Publications by authors named "Mohd Ismail Ibrahim"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of Fas/Fasl Gene Polymorphisms on Susceptibility Risk and Imatinib Mesylate Treatment Response in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia Patients.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Feb 1;22(2):565-571. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: The FAS mediated apoptosis pathway involving the FAS and FASL genes plays a crucial role in the regulation of apoptotic cell death and imatinib mesylate (IM) mechanism of action. Promoter polymorphisms FAS-670 A>G and FAS-844 T>C which alter the transcriptional activity of these genes may grant a risk to develop cancer and revamp the drug activities towards the cancer cell. We investigated the association of these two polymorphisms with the susceptibility risk and IM treatment response in Malaysian chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients.

Methods: This is a retrospective study, which included 93 CML patients and 98 controls. The polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to genotype the FAS and FASL polymorphisms. Data nanlysis was done using SPSS Version 22. The associations of the genotypes with susceptibility risk and IM response in CML patients were assessed by means of logistic regression analysis and deriving odds ratio with 95% CI.

Results: We observed a significant association between FASL-844T>C polymorphism and CML susceptibility risk and IM response. Variant C allele and FASL-844 CC variant genotype carriers had significantly higher risk for CML susceptibility (OR 1.756, CI 1.163-2.652, p=0.007 and OR 2.261, CI 1.013-5.047, p=0.047 respectively). Conversely, the heterozygous genotype FASL-844 TC conferred lower risk for CML susceptibility (OR 0.379, CI 0.176-0.816, p=0.013). The heterozygous and homozygous variant genotypes and variant C alleles were found to confer a lower risk for the development of IM resistance with OR 0.129 (95% CI: 0.034-0.489 p=0.003), OR 0.257 (95% CI: 0.081-0.818, p=0.021), and OR 0.486 (95% CI: 0.262-0.899, p=0.021) respectively. We also found that FAS-670 A>G polymorphism was not associated with CML susceptibility risk or IM response.

Conclusion: The genetic polymorphism FASL-844 T>C may contribute to the CML susceptibility risk and also IM treatment response in CML patients. Accodringly, it may be useful as a biomarker for predicting CML susceptibility risk and IM resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.2.565DOI Listing
February 2021

Predictors of Self-Reported Hand Hygiene Performance among Nurses at Tertiary Care Hospitals in East Coast Malaysia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jan 7;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Head of Medical Quality Unit, Kelantan State Health Department, Kota Bharu 15590, Malaysia.

Background: Hand hygiene (HH) is the simplest and most effective way to reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs).

Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine factors associated with self-reported HH performance among nurses at Kelantan tertiary care hospitals. A sample of 438 registered nurses was selected through a stratified random sampling method. Self-reported HH performance was assessed using a validated WHO self-administered HH knowledge and perception questionnaire for healthcare workers.

Results: A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors. The factors that significantly predicted self-reported HH performance among nurses included perception score (beta coefficient (β) = 0.260; 95% CI: 0.200, 0.417; < 0.001), pediatric department (β = -0.104; 95% CI: -9.335, -2.467; < 0.001), and orthopedic department (β = -5.957; 95% CI: -9.539, -0.720; < 0.023), adjusted R = 0.102; < 0.001. Nurses with a strong perception and belief in HH were more likely to have better HH performance. Compared to pediatric and orthopedic, surgical departments were associated with better self-reported HH performance.

Conclusions: This study showed the importance of factors that could improve the intervention's performance in HH strategy. Lack of perception and HH program intervention in departments engaged in patient care could lead to poor HH practices, thus increasing HCAIs and antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825618PMC
January 2021

Interactive Low Back Pain Intervention Module Based on the Back School Program: A Cluster-Randomized Experimental Study Evaluating Its Effectiveness among Nurses in Public Hospitals.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 14;17(16). Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Units of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia.

The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among nurses is high. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive LBP module based on the Back School Program in improving Oswestry Disability Scores (ODSs) among nurses in government hospitals in Penang, Malaysia. A cluster-randomized experimental study was conducted within four public hospitals. These hospitals were randomized to intervention and control groups. A total of 284 nurses from the selected hospitals were randomly selected (142 in each group). An interactive LBP intervention module based on the Back School Program was designed and prescribed. Both the intervention and control groups were assessed using the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire at baseline and at the end of the third and sixth weeks. Out of 284 participants, 281 completed this study. A between-group comparison revealed that ODSs were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group at the ends of the third ( = 0.006) and sixth weeks ( < 0.001). Within-group changes revealed a significant reduction in ODSs within the intervention group from baseline to the third ( < 0.001) and sixth weeks ( < 0.001) of the intervention. This simple interactive LBP module was effective in reducing symptoms of LBP among nurses as early as three weeks, and this effect was sustained until the sixth week of the intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460316PMC
August 2020

Interactive Low Back Pain Intervention Module Based on the Back School Program: A Cluster-Randomized Experimental Study Evaluating Its Effectiveness among Nurses in Public Hospitals.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 14;17(16). Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Units of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia.

The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among nurses is high. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive LBP module based on the Back School Program in improving Oswestry Disability Scores (ODSs) among nurses in government hospitals in Penang, Malaysia. A cluster-randomized experimental study was conducted within four public hospitals. These hospitals were randomized to intervention and control groups. A total of 284 nurses from the selected hospitals were randomly selected (142 in each group). An interactive LBP intervention module based on the Back School Program was designed and prescribed. Both the intervention and control groups were assessed using the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire at baseline and at the end of the third and sixth weeks. Out of 284 participants, 281 completed this study. A between-group comparison revealed that ODSs were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group at the ends of the third ( = 0.006) and sixth weeks ( < 0.001). Within-group changes revealed a significant reduction in ODSs within the intervention group from baseline to the third ( < 0.001) and sixth weeks ( < 0.001) of the intervention. This simple interactive LBP module was effective in reducing symptoms of LBP among nurses as early as three weeks, and this effect was sustained until the sixth week of the intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460316PMC
August 2020

Exploring factors contributing to mistreatment of women during childbirth in West Bank, Palestine.

Women Birth 2020 Jul 16. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Faculty of Health Professions, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine.

Background: Respectful care during childbirth is a universal right for each woman in every health system, and mistreatment of women during childbirth is a major breach of this right.

Aim: This study aimed to explore the views of Palestinian women and healthcare providers regarding factors contributing to the mistreatment of women during childbirth at childbirth facilities in the West Bank, Palestine.

Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in the West Bank, Palestine, from February 2019 to April 2019. In-depth interviews were conducted with six Palestinian women and five healthcare providers. Consent was obtained individually from each participant, and the interviews ranged from 40 to 50min. Data collection was continued until thematic saturation was reached. Open-ended questions were asked during interviews. Thematic analysis was used to interpret the data collected from the interviews.

Results: Four themes were identified with regards to the women and healthcare providers' views about factors contributing to the mistreatment of women during childbirth in the West Bank, Palestine: limitation in childbirth facilities, factors within the healthcare providers, the women themselves, and barriers within the community.

Discussion: Mistreatment of women during childbirth may occur due to the limitations of resources and staff in childbirth facilities. Some women also justified the mistreatment, and certain characteristics of the women were believed to be the factors for mistreatment.

Conclusion: As the first known study of its kind in West Bank, the identified contributing factors especially the limitations of resources and staff are essential to provide good quality and respectful care at childbirth facilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2020.07.004DOI Listing
July 2020

Psychometric Properties of the Decisional Balance Scale: A Confirmatory Study on Malaysian University Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 16;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Exercise and Sports Science Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Decisional balance (DB) is the perceived positive aspects (advantages) and negative aspects (disadvantages) that are associated with behavioural change. Behavioural change is dependent on an individual's thoughts after considering the advantages of engaging in exercise. When the benefits exceed the barriers, people are more likely to make changes after cognitively evaluating the functional aspects. The purpose of the present study is to determine the validity and reliability of the DB scale among Malaysian university students using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A cross-sectional study was carried out among students who took part in the co-curricular program. By using the purposive sampling method, students were recruited and given written informed consent forms after acknowledging they understood the purpose of the study. The DB scale, which consists of two factors, namely, advantages and disadvantages, was used as the instrument in the study. The advantages referred to the benefits of participating in exercise, whereas the disadvantages referred to the barriers to exercise. The 10-item, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to participating students. Data were analysed using Mplus 8 for the CFA. A total of 562 students (females = 444, males = 118) with a mean age of 19.81 years ( = 1.22) participated in the study. Most of the students were engaged in regular physical activity for at least three exercise sessions (mean = 2.62) per week, and the average duration per session was 43 minutes. The hypothesised measurement model of DB did not fit the data well; thus, the measurement model was re-specified. The final measurement model fit the data well (comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.960, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.943, standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.055, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) (90% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.061 (0.047, 0.074), RMSEA -value = 0.096). The composite reliability values of 0.757 for the advantages and 0.792 for the disadvantages were acceptable. The 10-item DB scale with two factors displayed a good model fit for the data with good scale reliability. This could be beneficial for Malaysian undergraduate students in making decisions before engaging in physical activity. The benefits of, and barriers to, exercise could be an important component that affects their decision making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215421PMC
April 2020

Tobacco Denormalization Indicator in the Prevalence of Positive Smoker Identity and Its Associated Factors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 31;17(7). Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Fa and ly Medicine, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia.

Positive smoker identity (PSI) is a construct that evaluates the degree of smokers' positive thoughts, images and feeling about smoking behavior and culture. PSI encompasses the indicators related to tobacco denormalization strategy, which is one of the four WHO tobacco endgame strategies. PSmoQi is a newly validated instrument which could reliably assess PSI. This study's objectives were to determine the prevalence of positive smoker identity and its associated factors using PSmoQi. A sample of 253 smokers from government agencies in Kota Bharu City, Malaysia were recruited using invitation letters sent to their head of agencies. Data collection was done in a briefing session voluntary attended by the smokers. Factors associated with PSI were analyzed using Multiple Logistic Regression. The prevalence of smokers with positive smoker identity was 72.3%. Factors associated with positive smoker identity were older age (Adjusted Odds ratio; AOR: 1.042; 95% confident interval; CI: 1.004, 1.081); = 0.028), higher smoking self-concept scale Malay version (SSCS-M) score (AOR: 1.216; 95% CI: 1.112, 1.329; < 0.001), higher heaviness index (AOR: 1.002; 95% CI: 1.001, 1.004; = 0.011) and lower educational attainment (AOR: 0.458; 95% CI: 0.233, 0.900; = 0.024). This study shows a high prevalence of PSI among smokers from government agencies in Kota Bharu City. Factors such as age, SSCS-M score, heaviness index and educational attainment influenced the level of positive smoker identity in a smoker. The finding would contribute an evidentiary guideline in screening smokers for smoking cessation clinic enrollment to achieve the best interventional outcome, as well as it would provide an objective indicator for tobacco denormalization status in a population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178188PMC
March 2020

The Effectiveness of Smoking Prevention Module Towards Knowledge and Smoking Refusal Skills among Adolescents in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 Nov 1;20(11):3353-3359. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objective: To study the effectiveness of the smoking prevention module towards knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects and smoking refusal skills among secondary school students in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Methods: A quasi experimental interventional study involving 166 non-smokers adolescents, aged 13 to 14 years old were carried out in two schools located in two different suburbs. Both schools had equal number of participants. One school was given the smoking prevention module for intervention while the control school only received the module after the study had been completed. The knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects and smoking refusal skill score were assessed using a set of validated Malay questionnaires at baseline, two weeks and eight weeks after the intervention. Repeated measure ANCOVA was used to analyse the mean score difference of both groups at baseline and after intervention.

Result: Baseline analysis shows no significant difference in knowledge score between the study groups (p = 0.713) while post intervention, it shows significant inclination of knowledge score in intervention group and the difference was significant after controlling the gender [F(df) = 15.96(1.5), p <0.001]. The mean baseline for refusal skills score in the control and intervention groups were 30.89(6.164) and 28.02(6.241) respectively (p= 0.003). Post intervention, there is a significant difference in the crude mean and the estimated marginal means for smoking refusal skills score between the two groups after controlling for sex [F(df) = 5.66(1.8), p = 0.005].

Conclusion: This smoking prevention module increased the level of knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects and smoking refusal skill among the secondary school students. Thus, it is advocated to be used as one of the standard modules to improve the current method of teaching in delivering knowledge related to harmful effects of smoking and smoking refusal skill to the adolescents in Malaysia.
.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.11.3353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062996PMC
November 2019

Low Back Pain and Its Associated Factors among Nurses in Public Hospitals of Penang, Malaysia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 11 1;16(21). Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and its associated factors among the nurses working in the public hospitals of Penang, Malaysia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses, aged 25-60 years, who had been working for at least three months at six public hospitals of Penang. A proportionate stratified random sampling method was applied to select 1292 respondents. The Malay-validated BACKS Tool questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale was used to obtain data. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 989 (76.5%) nurses suffered from LBP at a point of time. The factors significantly associated with LBP among the nurses included working more than seven hours [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) 1.48 (1.06, 1.98)], twisting of the body while working [AOR (95% CI) 1.60 (1.13, 2.26)], manual handling of patients in wards [AOR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.08, 2.07)], and fatigue [AOR (95% CI) 2.63 (1.94, 3.58)].

Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP among the nurses in the public hospitals of Penang was relatively high. The factors predicting LBP included working more than seven hours a day, twisting of the body while working, manual handling, and fatigue. The findings from this study may better enable policymakers to devote resources to minimize low back pain among nurses. The nurses should be encouraged to comply with safe working procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861894PMC
November 2019

Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) into the Malay Language.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 06 10;16(11). Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Patient feedback is an important tool in assessing health system quality. The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) was developed in 2006 as a standardized instrument to assess patient perceptions in the United States of America. This study aimed to translate and validate the HCAHPS questionnaire into the Malay language in order to assess patient perceptions of health services in Malaysia.

Methods: The original HCAPHS in English was translated into Malay based on the established guideline. The content validation involved an expert panel of 10 members, including patients. The face validation pilot testing of the HCAHPS-Malay version was conducted among 10 discharged patients. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) used principal axis factor, and varimax rotation was established based on a cross-sectional study conducted among 200 discharged patients from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (Hospital USM).

Results: The overall content validity index was 0.87, and the universal face validity index was 0.82. From the EFA, the factor loading value ranged from 0.652 to 0.961 within nine domains. The internal consistency reliability with Cronbach's alpha was 0.844.

Conclusion: The HCAHPS-Malay is a reliable and valid tool to determine patients' perception of healthcare services among inpatients in Hospital USM based on the content and face validation result together with a good construct validity and excellent absolute reliability. Further testing on HCAHPS-Malay version in other settings in Malaysia needs to be done for cross-validation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604016PMC
June 2019

Predictors of Caregivers' Satisfaction with the Management of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Study at Multiple Levels of Health Care.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 05 14;16(10). Epub 2019 May 14.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Caregivers are the initial gatekeepers in the health care management of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the factors associated with caregivers' satisfaction with different levels of health care services in managing children with ASD in Kelantan. The satisfaction scores of 227 main caregivers of confirmed ASD children were assessed with a modified Parent Satisfaction Scale (PSS) questionnaire.

Results: The analysis showed that caregivers who waited longer for a doctor's consultation in primary care had a reduced PSS score, whereas caregivers who were satisfied with the waiting time in primary care had higher PSS scores. At the secondary care level, caregivers who possessed at least a diploma had reduced PSS scores, whereas caregivers who were satisfied with both doctors' consultation times and occupational therapy appointments had higher PSS scores. At the tertiary care level, caregivers with an underlying medical problem and who had children undergoing occupational therapy for two months or more had reduced PSS scores. Nevertheless, the analysis showed that caregivers who were concerned with their children's sleeping problems, who had been informed about parental support, who were satisfied with speech and occupational therapy appointments, who were satisfied with waiting times at tertiary care clinics, and who were satisfied with their doctor's knowledge and experience had higher PSS scores.

Conclusions: This study elucidated the importance of understanding caregivers' satisfaction in attaining care for their ASD children and highlighted the need to promote factors that would increase caregivers' satisfaction with current ASD services.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572543PMC
May 2019

Perceived Stress among Caregivers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A State-Wide Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 04 25;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased stress and more significant negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There is a lack of studies specifically focusing on stress among caregivers with ASD children in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and factors associated with it among caregivers in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered to 227 caregivers of children with ASD. The caregivers were recruited from ASD databases in four tertiary hospitals in Kelantan and a meeting was set up during the child's follow-up in the clinic. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress.

Results: The mean total perceived stress score was 20.84 (4.72). This was considered higher than average. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers who live far from the health institution, caregivers who do not own transportation to bring the child to the treatment center, and caregivers who have an ASD child with a learning disability.

Conclusion: Caregivers of an ASD child perceived significant stress while taking care of their children. Institutions should alleviate the factors that were predicted to increase the caregivers' perceived stress to improve the quality of the lives of children and ASD families as a whole.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6517964PMC
April 2019

Reply to Comments on the Study "The Sensitivity, Specificity and Accuracy of Warning Signs in Predicting Severe Dengue, the Severe Dengue Prevalence and its Associated Factors".

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 04 17;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Thank you for the comments received on the article "The Sensitivity, Specificity and Accuracy of Warning Signs in Predicting Severe Dengue, the Severe Dengue Prevalence and its Associated Factors" [...].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6518230PMC
April 2019

Health Information Engagement Factors in Malaysia: A Content Analysis of Facebook Use by the Ministry of Health in 2016 and 2017.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 02 18;16(4). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Director General's Office, Ministry of Health, Putrajaya 62590, Malaysia.

Health organizations have widely adopted social media for health promotion, public health communication conveyance, and organizational promotion activities. However, little published data exists on the factors that facilitate health information diffusion in South East Asia, especially Malaysia compared with Western countries. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with good engagement rates among internet users on the Facebook (FB) page of Ministry of Health Malaysia. In this observational study, 2123 FB posts were randomly selected. Data dated from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017 was gathered from the Facebook Insight. The logistic regression model was applied to identify factors associated with good engagement rates. This study found that a FB post with a good engagement rate was significantly associated with a health education post (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR): 3.80, 95% Confidence Interval CI: 3.02⁻4.78, < 0.001), a risk communication post (AOR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.39⁻2.26, < 0.001), a post in the afternoon (AOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.34⁻2.31, < 0.001) or in the evening (AOR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.20⁻1.82, < 0.001), and a video format (AOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.44⁻9.71, = 0.007). Therefore, we present the first comprehensive analysis of health information engagement among internet users in Malaysia. The growing trends of online health information-seeking behaviors and demand for the availability of validated health information require effective strategies by public health organizations to disseminate health information and achieve better audience engagement on social media.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406840PMC
February 2019

Development and Validation of Positive Smoker Identity Questionnaire (PSmoQi): A New Instrument for Smoking Cessation Correlates.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 01 26;16(3). Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Family Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia.

The positive smoker identity construct, which was based on West's PRIME Theory, affected the smoking prevalence, quit attempts and cessation success. A validated questionnaire which could measure this rich and complex construct may facilitate prediction models of successful cessation. We aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire that assesses positive smoker identity based on West's PRIME Theory. The initial item pool was developed based on a theoretical framework, empirical literature, existing scales and expert review. The questionnaire was conveniently distributed to 100 smokers. Exploratory factor analysis was utilized to explore domains in the questionnaire. Construct and criterion validity, internal consistency and reliability of the domains were analyzed. The final positive smoker identity questionnaire (PSmoQi) has 26 items under four internally-consistent and reliable domains: Contributory factors, contextual and temporal patterning, identity related to smoking, and behaviour in relation to smoking. The full scale demonstrated good internal consistency (∝ = 0.78), acceptable convergent and divergent validity, and good concurrent validity with the smoker self-concept scale. The current study provides fundamental evidence for the PSmoQi as a valid instrument in research related to smoking cessation and interventional strategy. The PSmoQi contained validated domains which could measure almost a full spectrum of smoking cessation components.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388284PMC
January 2019

Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Among Lymphoproliferative Disease Patients: Factors Influencing Engraftment.

Oman Med J 2019 Jan;34(1):34-43

Department of Hematology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objectives: Autologous peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (APBSCT) is a therapeutic option which can be used in various hematological, neoplastic disorders including lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). Differences in patient populations and treatment modalities in different transplant centers mean it is important to improve the knowledge of the different factors affecting engraftment after APBSCT for the success of this procedure. We sought to determine the factors influencing neutrophil and platelet engraftment after APBSCT in patients with LPD.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 70 patients with LPD (35 with lymphoma and 35 with multiple myeloma) who had undergone APBSCT between January 2008 and December 2016. Data obtained included disease type, treatment, and stem cell characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for probabilities of neutrophil and platelet engraftment occurred and was compared by the log-rank test. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for the analysis of potential independent factors influencing engraftment. A -value < 0.050 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Most patients were ethnic Malay, the median age at transplantation was 49.5 years. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment occurred in a median time of 18 (range 4-65) and 17 (range 6-66) days, respectively. The majority of patients showed engraftment with 65 (92.9%) and 63 (90.0%) showing neutrophil and platelet engraftment, respectively. We observed significant differences between neutrophil engraftment and patient's weight (< 60/≥ 60 kg), stage of disease at diagnosis, number of previous chemotherapy cycles (< 8/≥ 8), and pre-transplant radiotherapy. While for platelet engraftment, we found significant differences with gender, patient's weight (< 60/≥ 60 kg), pre-transplant radiotherapy, and CD34+ dosage (< 5.0/≥ 5.0 × 10/kg and < 7.0/≥ 7.0 × 10/kg). The stage of disease at diagnosis ( 0.012) and pre-transplant radiotherapy ( 0.025) were found to be independent factors for neutrophil engraftment whereas patient's weight (< 60/≥ 60 kg, 0.017), age at transplantation (< 50/≥ 50 years, 0.038), and CD34+ dosage (< 7.0/≥ 7.0 × 10/kg, 0.002) were found to be independent factors for platelet engraftment.

Conclusions: Patients with LPD who presented at an early stage and with no history of radiotherapy had faster neutrophil engraftment after APBSCT, while a younger age at transplantation with a higher dose of CD34+ cells may predict faster platelet engraftment. However, additional studies are necessary for better understanding of engraftment kinetics to improve the success of APBSCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2019.06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330180PMC
January 2019

Translation and Validation of the Malay Version of the Parents' Satisfaction Scale (PSS-M) for Assessment of Caregivers' Satisfaction with Health Care Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 11 4;15(11). Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: A Malay version of Parent Satisfaction Scale (PSS-M) is needed to investigate the factors contributing to the Malay caregivers' satisfaction with health care management for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the study is to translate and validate the questionnaire to assess the caregivers' satisfaction on health care services.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 caregivers of children with ASD aged between 2 and 17 years old that received treatment at two tertiary care centres in Kelantan. Permission to use the original version of the PSS questionnaire was obtained. The original English version of the PSS was translated into a Malay version following the 10 steps proposed by an established guideline. Pre-testing of the PSS was carried out with 30 caregivers before confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was established using 110 caregivers. They were asked to assess their understanding of the questionnaire. The one-dimensional questionnaire consists of 11 items, including staff attitudes, availability of staff, supportiveness, and helpfulness. The 5-point Likert scale provided ratings from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed using a robust maximum likelihood estimator.

Results: The analysis showed model fit data with good reliability.

Conclusion: The PSS-M shows overall model fitness based on specific indices, with good construct validity and excellent absolute reliability to determine the satisfaction level of caregivers of children with ASD with respect to health care services.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6265777PMC
November 2018

The Sensitivity, Specificity and Accuracy of Warning Signs in Predicting Severe Dengue, the Severe Dengue Prevalence and Its Associated Factors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 09 15;15(9). Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

To study Malaysian dengue clinical practice guideline (CPG) warning signs (WS) in predicting severe dengue (SD) and its associated factors among confirmed cases presented to a teaching hospital in north-eastern Malaysia in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed in February 2015 using secondary data acquired from the hospital records. There were 2607 confirmed dengue cases presented to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in 2014. Seven hundred patients were selected after proportionate stratified random sampling conducted according to the number of cases in 12 different months in 2014. Data were collected and analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Severe dengue outcomes represented 4.9% of cases. The prevalence of any of WS in SD was 91.2%. The most common WSs prior to SD were persistent vomiting (55.9%), and abdominal pain/tenderness (52.9%). The most sensitive warning sign in detecting SD was abdominal pain (59%). Specificity of individual WS were generally good, especially of clinical fluid accumulation (99%), hepatomegaly (98%) and mucosal bleeding (93%). Factors associated with SD were persistent vomiting (Adjusted odds ratio (aOR)): 2.41), mucosal bleeding (aOR: 4.73) and haematocrit rise with rapid platelet drop (aOR: 2.74). A focus on sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and association of a number of particular WS should be emphasized in order to better predict severe dengue outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163319PMC
September 2018

Level of Satisfaction on Service Quality Dimensions Based on SERVQUAL Model Among Patients Attending 1 Malaysia Clinic in Kota Bharu, Malaysia.

Oman Med J 2018 Sep;33(5):416-422

Kelantan State Health Department, Ministry of Health, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objectives: Implemented in 2010, 1 Malaysia Clinic (1MC) is the latest innovation in public primary healthcare services in Malaysia to serve the urban population. This study aimed to assess the level of satisfaction and its associated factors using the SERVQUAL (SERV-service, QUAL-quality) instrument. We also sought to compare the difference of mean score between expectation and perception of SERVQUAL dimension among patients attending 1MC in Kota Bharu district, Malaysia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included all nine 1MCs in the Kota Bharu district, Malaysia, and used the validated SERVQUAL questionnaire from Ministry of Health, Malaysia. The primary data was collected in January 2017. The sample size was proportionate to the average daily patient attendance for each clinic, and a simple random sampling method was applied to reduced selection bias. Satisfaction level was determined by the mean gap score of expectation and perception of the SERVQUAL dimension.

Results: A total of 386 patients were involved in this study (184 male and 202 female). Most were from the low socioeconomic group. Less than half of the patients were satisfied with the clinic services. The tangible dimension (service quality (SQ) gap: -0.25) was the most critical dimension among all five SQ dimensions assessed. The factors included low education level (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 2.67; 0.024), monthly household income less than RM 3000 (adj. OR 2.97; 95% CI: 1.72, 5.51; < 0.001), and frequency 3 visits (adj. OR 2.23; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.45; < 0.001) had significant association with high level of satisfaction.

Conclusion: 1MC has achieved its objective to increase the accessibility of health services among the low-income population in urban settings. However, most patients were not satisfied with certain parts of the services. Thus, proper evaluation of the service gap is required for improvement of the service.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2018.76DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131925PMC
September 2018

Understanding Dieting and Previous Weight Loss Attempts among Overweight and Obese Participants: Insights into My Body Is Fit and Fabulous at Work Program.

Korean J Fam Med 2018 Jan 23;39(1):15-22. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Program of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: A qualitative study providing an in-depth exploration of people's view and the increasing burden of overweight and obesity is required. This study aimed to explore the understanding of dieting and previous experiences on weight loss attempts among overweight and obese government employees in Kelantan, Malaysia, prior to recruitment into the intervention program.

Methods: Thirteen focus group discussions involving 129 participants from a weight-loss intervention program were conducted within the first 1 month of recruitment. These discussions were moderated by two trained researchers in the Malay language and assisted by an interview guide. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed, and codes and themes from each discussion were constructed.

Results: The participants understood dieting with various meanings, including skipping meals and removing rice from daily diets. They applied numerous methods to lose weight and achieved various outcomes. Health and appearance, social support, and compliance with current trends were the factors motivating these participants to lose weight. Their determination to lose weight was limited by lack of self-control and motivation, experiences of unpleasant effects, influence on weight, and environmental and health factors.

Conclusion: Real-life weight loss experiences and perceptions provided relevant insights into current weight loss management strategies. Some of these issues and misunderstandings should be emphasized in weight loss strategies during health promotion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.2018.39.1.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5788840PMC
January 2018

Cost analysis of facial injury treatment in two university hospitals in Malaysia: a prospective study.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2017 7;9:107-113. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objective: Facial injury (FI) may occur in isolation or in association with injuries to other parts of the body (facial and other injury [FOI]). The objective of this study was to determine the direct treatment costs incurred during the management of facial trauma.

Materials And Methods: A prospective cohort study on treatment cost for FIs and FOIs due to road-traffic crashes in two university hospitals in Malaysia was conducted from July 2010 to June 2011. The patients were recruited from emergency departments and reviewed after 6 months from the date of initial treatment. Direct cost analysis, comparison of cost and length of hospital stay, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were performed.

Results: A total of 190 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 83 (43.7%) had FI only, and 107 (56.3%) had FOI. The mean ISS was 5.4. The mean length of stay and costs for patients with FI only were 5.8 days with a total cost of US$1,261.96, whereas patients with FOI were admitted for 7.8 days with a total cost of US$1,716.47. Costs doubled if the treatment was performed under general anesthesia compared to local anesthesia.

Conclusion: Treatment of FI and FOI imposes a financial burden on the health care system in Malaysia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S119910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5304986PMC
February 2017

TRADITIONAL CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS IN KELANTAN, MALAYSIA.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2015 May;46(3):504-11

We conducted a cross sectional study of cardiovascular risk factors among healthcare workers at four government hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. We randomly selected 330 subjects fulfilling the following study criteria: those who had been working for at least one year at that health facility, Malaysians citizens and those with some form of direct contact with patients. We conducted an interview, obtained physical measurements, a fasting blood sugar and fasting lipid profiles among 308 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 43.5 years, 82% were female; 30.8%, 14.3%, 10.4%, 1.3% and 1.6% of the subjects had dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, a history of stroke and a history of ischemic heart disease, respectively. Forty-two percent of subjects had at least one medical condition. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.0 kg/M2 (SD=4.8) and 24.3% had a BMI > or =30 kg/M2. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 121.5 mmHg (SD=14.0) and 76.5 mmHg (SD=9.7), respectively and the mean waist-hip ratio was 0.84 (SD=0.1). The mean fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were 5.8 mmol/l (SD=2.4), 5.5 mmol/l (SD=1.0), 1.4 mmol/l (SD=0.9), 1.5 mmol/l (SD=0.3) and 3.5 mmol/l (SD=0.9), respectively. Our study population had a smaller proportion of hypertension than that of the general Malaysian population. They had higher fasting total cholesterol, slightly lower fasting blood sugar, with a large proportion of them, obese and had diabetes. Immediate intervention is needed to reduce the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, health care workers, Malaysia
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2015

Multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) for the detection of β-globin gene mutations among the transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia Malay patients in Kelantan, Northeast of Peninsular Malaysia.

Am J Blood Res 2014 5;4(1):33-40. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Malaysia.

The aim of this study was to adapt MARMS with some modifications to detect beta mutation in our cohort of thalassemia patients. We focused only on transfusion-dependent thalassemia Malay patients, the predominant ethnic group (95%) in the Kelantanese population. Eight mutations were identified in 46 out of 48 (95.83%) beta thalassemia alleles. Most of the patients (54.2%) were compound heterozygous with co-inheritance Cd 26 (G>A). The frequencies of spectrum beta chain mutation among these patients are presented in Table 2. Among the transfusion dependent beta thalassemia Malay patients studied, 26 patients were found to be compound heterozygous and the main alleles were Cd 26 (G>A). Compound heterozygous mutation of Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 12 (46.2%), Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 41/42 (TTCT) were 9 (34.6%), Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-1 (G>C) were 2 (7.7%) respectively. Meanwhile the minority were made of a single compound heterozygous of Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 71/72, Cd 26 (>A) and Cd 17 (A>T), Cd 26 (G>A) and -28 (G>A) respectively. Twenty out of forty six patients were shown to have homozygous of IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 2 (10.0%), Cd 26 (G>A) were 15 (75.0%), Cd 19 (A>G) were 1 (5.0%), and IVS 1-1 (G>T) were 2 (10.0%). The beta chain mutations among the Kelantanese Malays followed closely the distribution of beta chain mutations among the Thais and the Malays of the Southern Thailand. The G-C transition at position 5 of the IVS 1-5 mutation was predominant among the Malay patients. In conclusion, this method has successfully identified the mutation spectrum in our cohort of transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients, and this method is equally effective in screening for mutation among thalassemia patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165115PMC
September 2014

The impact of children with disabilities on parent health-related quality of life and family functioning in Kelantan and its associated factors.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2013 May;34(4):262-8

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objectives: Caring for children with disabilities brings about a significant impact on the parents and families. The purposes of this study were to determine the impact of having children with disabilities on parents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL), family functioning, and total family impact and to identify the associated factors.

Method: A total of 425 parents/caregivers of children with disabilities who were registered to community-based rehabilitation centers in 5 districts in Kelantan, Malaysia, participated in this study. The Malay version of PedsQL Family Impact Module was used as research instrument. General linear regression was applied to analyze the association between family impact scores (Total Impact, Parent HRQOL Summary, and Family Functioning Summary) and study factors using Stata/SE 11 software.

Results: The mean (SD) Total Impact Score and Parent HRQOL Summary Score of the parents/caregivers was 75.1 (16.85) and 75.0 (18.74) respectively, and the median (IQR) of Family Functioning Summary Score was 84.4 (28.13). Mothers, non-Malays, and widowed parents/caregivers, parents/caregivers having male children with disabilities, and children with more complex disability had significantly lower parent HRQOL and family functioning.

Conclusions: Both parents/caregivers' characteristics and children's characteristics contributed to family impact in local setting. Results of this study emphasize the importance of the whole family involvement as the focus of services and supports by health care providers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e318287cdfeDOI Listing
May 2013

Factors associated with attitude toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2015 Mar 29;27(2):NP1549-56. Epub 2012 Jun 29.

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539512449856DOI Listing
March 2015

A Preliminary Study on the Reliability of the Malay Version of PedsQL™ Family Impact Module among Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Malays J Med Sci 2011 Oct;18(4):63-8

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: No previous study has assessed the impact of childhood disability on parents and family in the context of Malaysia, and no instrument to measure this impact has previously been available. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the reliability of a Malay version of the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module that measures the impact of children with disabilities (CWD) on their parents and family in a Malaysian context.

Methods: The study was conducted in 2009. The questionnaire was translated forward and backward before it was administered to 44 caregivers of CWD to determine the internal consistency reliability. The test for Cronbach's alpha was performed.

Results: The internal consistency reliability was good. The Cronbach's alpha for all domains was above 0.7, ranging from 0.73 to 0.895.

Conclusion: The Malay version of the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module showed evidence of good internal consistency reliability. However, future studies with a larger sample size are necessary before the module can be recommended as a tool to measure the impact of disability on Malay-speaking Malaysian families.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328932PMC
October 2011

Knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2011 May;42(3):717-25

Department of Family Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2011

Cost effectiveness analysis of using multiple neuromodalities in treating severe traumatic brain injury in a developing country like Malaysia.

Asian J Surg 2007 Oct;30(4):261-6

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of using baseline neuromonitoring (BNM) compared with multimodality monitoring (M3) for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Methods: Sixty-two patients with severe TBI underwent a prospective observational study where they were divided into two groups of patients receiving treatment with M3 (32 patients) and BNM (30 patients). The macro and micro costings were performed on each patient. The Barthel Index score after 1 year was used as an outcome measurement tool for both groups. The cost-effectiveness (CE) ratio was calculated using the Poisson regression model.

Results: The costs of equipment and consumables between the groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001) after correcting for age and severity of injury. Other cost categories were not significantly different. The crude CE ratios were 168.66 (95% CI: 168.32, 169.03) and 144.16 (95% CI: 143.87, 144.45) for BNM and M3 respectively. The two crude CE ratios were significantly different (p < 0.001). It was calculated by controlling or adjusting age, gender, Glasgow Coma Score, Marshalls classification at admission and type of injury. The adjusted CE ratios were 171.32 (95% CI: 170.97, 171.68) and 141.50 (95% CI: 141.26, 141.79) for BNM and M3, respectively. The two adjusted CE ratios were significantly different ( p< 0.001).

Conclusion: The application of M3 for severe TBI was more cost-effective than BNM. All calculations were made at 3.8 Malaysian Ringgit (MYR) to the United States dollar (USD).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1015-9584(08)60036-6DOI Listing
October 2007

Prognostic study of using different monitoring modalities in treating severe traumatic brain injury.

Asian J Surg 2007 Jul;30(3):200-8

Department of Neurosciences, Health Campus, School of Medical Sciences, USM, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objective: To determine whether or not multimodality monitoring technique would result in a better outcome score than single modality monitoring in severely head injured patients.

Methods: This was a prospective randomized study that included all adults with traumatic severe head injury who had a Glasgow Coma Score < 9 and computed tomography scan features that did not reveal significant infratentorial pathology. Subjects were randomized into a multimodality group where they received multiple cerebral monitoring or into a standard single modality group where they received only intracranial pressure monitoring. The outcome was analysed 6 months post treatment using the Barthel Index.

Results: The outcome at 6 months post treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant (p < 0.48). However, the percentage of subjects who were independent at 6 months was higher in the multimodality group (21.2%) compared with the single modality group (17.3%).

Conclusion: Multimodality monitoring for severely head-injured patients has no effect on outcome. However, study with a larger sample size and improvement in groups comparison are required to ascertain the above findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1015-9584(08)60023-8DOI Listing
July 2007