Publications by authors named "Mohd Yazid Bajuri"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficient deep neural networks for classification of COVID-19 based on CT images: Virtualization via software defined radio.

Comput Commun 2021 Aug 16;176:234-248. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of IR 4.0, The National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia.

The novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has infected over 141 million people worldwide since April 20, 2021. More than 200 countries around the world have been affected by the coronavirus pandemic. Screening for COVID-19, we use fast and inexpensive images from computed tomography (CT) scans. In this paper, ResNet-50, VGG-16, convolutional neural network (CNN), convolutional auto-encoder neural network (CAENN), and machine learning (ML) methods are proposed for classifying Chest CT Images of COVID-19. The dataset consists of 1252 CT scans that are positive and 1230 CT scans that are negative for COVID-19 virus. The proposed models have priority over the other models that there is no need of pre-trained networks and data augmentation for them. The classification accuracies of ResNet-50, VGG-16, CNN, and CAENN were obtained 92.24%, 94.07%, 93.84%, and 93.04% respectively. Among ML classifiers, the nearest neighbor (NN) had the highest performance with an accuracy of 94%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comcom.2021.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205564PMC
August 2021

Role of different types of nanomaterials against diagnosis, prevention and therapy of COVID-19.

Sustain Cities Soc 2021 Sep 25;72:103046. Epub 2021 May 25.

ICRIOS - The Invernizzi Centre for Research in Innovation, Organization, Strategy and Entrepreneurship, Bocconi University, Department of Management and Technology Via Sarfatti, 25 20136, Milano (MI), Italy.

In 2019, a novel type of coronavirus emerged in China called SARS-COV-2, known COVID-19, threatens global health and possesses negative impact on people's quality of life, leading to an urgent need for its diagnosis and remedy. On the other hand, the presence of hazardous infectious waste led to the increase of the risk of transmitting the virus by individuals and by hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, in this review, we survey previous researches on nanomaterials that can be effective for guiding strategies to deal with the current COVID-19 pandemic and also decrease the hazardous infectious waste in the environment. We highlight the contribution of nanomaterials that possess potential to therapy, prevention, detect targeted virus proteins and also can be useful for large population screening, for the development of environmental sensors and filters. Besides, we investigate the possibilities of employing the nanomaterials in antiviral research and treatment development, examining the role of nanomaterials in antiviral- drug design, including the importance of nanomaterials in drug delivery and vaccination, and for the production of medical equipment. Nanomaterials-based technologies not only contribute to the ongoing SARS- CoV-2 research efforts but can also provide platforms and tools for the understanding, protection, detection and treatment of future viral diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2021.103046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146202PMC
September 2021

Tissue-Engineered Hydroxyapatite Bone Scaffold Impregnated with Osteoprogenitor Cells Promotes Bone Regeneration in Sheep Model.

Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Jun 27;18(3):377-385. Epub 2021 May 27.

Tissue Engineering Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), Jalan Ya'acob Latif, Bandar Tun. Razak, 56000, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Managing massive bone defects, a great challenge to orthopaedics reconstructive surgery. The problem arise is the supply of suitable bone is limited with many complications. Tissue-engineered hydroxyapatite bone (TEHB) scaffold impregnated with osteoprogenitor cells developed as an alternative to promote bone regeneration.

Methods: This animal protocol has been approved by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Animal Ethical Committee. The TEHB scaffold prepared from hydroxyapatite using gel casting method. A total of six adolescent female sheep were chosen for this study. Later, all the sheep were euthanized in a proper manner and the bone harvested for biomechanical study. Bone marrow was collected from iliac crest of the sheep and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) isolated and cultured. BMSCs then cultured in osteogenic medium for osteoprogenitor cells development and the plasma collected was seeded with osteoprogenitor cells mixed with calcium chloride. Bone defect of 3 cm length of tibia bone created from each sheep leg and implanted with autologous and TEHB scaffold in 2 different groups of sheep. Wound site was monitored weekly until the wound completely healed and conventional X-ray performed at week 1 and 24. Shear test was conducted to determine the shear force on the autologous bone and TEHB scaffold after implantation for 24 weeks.

Results: All of the sheep survived without any complications during the study period and radiograph showed new bone formation. Later, the bone harvested was for biomechanical study. The highest shear force for the autologous group was 13 MPa and the lowest was 5 MPa while for the scaffold group, the highest was 10 MPa and the lowest was 3 MPa. Although, proximal and distal interface of autologous bone graft shows higher shear strength compared to the TEHB scaffold but there is no significant difference in both groups, p value > 0.05. Histologically in both proximal and distal interface in both arms shows bone healing and woven bone formation.

Conclusion: TEHB scaffold impregnated with osteoprogenitor cells has the potential to be developed as a bone substitute in view of its strength and capability to promote bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13770-021-00343-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169720PMC
June 2021

Malaysian clinical practice guidelines for management of diabetic foot: A synopsis for the primary care physician.

Malays Fam Physician 2021 Mar 17;16(1):103-113. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

MD (UKM) MPH (Epid) (UM), Malaysia Health Technology, Assessment Section (MaHTAS), Medical Development Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

Diabetic foot requires careful attention and coordinated management by a dedicated team. Screening, prevention, adequate assessment, and appropriate referral are crucial to prevent complications. Multimodal treatment and rehabilitation are recommended to ensure a better quality of life and reduction of amputation rate in people with diabetic foot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.51866/cpg0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088751PMC
March 2021

Ewing's Sarcoma of the Vertebral Body in an Adolescent: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review.

Cureus 2021 Mar 3;13(3):e13664. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, MYS.

We report the case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with a one-month history of back pain and bilateral lower limb weakness preceded by constitutional symptoms. She neither had a family history of malignancy nor a previous history of trauma. A series of imaging procedures revealed an aggressive lesion of the T12 vertebra with a large soft-tissue component and intraspinal extension leading to spinal cord compression causing cord edema. She underwent urgent posterior instrumentation and fixation of T9 to T12 vertebrae due to worsening neurological deficits. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy with palliative spinal stabilisation were also performed. Features of the lesion were highly consistent with ES on immunohistochemical study and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for the EWSR1 gene. Postoperatively, both of her lower limbs improved in power and she benefited from regular physiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017601PMC
March 2021

Identification of dominant risk factor involved in spread of COVID-19 using hesitant fuzzy MCDM methodology.

Results Phys 2021 Feb 7;21:103811. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

ICRIOS - The Invernizzi Centre for Research in Innovation, Organization, Strategy and Entrepreneurship Bocconi University - Department of Management and Technology Via Sarfatti, 25 20136 Milano, MI, Italy.

The outburst of the pandemic Coronavirus disease since December 2019, has severely impacted the health and economy worldwide. The epidemic is spreading fast through various means, as the virus is very infectious. Medical science is exploring a vaccine, only symptomatic treatment is possible at the moment. To contain the virus, it is required to categorize the risk factors and rank those in terms of contagion. This study aims to evaluate risk factors involved in the spread of COVID-19 and to rank them. In this work, we applied the methodology namely, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to find out the weights and finally Hesitant Fuzzy Sets (HFS) with Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is applied to identify the major risk factor. The results showed that "long duration of contact with the infected person" the most significant risk factor, followed by "spread through hospitals and clinic" and "verbal spread". We showed the appliance of the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tools in evaluation of the most significant risk factor. Moreover, we conducted sensitivity analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2020.103811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833077PMC
February 2021

Hypertrophic Scar With Contracture Over the Fourth Toe Secondary to Snake Bite Wound: To Salvage or Amputate?

Cureus 2020 Jul 29;12(7):e9451. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, MYS.

Hypertrophic scar formation is a major clinical problem that results in both cosmetic issues and functional loss. The management of a hypertrophic scar varies according to the severity of the sequelae from the scar. We describe a method of treatment in a patient who had a history of multiple debridements due to snake bite resulting in severe contracture of the fourth toe complicated with a hypertrophic scar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451078PMC
July 2020

Clinical and bacteriological profile of diabetic foot infections in a tertiary care.

J Foot Ankle Res 2020 Jun 16;13(1):36. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Hospital Canselor Tunku Muhriz, 56000, Cheras, Malaysia.

Background: Diabetic foot infection is a worldwide health problem is commonly encountered in daily practice. This study was conducted to identify the microbiological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of causative agents identified from diabetic foot infections (DFIs). In addition, the assessment included probable risk factors contributing to infection of ulcers that harbour multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and their outcomes.

Methods: We carried out a prospective analysis based on the DFI samples collected from 2016 till 2018. Specimens were cultured with optimal techniques in addition to antibiotic susceptibility based on recommendations from The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). A total of 1040 pathogens were isolated with an average of 1.9 pathogens per lesion in 550 patients who were identified with having DFIs during this interval.

Results: A higher percentage of Gram-negative pathogens (54%) were identified as compared with Gram-positive pathogens (33%) or anaerobes (12%). A total of 85% of the patients were found to have polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19%), Staphylococcus aureus (11%) and Bacteroides species (8%) appeared to be the predominant organisms isolated. In the management of Gram-positive bacteria, the most efficacious treatment was seen with the use of Vancomycin, while Imipenem and Amikacin proved to be effective in the treatment of Gram-negative bacteria.

Conclusion: DFI's are common among Malaysians with diabetes, with a majority of cases displaying polymicrobial aetiology with multi-drug resistant isolates. The data obtained from this study will be valuable in aiding future empirical treatment guidelines in the treatment of DFIs. This study investigated the microbiology of DFIs and their resistance to antibiotics in patients with DFIs that were managed at a Tertiary Care Centre in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13047-020-00406-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298861PMC
June 2020

Isolated Tuberculosis of the Wrist: Subtle but Destructive.

Cureus 2020 May 3;12(5):e7939. Epub 2020 May 3.

Orthopaedics, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, MYS.

Tuberculosis is an infection that can occur in every organ of the body, but it rarely affects the wrist joint. We report a rare case of a male patient with wrist tuberculosis with a subtle presentation. Our patient's left wrist had been swollen for four months and progressively worsened, becoming ulcerated one week prior to presentation to our center. He was asymptomatic, but a previous radiograph showed global destruction of the wrist joint. Clinical investigations, that is, polymerase chain reaction test for tuberculosis and histopathological examination, showed classic findings of tuberculosis, which lead to the initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266487PMC
May 2020

Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Extraarticular Scapular Neck and Body Fractures With Good Short Term Functional Outcome.

Front Surg 2019 17;6:71. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Orthopaedics, Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar, Seremban, Malaysia.

The study aims to evaluate the short-term functional outcome of open reduction and internal fixation of extraarticular scapular neck and body fractures treated at our center over a period of 2-year duration at a tertiary referral center. Between October 2015 and October 2017, we operated on 20 extraarticular scapular neck and body fracture. Ten were available for a one-off assessment. The mean time to surgery was 10 days (range, 3-19 days) and one-off assessment was done within 6-24 months (mean, 13 months). Indications includes (1) medial/lateral displacement (M/L) ≥ 20 mm, (2) M/L ≥ 15 mm if angular deformity ≥ 30°, (3) Angular deformity ≥ 45°, (4) Double lesion of superior shoulder suspensory complex (SSSC), with displacement ≥10 mm in both lesion, (5) Glenopolar angle (GPA) ≤ 22°, and (6) open scapular fracture. The functional outcome was measured using range motion and strength. Patient-reported outcome was assessed using Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and Short-Form-36 (SF-36) version 1. All patients achieved radiological union at time of assessment. None of the patients had post-operative complications. The mean DASH score was 19.3 (range, 1.7-39.3). All subcategories of SF-36 questionnaire scores between 70 and 89.6, with exception to REE (role limitations due to emotional problems) and REP (role limitations due to physical health). The average range of motion for the injured shoulders; forward flexion 157°, abduction 114°, and external rotation 42°. The strength of operated and non-operated shoulders, respectively, 6.5 and 8.1 kgF of forward flexion, 5.5 and 7.2 kgF of abduction, and 4.1 and 6.3 kgF of external rotation. Open reduction and internal fixation of surgically indicated scapular neck and body fracture is feasible with predictably good functional outcome. The reduced external rotation ROM and strength may be due to the use of Classic Judet approach, however we do not enough data to support this.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2019.00071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6928001PMC
December 2019

Tuberculosis of the Left Wrist Joint and Spine.

Cureus 2019 Nov 19;11(11):e6203. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Orthopaedics, Ampang Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, MYS.

The incidence of wrist tuberculosis is rare. Clinical features and radiographs are not conclusive in the beginning, happen to delay the achievement of the diagnosis, and thus result in poor treatment. We present a case report of wrist tuberculosis that had delayed diagnosis. Hence, the initiation of antituberculous treatment was delayed, as the initial investigations were not conclusive of tuberculous infection. The patient was treated surgically multiple times before tuberculosis was diagnosed. Antituberculous chemotherapy was started for the patient for one year until she became afebrile and infective markers returned to normal. However, the patient developed left wrist stiffness due to arthrofibrosis and bony destruction of the wrist joint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.6203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925370PMC
November 2019

Chronic Osteomyelitis Revisited: A Case Report.

Cureus 2019 Jun 28;11(6):e5023. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, MYS.

Chronic osteomyelitis treatment is always a challenge to orthopaedic surgeons which requires great dedication and perseverance. We report a successful limb salvage case of a 46-year-old man who suffered from a left tibia chronic osteomyelitis with soft tissue defect. The treatment approach was a thorough wound debridement of devitalized tissues and necrotized bone, commencement of culture-directed antibiotics, reconstruction with vascularized osteomyocutaneous fibula flap, and skeletal stabilization with internal fixation. As compared to below knee amputation, the result we obtained in this case is more promising with regard to mobility and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721869PMC
June 2019

Functional Outcome of Modified Brostrom-Gould Procedure Using the PopLok Knotless Suture Anchor Technique in Lateral Ankle Instability.

Cureus 2019 Jun 22;11(6):e4971. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, MYS.

Introduction The modified Brostrom-Gould procedure is surgery to repair the lateral ligamentous complex of an ankle with chronic instability. A retrospective study was carried out among patients who had undergone this procedure at a medical center. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the mid-term functional outcome and rate of infection among patients who underwent the surgery using the PopLok® (CONMED, NY, US) Knotless Suture Anchor technique for lateral ankle instability. Methods Twenty patients who failed conservative treatment at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur, and who were operated on by a single surgeon from January 2011 until March 2015 were selected to participate in this study. They were examined clinically both preoperatively and postoperatively and were also evaluated using the American Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The last review of the patients, for the purpose of this study, was done at one-year postoperatively. Results The patients' overall AOFAS and VAS scores improved postoperatively as compared to the preoperative period. Preoperatively, the mean AOFAS score was 63.5 while postoperatively, the score was 93.50 (excellent score 90 - 100). The mean VAS score was 8.00 preoperatively and improved to 1.00 postoperatively. There was also an absence of infection observed one-year post-surgery. Conclusion The modified Brostrom-Gould procedure using the PopLok® Knotless Suture Anchor technique provides an excellent middle-term functional outcome and a reduction in pain for patients who failed conservative treatment, with a very low rate of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6713261PMC
June 2019

Spinopelvic Fixation Supplemented With Gullwing Plate for Multiplanar Sacral Fracture With Spinopelvic Dissociation: A Case Series With Short Term Follow Up.

Front Surg 2019 19;6:42. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Orthopedic, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.

We describe a series of three patients who sustained multiplanar sacral fracture with spinopelvic dissociation treated with bilateral triangle osteosynthesis supplemented with a gullwing plate. Multiplanar sacral fracture causes the sacrum to divide into two parts which in severe cases, fracture displacement results in neurological injury. Spinopelvic fixation supplemented with a gullwing plate surgical treatment is still a viable option with an acceptable outcome. The average waiting time prior to surgery is 3 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2019.00042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659408PMC
July 2019

Intramedullary cement osteosynthesis (IMCO): a pilot study in sheep.

Biomed Mater Eng 2014 ;24(6):2177-86

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), University Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University of Malaysia), Jalan Ya'acob Latif, Bandar Tun. Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The application of bone substitutes and cements has a long standing history in augmenting fractures as a complement to routine fracture fixation techniques. Nevertheless, such use is almost always in conjunction with definite means of fracture fixation such as intramedullary pins or bone plates. The idea of using biomaterials as the primary fixation bears the possibility of simultaneous fixation and bone enhancement. Intramedullary recruitment of bone cements is suggested in this study to achieve this goal. However, as the method needs primary testings in animal models before human implementation, and since the degree of ambulation is not predictable in animals, this pilot study only evaluates the outcomes regarding the feasibility and safety of this method in the presence of primary bone fixators. A number of two sheep were used in this study. Tibial transverse osteotomies were performed in both animals followed by external skeletal fixation. The medullary canals, which have already been prepared by removing the marrow through proximal and distal drill holes, were then injected with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The outcomes were evaluated postoperatively by standard survey radiographs, morphology, histology and biomechanical testings. Healing processes appeared uncomplicated until week four where one bone fracture recurred due to external fixator failure. The results showed 56% and 48% cortical thickening, compared to the opposite site, in the fracture site and proximal and distal diaphyses respectively. This bone augmentative effect resulted in 264% increase in bending strength of the fracture site and 148% increase of the same value in the adjacent areas of diaphyses. In conclusion, IMCO, using CPC in tibia of sheep, is safe and biocompatible with bone physiology and healing. It possibly can carry the osteopromotive effect of the CPCs to provide a sustained source of bone augmentation throughout the diaphysis. Although the results must be considered preliminary, this method has possible advantages over conventional methods of bone fixation at least in bones with compromised quality (i.e. osteoporosis and bone cysts), where rigid metal implants may jeopardize eggshell cortices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BME-141029DOI Listing
June 2015

Two variants of fat embolism syndrome evolving in a young patient with multiple fractures.

BMJ Case Rep 2013 Apr 9;2013. Epub 2013 Apr 9.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a continuum of fat emboli. Variants of FES: acute fulminant form and classic FES are postulated to represent two different pathomechanisms. Acute fulminant FES occurs during the first 24 h. It is attributed to massive mechanical blockage pulmonary vasculature by the fat emboli. The classic FES typically has a latency period of 24-36 h manifestation of respiratory failure and other signs of fat embolism. Progression of asymptomatic fat embolism with FES frequently represents inadequate treatment of hypovolaemic shock. We present a rare case of two variants of FES evolving in a patient with multiple fractures to emphasis the importance of adequate and appropriate treatment of shock in preventing the development of FES. Since supportive therapy which is a ventilatory support remains as the treatment of FES, it is appropriate to treat FES in the intensive care unit setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-008631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3645787PMC
April 2013

Neglected subtalar dislocation with unstable foot; to walk away or step our foot in?

BMJ Case Rep 2013 Jan 17;2013. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Chronic neglected subtalar dislocation associated with a non-union talar neck fracture is rare and never documented before. The lack of information from the literature on the optimal management prompted us to describe our experience in the management of this condition. We reported a case of a 57-year-old women presented with this injury. A satisfactory outcome was obtained using a tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis through a plantar approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2012-007697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3603846PMC
January 2013

Functional outcomes of conservatively treated clavicle fractures.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2011 ;66(4):635-9

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objective: The main aim of the study was to analyze the outcomes of clavicle fractures in adults treated non-surgically and to evaluate the clinical effects of displacement, fracture patterns, fracture location, fracture comminution, shortening and fracture union on shoulder function.

Methods: Seventy clavicle fractures were non-surgically treated in the Orthopedics Department at the Tuanku Ja'afar General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Seremban, Malaysia, an average of six months after injury. The clavicle fractures were treated conservatively with an arm sling and a figure-eight splint for three weeks. No attempt was made to reduce displaced fractures, and the patients were allowed immediate free-shoulder mobilization, as tolerated. They were prospectively evaluated clinically and radiographically. Shoulder function was evaluated using the Constant scoring technique.

Results: There were statistically significant functional outcome impairments in non-surgically treated clavicle fractures that correlated with the fracture type (comminution), the fracture displacement (21 mm or more), shortening (15 mm or more) and the fracture union (malunion).

Conclusion: This article reveals the need for surgical intervention to treat clavicle fractures and improve shoulder functional outcomes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093795PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1807-59322011000400019DOI Listing
December 2011