analysis from nationwide diabetes report of National Program for Prevention and Control of Diabetes (NPPCD-2018).

Prim Care Diabetes 2020 06 8;14(3):222-231. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department of Transplantation and Disease, Ministry of Health & Medical Education, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among middle and low income nations. Many diabetic complications and comorbidities are attributable to poor glycemic control. The aim of this study was to update and extend the national diabetes reports on the status of comorbidities, diabetes care and complications in Iran. Moreover, we investigated the risk factors of poor glycemic control in the Iranian population.

Methods: National database of 99,651 patients with diabetes who attended university-affiliated clinics between April 1, 2017 and February 30, 2018 was used to carry out a cross-sectional study. Stepwise backward selection logistic regression model was used to examine the associated factors of glycemic control.

Results: In this study 73.0% and 56.5% of the enrolled population with diabetes, had hypertension and hyperlipidemia, respectively. The prevalence of patients who received education for nutrition therapy or diabetes self-management was 16.3% and 23.3% respectively. Poor glycemic control was associated with male gender (OR=1.06, p=0.001), obesity (OR=1.03, p=0.05), duration of diabetes (OR=1.018, p<0.001), smoking (OR=1.08, p=0.041), hypertension (OR=1.53, p<0.001), hyperlipidemia (OR=1.15, p<0.001), insulin therapy (OR=1.26, p<0.001) and combination of insulin and oral anti-diabetic agents compared to oral anti-diabetic agents alone (OR=2.36, p<0.001).

Conclusion: We demonstrated that the prevalence of diabetes comorbidities is high in Iranian population and that a great proportion of Iranian patients with diabetes had not reached the goal of glycemic control. Our findings provide a starting point from which to investigate the obstacles that prevent patients with diabetes from reaching metabolic targets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2019.07.002DOI Listing
June 2020

Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes.

Prim Care Diabetes 2019 12 1;13(6):505-514. Epub 2019 May 1.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects risks of type 2 diabetes (T2D), diabetes-related complications, and cardiovascular disease in a complex manner. This study is designed to clarify associations of sonographically-detected NAFLD and serum liver enzymes with diabetes-related microvascular complications.

Methods: A matched case-contorl study was designed for 440 patients with T2D and at least one of the chronic diabetes-related microvascular complications and 495 age- and gender-matched control patients with T2D.

Results: Considering pre-existing and newly developed chronic microvascular complications, diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found in 347 out of 935 (37.1%) study patients, diabetic retinopathy in 141/935 (15.1%), and diabetic nephropathy in 103/935 (11.0%). Diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy were inversely associated with the presence of NAFLD in the crude logistic regressions (OR [95% CI] = 0.18 [0.05-0.63], p value = 0.007; OR [95% CI] = 0.17 [0.04-0.59], p value = 0.011, respectively). The subgroup of NAFLD with elevated liver enzymes had lower odds of having diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the fully adjusted model (OR [95% CI] = 0.34 [0.12-0.98], p value = 0.048).

Conclusion: Diagnosis of NAFLD with or without elevated serum liver enzymes was inversely correlated with certain chronic diabetes microvascular complications. Possible explanations for this counter-intuitive and unexpected finding are discussed and center on reverse-causality, wherein sicker patients may develop beneficial compensatory physiological and behavioral adaptations. Diversity of studied patients, in particular with regards to the ethnic and racial differences among the Western and Asian populations may also partly account for contrasting findings of the relationship between NAFLD and microvascular complications of diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2019.03.009DOI Listing
December 2019

Associations of Serum S100B and S100P With the Presence and Classification of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Cohort Study.

Can J Diabetes 2019 Jul 11;43(5):336-344.e2. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: Novel biomarkers of diabetic peripheral neuropathy provide potentially useful information for early identification and treatment of diabetic neuropathy, ultimately serving to reduce the burden of disease. This study was designed to investigate the potential associations of serum S100B and S100P (calcium-modulated proteins) with the presence and classification of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in adults with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: In a case-cohort setting, the data of 44 participants diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 44 control participants with type 2 diabetes but free of peripheral neuropathy and 87 healthy control individuals were collected and analyzed.

Results: Serum S100P concentrations were elevated in participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with their controls with type 2 diabetes (median [IQR]: 2,235 pg/mL [1,497.5 to 2,680] vs. 1,200 pg/mL [975 to 1,350)], respectively; p<0.001). Conversely, serum S100B values were comparable in these 2 groups (p=0.570). Those with the typical diabetic peripheral neuropathy had significantly higher serum S100P levels compared to their counterparts with the atypical group of diabetic peripheral neuropathies (p=0.048). The independent significant association between serum S100P and diabetic peripheral neuropathy persisted into the multivariable adjusted logistic regression model (OR for S100P: 1.004 [95% CI 1.002 to 1.006]; p<0.001).

Conclusions: The present study's findings demonstrated that serum S100P is a more significant indicator of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes than is serum S100B. Prospective longitudinal studies are required to confirm the prognostic value of baseline serum S100P to predict incident peripheral neuropathy in people with diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2019.01.003DOI Listing
July 2019

Discrimination between Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiac Syndrome X in Women with Typical Angina and Positive Exercise Test; Utility of Cardiovascular Risk Calculators.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 Jan 14;55(1). Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Cardiac Primary Prevention Research Center, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1411713138, Iran.

Nearly 40% of women with typical angina and a positive exercise tolerance test (ETT) have normal or near normal coronary angiography (CAG) labeled as cardiac syndrome X (CSX). We performed this study to evaluate the power of common cardiovascular risk calculators to distinguish patients with CSX from those with coronary artery disease (CAD). 559 women participated in the study. Three risk scores, including (1) newly pooled cohort equation of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) to predict 10 years risk of first atherosclerotic cardiovascular hard event (ASCVD), (2) Framingham risk score (FRS) for the prediction of 10 years coronary heart disease, and (3) the SCORE tool to estimate 10-year risk of cardiovascular mortality (SCORE), were applied. CAD was diagnosed in 51.5% of the patients. 11.6% of the population had ASCVD < 2.5%, and only 13.8% of these patients had CAD on their CAG. By choosing FRS, 14.4% of patients had FRS < 7.5%, and only 11.3% of these patients had recorded CAD on CAG, while the rest of the patients were diagnosed as CSX. Using the SCORE model, 13.8% of patients had the least value (<0.5%) in whom the prevalence of CAD was 19.9%. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to discriminate CSX from CAD was calculated for each scoring system, being 0.750 for ASCVD, 0.745 for FRS, and 0.728 for SCORE ( value for all AUROCs < 0.001). The Hosmer⁻Lemeshow chi squares (df, value) for calibration were 8.787 (8, 0.361), 11.125 (8, 0.195), and 10.618 (8, 0.224) for ASCVD, FRS, and SCORE, respectively. Patients who have ASCVD < 2.5% or FRS < 7.5% may be appropriate cases for noninvasive imaging (Such as coronary CT angiography). CAG is indicated for patients with ASCVD ≥ 7.5% and FRS ≥ 15%, whereas the patients with intermediate risk need comprehensive patient⁻physician shared decision-making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55010012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359077PMC
January 2019

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and diabetes complications: Targeting morning blood pressure surge and nocturnal dipping.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(38):e12185

Department of Nephrology, Nephrology Research Center Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran Department of Nephrology, Shahid Rahnemoon Hospital, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) correlates more closely to organ damages than clinic blood pressure (BP). In the current study we aimed to investigate the association between micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes and both diurnal and nocturnal variability in BP.A total of 192 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who had complete data on ABPM were selected. BP categories were defined based on 2017 ACC/American Heart Association BP guideline. The cross-sectional association between different BP phenotypes and diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD), nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy was assessed using multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension (HTN), hemoglobin A1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol.Approximately 48.9% of participants with T2DM had 24-hour HTN. The prevalence of daytime, nighttime, and clinic HTN were 35.9%, 96.3%, and 53.1%, respectively. Approximately 54.2% of participants had nondipping nocturnal pattern and 28.6% were risers. Nondipping nocturnal BP was associated with CVD, neuropathy, and retinopathy (P = .05, .05, and .014, respectively). Sleep trough morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) was associated with neuropathy (P = .023). Neuropathy was also associated with other components of MBPS (P < .05).We demonstrated that diabetic neuropathy was associated with all the components of MBPS and abnormal dipping status. Our results indicated loss of nocturnal BP dipping but not MBPS as a risk factor for CVD and retinopathy in patients with T2DM. Our findings once again highlighted the importance of ambulatory BP monitoring and targeted antihypertensive therapy directed toward to restore normal circadian BP in patients with T2DM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160188PMC
September 2018

Citicoline (CDP-choline) add-on therapy to risperidone for treatment of negative symptoms in patients with stable schizophrenia: A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2018 07 14;33(4):e2662. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of citicoline add-on therapy in treatment of negative symptoms in patients with stable schizophrenia.

Methods: In a double-blind and placebo-controlled study, patients with stable schizophrenia (DSM-5) were randomized to receive either 2,500 mg/day citicoline or placebo in addition to risperidone for 8 weeks. The patients were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS), and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS). The primary outcome was the difference in PANSS negative subscale score reduction from baseline to week 8 between the citicoline and the placebo groups.

Results: Sixty-six individuals (out of 73 enrolled) completed the trial. The citicoline group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in negative scores, F(1.840, 118.360) = 8.383, p = .001, as well as general psychopathology, F(1.219, 78.012) = 6.636, p = .008; change in general psychopathology did not remain significant after adjustment, and total PANSS scores, F(1.633, 104.487) = 15.400, p < .001, compared with the placebo. HDRS scores and its changes, ESRS score, and frequency of other side effects were not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusions: Citicoline add-on therapy to risperidone can effectively improve the primary negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.2662DOI Listing
July 2018

Beneficial Effects of Pentoxifylline Plus Losartan Dual Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes with Nephropathy.

Am J Med Sci 2018 05 1;355(5):442-448. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: This study was designed to comparatively assess the effects of add-on pentoxifylline to losartan versus increasing the dose of losartan on serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), serum highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and the urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.

Methods: In an open-label, single-center, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial (NCT03006952), 30 patients received b.i.d. dose of pentoxifylline 400mg plus daily dose of losartan 50mg (pentoxifylline arm) and 29 patients received b.i.d. dose of losartan 50mg (losartan arm) during a 12-week follow-up period.

Results: Serum NT-proBNP, serum hsCRP and UAE levels all significantly decreased from baseline in both trial arms. The pentoxifylline and losartan trial arms were equally effective in reducing serum NT-proBNP levels during the course of trial (multivariable adjusted model P value = 0.864, effect size = 0.2%). There was a greater decrease in UAE and serum hsCRP levels in the pentoxifylline arm (P = 0.034, effect size = 7.8%; P = 0.009, effect size = 11.7%, respectively). Conversely, patients in the losartan arm achieved better systolic and diastolic blood pressure control (P < 0.001, effect size = 25.4%; P = 0.010, effect size = 11.3%, respectively).

Conclusions: Circulating NT-proBNP levels equally and significantly reduced from baseline in the pentoxifylline and losartan treatment arms, in parallel with comparatively superior decreases of UAE and serum hsCRP in the pentoxifylline arm, and larger decreases of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the losartan arm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjms.2017.12.015DOI Listing
May 2018

Baseline High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Predicts Macrovascular and Microvascular Complications of Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Study.

Ann Nutr Metab 2018 25;72(4):287-295. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background/aims: This prospective study is aimed at examining the predictive value of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) for coronary heart disease (CHD) events and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: A population-based study (NCT02958579) was conducted on 1,301 participants with T2DM (mean follow-up of 7.5 years). Risk assessment for vascular events was done at baseline, and serum hs-CRP was measured. End points of this study include CHD events, diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, and diabetic kidney disease. Individuals with unavailable data or hs-CRP >20 mg/L were excluded. The discrimination and reclassification improvement of study end points were tested after addition of hs-CRP to traditional risk factors.

Results: Median serum hs-CRP was 2.00 ranging from 0.1 to 17 mg/L. Hazards ratio of each SD increment in baseline hs-CRP was 1.028 (1.024-1.032) for CHD, 1.025 (1.021-1.029) for diabetic neuropathy, 1.037 (1.030-1.043) for diabetic retinopathy, and 1.035 (1.027-1.043) for diabetic kidney disease. The addition of hs-CRP to traditional risk factors of vascular complications of T2DM improved discrimination of all end points (p < 0.001). Net reclassification improvement ranged from 8% for diabetic neuropathy to 31% for diabetic kidney disease (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Baseline hs-CRP predicts both of CHD events and microvascular complications of patients with T2D.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488537DOI Listing
August 2019

Palmitoylethanolamide as adjunctive therapy in major depressive disorder: A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.

J Affect Disord 2018 05 21;232:127-133. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Experimental studies provide evidence for antidepressant effects of Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in animal models of depression. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of PEA add-on therapy in treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Methods: In a randomized double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, 58 patients with MDD (DSM-5) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score ≥ 19 were randomized to receive either 600 mg twice daily Palmitoylethanolamide or placebo in addition to citalopram for six weeks. Patients were assessed using the HAM-D scale at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6.

Results: Fifty-four individuals completed the trial. At week 2, patients in the PEA group demonstrated significantly greater reduction in HAM-D scores compared to the placebo group (8.30 ± 2.41 vs. 5.81 ± 3.57, P = .004). The PEA group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms [F (3, 156) = 3.35, P = .021] compared to the placebo group throughout the trial period. The patients in the PEA group experienced more response rate (≥ 50% reduction in the HAM-D score) than the placebo group (100% vs. 74% respectively, P = .01) at the end of the trial. Baseline parameters and frequency of side effects were not significantly different between the two groups.

Limitations: The population size in this study was small and the follow-up period was relatively short.

Conclusions: Palmitoylethanolamide adjunctive therapy to citalopram can effectively improve symptoms of patients (predominantly male gender) with major depressive disorder. PEA showed rapid-onset antidepressant effects which need further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.057DOI Listing
May 2018

l-Carnosine as Adjunctive Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2018 06 22;28(5):331-338. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran .

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of l-carnosine as an add-on to methylphenidate in management of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Fifty-six drug-free children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old with a diagnosis of ADHD entered the study. The patients were randomly assigned to l-carnosine (800 mg/d in two divided doses) or placebo plus methylphenidate (0.5-1.5 mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks. Children were assessed using the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8 postbaseline.

Results: Fifty patients completed the study, and all had two postbaseline measurements. Using the general linear model repeated measures, significant effect was observed for time × treatment interaction on total and inattention subscales of the Parent ADHD-RS (Greenhouse-Geisser corrected: F = 3.783, df = 1.444, p = 0.041 and F = 4.032, df = 1.600, p = 0.030). Improvements in the Teacher ADHD-RS were not significantly different between the two groups in total (Greenhouse-Geisser corrected: F = 0.200, df = 1.218, p = 0.705), as well as inattention and hyperactivity subscale scores (p = 0.956 and 0.281, respectively). The frequency of side effects was not significantly different between the two treatment arms.

Conclusions: l-carnosine, as a supplementary medication, might be beneficial in treatment of children with ADHD. However, further investigations and different doses of l-carnosine are required to replicate these findings in children with ADHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2017.0157DOI Listing
June 2018

National Prevalence of Self-Reported Coronary Heart Disease and Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris: Factor Analysis of the Underlying Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the SuRFNCD-2011.

Glob Heart 2018 06 9;13(2):73-82.e1. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common causes of mortality worldwide. The national prevalence remains unclear in most of the developing countries.

Objective: This study sought to estimate national prevalence of self-reported CHD and chronic stable angina pectoris in the general adult population of Iran using data from the fourth round of the Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases (SuRFNCD-2011) survey.

Methods: The analysis comprised data of 11,867 civilian, nonhospitalized and noninstitutionalized residents ages 6 to 70 years of age. The calculated prevalence of self-reported CHD and chronic stable angina pectoris were extrapolated to the Iranian adult population who were >20 years old using the complex sample analysis. The factor analysis was performed for clustering of the associated cardiometabolic risk factors among people ages >40 years of age.

Results: The estimated national prevalence of self-reported CHD and chronic stable angina pectoris were 5.3% (95% confidence interval: 4.6 to 5.9) and 7.7% (95% confidence interval: 4.6 to 8.7), respectively. Higher prevalence of these conditions were observed among the older people, urban residents, and women. Factor analysis generated 4 distinct factors that were mainly indicators of dyslipidemia, hypertension, central obesity, hyperglycemia, and tobacco smoking. The factor incorporating hypertension was a significant correlate of self-reported CHD.

Conclusions: We report concerning prevalence of self-reported CHD and chronic stable angina pectoris in the adult population of Iran. The constellation of raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures was significantly predictive of the presence of self-reported CHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2018.01.001DOI Listing
June 2018

L-carnosine as an add-on to risperidone for treatment of negative symptoms in patients with stable schizophrenia: A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Psychiatry Res 2018 04 3;262:94-101. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Since l-carnosine has shown effectiveness in improvement of cognition in patients with schizophrenia, this 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. Sixty-three patients with chronic schizophrenia, who were clinically stable on a stable dose of risperidone, entered the study. The patients were randomly assigned to l-carnosine (2 gr/day in two divided doses) or placebo for eight weeks. The patients were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS), and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) during the study course. Sixty patients completed the trial. L-carnosine resulted in greater improvement of negative scores as well as total PANSS scores but not positive subscale scores compared to placebo. HDRS scores and its changes did not differ between the two groups. Both groups demonstrated a constant ESRS score during the trial course. Frequency of other side effects was not significantly different between the two groups. In a multiple regression analysis model (controlled for positive, general psychopathology, depressive and extrapyramidal symptoms, as well as other variables), the treatment group significantly predicted changes in primary negative symptoms. In conclusion, l-carnosine add-on therapy can safely and effectively reduce the primary negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.02.012DOI Listing
April 2018

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2018 May 28;12(3):365-368. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Nephropathy is a major complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is heralded by the insidious development of microalbuminuria (MA). It is suggested that the serum levels of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is correlated with diabetic nephropathy. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated serum ICAM-1 level in diabetic patients with and without MA.

Methods: A total of 187 participants were enrolled and were classified into three groups including 40 healthy controls and 2 diabetic groups with (n = 59) or without MA (n = 88). Serum levels of ICAM-1, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in all three groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Serum levels of ICAM-1 were significantly higher in diabetic patients irrespective of MA. Moreover, ICAM-1 levels in patients with MA were significantly higher than patients without MA. Patients with MA had significantly higher age and blood pressure compared to those without MA (P = 0.001). Serum levels of ICAM-1 were significantly correlated with age and HbA1c.

Conclusions: Overall, serum ICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with MA and it may be associated with the severity of diabetic kidney disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2017.12.028DOI Listing
May 2018

Clinical utility of percutaneous coronary intervention on left anterior descending stenosis in the setting of third-degree atrioventricular block due to inferior myocardial infarction: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2018 Mar 8;2(1):ytx022. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Acute myocardial infarction (MI), particularly inferior MI, may be complicated by the occurrence of third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. This block is usually temporary, but in some cases it will require a permanent pacemaker (PPM). We report a case of inferior MI and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the right coronary artery (RCA). The third-degree AV block persisted as a result of the no-reflow phenomenon after PCI on the RCA, only to resolve after a second PCI on the left anterior descending (LAD). Improvement in the perfusion of the AV node via the RCA after PCI on the LAD may be able to explain this finding. This case suggests that complete revascularization should be achieved before deciding on the implantation of a PPM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytx022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426079PMC
March 2018

Inverse Association of Peripheral Orexin-A with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Rev Diabet Stud 2017 Summer-Fall;14(2-3):301-310. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: To investigate the association between serum orexin concentrations and insulin resistance/sensitivity in a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to study the effects of anti-hyperglycemic treatment on orexin concentrations over three months.

Methods: This study was designed as a randomized, open-label, clinical trial. Before allocation, sixty medication-naïve, newly-diagnosed, type 2 diabetes patients underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Afterwards, using a randomized trial design (IRCT201102275917N1) patients were allocated to either the metformin (1000 mg daily) or pioglitazone (30 mg daily) arm, and were reexamined after three months. Serum insulin, plasma glucose, and orexin concentrations were measured at baseline, during OGTT, and after three months.

Results: Orexin concentrations significantly decreased after OGTT (0 vs. 120 min: 0.63 ± 0.07 vs. 0.31 ± 0.03 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Insulin resistance determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly and negatively correlated with orexin (r = -0.301, p = 0.024). Furthermore, orexin concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the insulin sensitivity index derived from OGTT (r = 0.326, p = 0.014). Three-month treatment with metformin and pioglitazone significantly improved insulin sensitivity and increased orexin concentrations by 26% (p = 0.025) and 14% (p = 0.076), respectively. Between-group analysis showed that changes in orexin concentrations with metformin and pioglitazone were not significantly different (p = 0.742).

Conclusions: There was a negative association between peripheral orexin concentrations and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients. Three-month anti-hyperglycemic treatment with proportionate doses of metformin or pioglitazone increased orexin concentrations via amelioration of insulin resistance and improvement of glycemic control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1900/RDS.2017.14.301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6115012PMC
July 2018

Zero and Five End-Digit Preference and Blood Pressure Quality of Care Revisited.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Oct;20(10):633-639

3)Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, The Childrens Hospital Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 9)Department of Pediatric Nephrology, The Children's Hospital Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: To determine the rate of zero and five end-digit preference (EDP) for systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, respectively) and risk factors amongst a representative sample of Iranian adults in the year 2011.

Methods: Data gathered from 7997 Iranian adults aged 25-70 were extracted from the database of the sixth Survey of Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases, which surveyed a total of 11,864 individuals aged 6 to 70 years. Multilevel multiple logistic regression was used to identify the independent factors associated with zero or five EDP.

Results: The prevalence of three serial zero or five EDP for SBP and DBP were 18.5% (95% CI: 11.3%-25.7%). SBP ≥140 mmHg (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65-0.95), DBP ≥90 mmHg (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58-0.88), and a positive family history of diabetes (OR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66-0.9) were found as protective factors against zero or five EDP in blood pressure recording the male gender (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.04-1.35) was found to be its independent risk factor.

Conclusion: Sex, SBP, DBP and family history of diabetes were found to be the main independent determinants of EDP in our country which underscores the importance of assessing the many patient-related factors in the studies involving EDP as part of BP monitoring in public health care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2017

Potential diagnostic value of I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in discrimination between Alzheimer disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 Dec 25;163:163-166. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Iranian Center of Neurological Research, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (IKHC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: Clinical difficulty to discriminate between the Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) has led researchers to focus on highly sensitive functional imaging modalities. The aim of the present study was to assess I-MIBG cardiac imaging to distinguish between AD and DLB.

Patients And Methods: Seventeen patients who were known cases of dementia underwent I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy to differentiate AD from DLB. Planar and I-MIBG SPECT were obtained 2h after the injection of 1mCi I-MIBG on a dual head gamma camera. The visual assessment of the heart uptake compared with lungs and the quantification based on the heart to mediastinal ratio (HMR) were done. The cardiac receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was designed for the optimal HMR cut-off values to predict the diagnoses of the patients. The diagnoses were clinically confirmed during the follow up of 14±8.2 months.

Results: Out of 17 patients (13 males; 76.5%), 10 patients had AD (7 males; 70%) and 7 patients had DLB (6 males; 85%). The pooled HMR was 1.74±0.33 in the study population; with 1.95±0.22 in the AD group and 1.43±0.20 in the DLB group to demonstrate significantly different HMR scores between patients with AD and DLB (p value=0.001). The visual interpretation was positive in 10 patients (accuracy of 88.2%). The shortest distance on the ROC curve to the optimal value corresponding to HMR=1.57 identified 10 patients with a high HMR (positive cardiac uptake) and 7 patients with a low HMR (negative cardiac uptake), the accuracy calculated at 88.2%.

Conclusion: I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy is a potential alternative diagnostic modality for discrimination between AD and DLB when I is not available.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2017.10.024DOI Listing
December 2017

Diabetes in Iran: Prospective Analysis from First Nationwide Diabetes Report of National Program for Prevention and Control of Diabetes (NPPCD-2016).

Sci Rep 2017 10 18;7(1):13461. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Department of Medicine, Biochemistry, Physiology and Biophysics, Division of Clinical and Molecular Endocrinology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.

We estimated proportions of different types of diabetes, comorbidities, treatment (the use of oral glucose-lowering agents and insulin), control (hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension) and chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications among people with diabetes presenting to the tertiary-care academic diabetes outpatient clinics in Iran. This study is the prospective analysis of data (n = 30,202) from the registry of university-affiliated adult outpatient diabetes clinics in the country during 2015-2016. The proportions of type 1 diabetes, types 2 diabetes, and other types of diabetes were 11.4%, 85.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. The frequencies of drug-naivety, use of oral agents, insulin monotherapy and insulin combination therapy were 2.9%, 60.5%, 11.5%, and 25.1%, respectively. Around 13.2%, 11.9% and 43.3% of patients with diabetes had controlled hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, respectively. The proportions of retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, diabetic foot, and ischemic heart disease were 21.9%, 17.6%, 28.0%, 6.2%, and 23.9%, respectively. Despite the wide availability of medications and insulin coverage in Iran, the estimated national control of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension (especially for young men and old women) remains subpar. The present study further suggests that the frequencies of chronic vascular complications among patients with diabetes are relatively high in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13379-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5647418PMC
October 2017
-->