Kannur, Kerala | India
J Ayurveda Integr Med 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.
School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, India. Electronic address:
Background: Guggulutiktaka ghritam is an ayurvedic medicine which has been traditionally used to treat various chronic inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanism of action of the Ayurvedic medication in control of inflammatory conditions has not been clearly evaluated.
Objective: In the current study, the effect of the Guggulutiktaka ghritam extract (GTG) on the lipoxygenase pathway and in the production of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation was studied.
Materials And Methods: The effect of GTG in the production of leukotriene was determined by enzyme inhibition studies on 12- lipoxygenase. The assay was carried out by ferrous oxidation of xylenol orange (FOX assay) and was compared to a positive control nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The effect of GTG on the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? in monocytes were studied. For this, the monocytes were pretreated with various concentrations of GTG and subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? produced were quantified by ELISA and the results were compared to positive controls Rolipram and Dexamethasone respectively. The gene expression studies were carried out using qRT-PCR. The IC values were calculated and evaluated statistically.
Results: The result indicates that GTG in comparison to the positive control Nordihydroguaiaretic acid significantly reduced the activity of 12- lipoxygenase. Also, there was significant inhibition in the production of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS stimulated monocytes pretreated with GTG as compared to positive control Rolipram and Dexamethasone. There was significant downregulation of IL-1? gene in LPS stimulated monocytes pretreated with GTG as compared to control. These changes are further supported by Raman spectra obtained for GTG treated and untreated cells.
Conclusion: The study revealed that GTG is a leukotriene and cytokine inhibitor. The inhibition in the production of cytokines may be due to the down-regulation of genes for TNF-? and IL-1?. The study provides a scientific validation on the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of this traditionally used medicine. Identification of bioactive molecules would aid in developing newer therapeutics for control of chronic inflammation.
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Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2016 Jun 13;179(3):427-43. Epub 2016 Feb 13.
Inflammation Research Lab, School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam, Kerala, India, 686560.
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